The Modcou Hydrological Model

The hydrological model MODCOU (MOD lisation COUpl e in French) is able to simulate the spatial and temporal relationship between precipitation and the evolution of the water table and river flows. It is a physically based distributed hydrological model developed by the Centre d'Informatique G ologique of the Ecole Nationale Sup rieure des Mines de Paris to simulate surface-groundwater interactions 6 . It was applied at different spatial scales (river watersheds from a few to hundreds of...

Results of Direct GCM Output for the Entire Territory of the Country First Estimate

The projected changes of average daily air temperature ( C) and precipitation ( ) for Macedonia were based on direct GCM output interpolated to geographic location 21.5 E and 41.5 N with regard to the period 1961-1990. The values were presented separately for different seasons and based on projections of results from four GCMs (CSIRO Mk2, HadCM3, ECHAM4 OPYC3, NCAR-PCM) scaled to six emission scenarios (SRES A1T, A1Fl, A1B, A2, B1, and B2). The Mean values were calculated as average across...

Introduction

Due to global warming, global temperatures are expected to rise faster over the next century than any 100 years period during the past 10000 years 1-2 . Recent reports from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 3-4 confirm that climate Geothermal Energy Research and Application Center, Izmir Institute of Technology, Urla 35430, Izmir, Turkey e-mail alperbaba iyte.edu.tr change is occurring at a larger and more rapid rate of change than was thought likely only 6 years ago. Eleven of the...

Conclusions

The quantifiable resilience thinking may yield an actionable set of observations and management practices that is based on the broad understanding of complex environmental-human-climate systems. This approach does not assume or require that the system studied, is in equilibrium or near equilibrium at all times, nor it is controllable. For the previous command and control paradigms of environmental management, precise understanding of the system was needed and the policy decisions made relied on...

Approach for Groundwater Impact Modeling Studies

The general approach for any kind of climate change impact modeling assessment is principally straightforward. The process starts by selecting one or more climate change scenarios that explore possible future changes in climate variables. If the scenarios are taken from the results of a GCM (global circulation model) then the next crucial step is to downscale the GCM results to the basin scale. The downscaled GCM results are then used as input for the hydrological model that is constructed for...

Effects on Water Resources

Issues of National and Global Security Edited by Alper Baba G kmen Tayfur Orhan G nd z Ken W.F. Howard Michael J. Friedel Antonio Chambel Climate Change and its Effects on Water Resources NATO Science for Peace and Security Series This Series presents the results of scientific meetings supported under the NATO Programme Science for Peace and Security (SPS). The NATO SPS Programme supports meetings in the following Key Priority areas (1) Defence Against Terrorism (2) Countering other Threats to...

Toxicity of mNPs

Evaluating the various toxicities of mNPs is a very active research area 7, 8 , made difficult by the number of variables types of mNP and organism NP properties (shape, size, crystal form, composition, concentration) types of 'cap' or suspension stabilizers dispersants used , and by the difficultly of separating the toxicological effects of the NPs from those of the associated dissolved phases 4, 7 . Not surprisingly, some apparently contradictory results exist, though these may be resolved in...

Definition and Scope of Analysis

Water governance refers to the specific system of social order regulating relations related to water (suppliers, users, polluters, interest groups etc.) and stimulating appropriate behavior for sustainable exploitation of water resources. Agricultural water management is studied as integral part of the systems of water management, farm management and environmental management (Fig. 24.1). The analysis takes into account all critical factors affecting specific management choice related to water -...

Future of Water Resources and Wastewater Reuse in Turkey

Idil Arslan-Alaton, Ayfen Turkman, and Derin Orhon Abstract Having a water potential of 1,500 m3 capita-year, Turkey cannot be classified as a water rich country. It is estimated that in 2030 the population will reach 100 million and consequently the water potential will drop down to 1,000 m3 capita-year. Considering the predictions about regional and global climate change trends these figures obviously indicate a probable water scarcity in the nearest future and the importance of efficient...

List of Participants

Multimedia Environmental Simulations Laboratory (MESL), School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 790 Atlantic Dr., Mason Building, Atlanta, GA 30332-0355, USA Engineering Faculty, Department of Civil Engineering, Izmir Institute of Technology, Urla, 35430 Izmir, Turkey Institute of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Academy, 125 Tzarigradsko Shose, Blvd., Blok 1, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria Institute for National Marine Geology and Geoecology - GEOECOMAR,...

