This study uses readily available data published by various authors [10, 11, 12]. These data are sparsely populated with numerical and categorical observations sampled at different scales and across natural and anthropogenic gradients. Gradients relate one (or more) dependent responses, such as biological, physical, and chemical variables, as a function of space or time changes in multiple environmental variables that include climate observations (precipitation, temperature); or derived metrics, such as urban intensity, Palmer drought severity index (PDSI), and others.

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