Conclusions

Although Turkey doesn't currently face any severe water scarcity problems, since water resources have shown the first signs of quality deterioration, it is evident that Turkey is among the countries that may expect water stress in the nearest future.

Reuse of wastewater for irrigation purposes in agriculture has been a widely applied practice all around the world, especially in regions with serious water shortage problems. In most of the developing countries, the high costs of sophisticated, advanced wastewater treatment technologies motivate the direct reuse of raw or partially treated sewage water in irrigation, despite the socio-cultural objections in some countries regarding religious rituals towards consuming wastewater.

In Turkey, wastewater reuse applications in agriculture are done rather indirectly by withdrawing river or lake water downstream from sewage treatment plants. Such improper practices will result in the deterioration of Turkish surface water resources and soil contamination. However, with the efficient operation of recently constructed urban wastewater treatment plants, some more conscious and planned reuse activities in agriculture have recently started. From the above mentioned facts it is obvious that the reuse of biologically treated urban wastewater in Turkey should be applied systematically in the nearest future. This will ensure new water sources in an attempt to contribute to the sustainable environmental protection.

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