Future of Water Resources in Turkey

Of 501 billion m3 of annual precipitation in Turkey, 274 billion m3 is assumed to evaporate from surface and transpire through plants. 69 billion m3 of precipitation directly recharges the aquifers, whereas 158 billion m3 forms the precipitation runoff. There is a continuous interaction between surface runoff and groundwater, but it is estimated that a net 28 billion m3 of groundwater feeds the rivers. So, average annual surface water potential is 186 billion m3, with the surface runoff of 7...

Hydropower Generation

Two major hydropower plants (Thissavros and Platanovrissi) were constructed in the Greek part of the Nestos river basin and their characteristics are shown in Fig. 10.5. A third dam (Temenos) is under consideration (Fig. 10.5). Fig. 10.4 Geographical location and local characteristics of the Mesta Nestos river basin Fig. 10.4 Geographical location and local characteristics of the Mesta Nestos river basin One of the main uses of these dams is the exploitation of hydropower. Since the fuel of a...

WWTP of Messolonghion

The installations of Messolonghion are located near the torrent of Koukos, North of Kleisova lagoon. The area covered by installations is about 1 ha. The altitude is 0.8 m and geographical continents are N 38 22 08 and E 21 2731 in HATT system. The treated wastewaters are drained into the torrent of Koukos, which terminates in the Kleisova lagoon, which in connected to the Patras Gulf. The WWTP has been designed to serve 16,000 people with the future extension capacity by 50 with a mean daily...

Methodology

The analysis is based on the application of a continuous hydrological model coupled with stochastic generation models of rainfall and temperature at hourly scale. Such a coupling permits to achieve long synthetic series of discharge through which, by extracting the maximum annual flow, the flood frequency of extreme events can be obtained. Then, by considering hypothetical future scenarios of temperature and rainfall predicted by the GCM-HadCM3 of Hadley Centre (http the previous stochastic...

Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Turkish Water Resources A Review

Abstract Water resources are mainly controlled by the climate conditions. Global warming will therefore have evolving impacts on water resources and poses important challenges for sustainable development. Studies are rapidly emerging with focus on potential implications of climate change on Turkish water resources. These studies can be grouped into two major fields (1) Studies investigating the degree of climate change reflected in the past observed hydro-meteorological records, and (2) studies...

Salt Transport Model

The model simulates salt transport downward and upward. Downward movement involves two parts - (1) modeling movement in the top layer of 10 cm thickness and (2) modeling the movement under the layers below the top layer (Fig. 22.1). In the top layer, total water flow leaving the surface layer consists of rainfall, lateral subsurface flow, and vertical percolation (Fig. 22.2). In other soil layers, the total water flow consists of only lateral subsurface flow and vertical percolation (Fig....

Quantification of Groundwater Quality A Polish Case

The above-discussed different methods of characterisation of hydrogeochemical field can be adopted to assessment of groundwater quality in the framework of national (European) legislation. In order to achieve appropriate protection of Fig. 27.6 Cumulative frequency diagrams of SO4 (a) and regionalization of SO4 distribution (b) in the K dzierzyn aquifer (the NE region of MGWB 332) in southern Poland 7 . A - 4 to 10 mg L, B - 5 to 50 mg L, C - 30 to 200 mg L Fig. 27.6 Cumulative frequency...

Current Situation

The present Mediterranean climate is characterised by mild winters and hot, dry summers, similar to conditions found in central Chile, the southwestern United States and the southern tip of Africa. Three central-northern countries, France, Italy and Turkey, enjoy half of the region's precipitation, while dry areas predominate to the south and east (Fig. 2.1) 1-4 . Although mountains and inland seas create an Fig. 2.1 Mean rainfall distribution in the Mediterranean basin (After Margat 2 ) Fig....

Climate Change and the Hydrogeologie Framework in Constanta City South Dobrogea Romania

Glieherie Caraivan, Irina Dinu, Costina Fulga, and Daniela Popeseu Abstract Constanta city is located on the Black Sea coast in the eastern part of the Romanian South Dobrogea region. Global warming in the Dobrogea region promotes drought conditions that decrease groundwater levels and increase abstraction rates in the shallow unconfined aquifers (loess deposits and karstified Sarmatian limestones) being used for public supply. This study advocates using an alternative confined and high quality...

Groundwater Resources Balance Calculation

For quantification of the climate elements impacts on groundwater resources their balance parameters have been analyzed. Because of various formation conditions of the fractured and fluvial aquifers, their balance structures are also different. The most complete balance approach for the estimation is the equation of water balance, where the groundwater run-off is taken into account. This is giving possibility to assess the basic part of annual renewable groundwater resources and symbolically it...

Water Monitoring in Republic of Macedonia

The Republic Hydrometeorological Service performs systematic monitoring of the surface, ground water and springs. There is a network of 110 stations (68 active) for river hydrometric measurements. For groundwater levels, temperature and quality, IS92C IS92a Group(A1,B1,A2,B2) monitoring stations exist in several regions (Polog, Skopsko Pole, Kocansko Pole, Stipsko Pole, Strumicko Pole and Strusko Pole). However, due to present financial limitations, the monitoring activities are limited and the...

Hydrologic Variables 12221 Streamflow

Streamflow represents the integrated response of a watershed to precipitation and evapotranspiration (partly driven by temperature) processes after being filtered by watershed physical characteristics and, in some cases, human-induced factors. Due to this close link between global warming and streamflow response of a watershed, several studies focused on possible trends in Turkish streamflow records. The regional patterns emerging from these studies are in general parallel to the trends in...

Water Demand Due to Increased Population

The combined population of countries that rim the Mediterranean Sea is projected to increase by over 100 million between 2000 and 2025 with the vast majority of this growth occurring in the 12 drier SEMED countries 1 . Due to population growth alone it is estimated that by 2025, 10 of the 12 SEMED countries will be consuming over 50 of their renewable water resources, with 8 of them exceeding 100 . Most of the demand increase will come from irrigation and domestic supply needs.

Groundwater Evaporation

Groundwater evaporation represents groundwater loss by direct evaporation from water table. This process takes place in bare soil environments and it is the most distinct in dry lands with shallow water table and coarse unsaturated zone material. Groundwater evaporation (E ) is part of the subsurface water evaporation (EJ, often also called bare soil evaporation. During wet seasons (Fig. 21.2) the unsaturated zone contains large volume of soil moisture usually above field capacity. This...

Will Human Civilization Face the Exhaustion of Water Resources Due to Global Change

The climate had always been changing and will continue to evolve in the future. So far the only acceptable conception has been based on the outputs of IPCC 12 , which declare that warming up of the Earth is caused by anthropogenic activities -specifically by emissions of carbon dioxide. But a series of scandals disclosed a specialized handling of the primary data so that the seriousness of the so far achieved results was challenged or even damaged. Nevertheless, the ever present question, which...

Water Consumption by Crops in the Protected Area of Messolonghion Greece

In order to determine the water needs of the cultivations of the Messolonghion area, first the mean daily rate of the reference evapotranspiration was calculated employing the Penman-Monteith equation according to FAO-56 10 . 0,408A(R -G)+ g 900 u2(e, -ea) ET K n J T + 273 2V 1 (32.1) where ETo is the reference evapotranspiration (mm day), Rn is the net radiation at the crop surface (MJ m-2 d-1), G is the soil heat flux density (MJ m-2 d-1) which, for daily intervals, may be ignored, T is the...

Contents

1 Resilience Analysis of Climate Change Effects 2 Implications of Climate Change on Water Security 3 Climate Change Effects on Ecosystem Services in the United States - Issues of National and Global 17 4 Climate Change Mitigation with Renewable 5 Climate Change and Water Resources - Challenge 6 Impacts of Decreasing Recharge Rates on Sustainable Groundwater 43 Hasan Yazicigil, Koray K. Yilmaz, Burcu Unsal Erdemli, and Ozlem Yagbasan 7 A Model for Integrated Water Resources Management in...

Efficiency of Water Supply Assessment

Scientific basis for efficiency of water supply assessment is the empirical dependence of crop capacity on water consumption under different climatic regions. Under the condition of water resource deficiency, low water and land efficiency, it is suggested to take into account the sufficiency of water supply not only during the vegetation period but also its distribution within this period (that is, the regime of crop irrigation), and also the mineralization of irrigating water, which is not...

Impact of Climate Change on Hydropower Generation and Irrigation A Case Study from Greece

Jacques Ganoulis and Charalampos Skoulikaris Abstract Due to climate change, water availability for different uses such as domestic water supply, hydropower production and agricultural irrigation could be significantly reduced in the near future mainly in regions with arid and semiarid climate. Precipitation data in the form of time series from different stations in South East Europe (SEE) as well as results from global atmospheric circulation models indicate that climate change will reduce...

Assessing the Impact of Climate Change on Groundwater Resources Using Groundwater Flow Models

Abstract Climate change is a potential stressor of groundwater resources and its effects on the availability of groundwater need to be understood and determined. The impacts of climate change on groundwater systems are conceptually known, however in the context of climate change impact assessment there has been little research conducted on groundwater compared to surface water resources. One of the tools used to quantify the effects of climate change is to use groundwater flow models in...

Overview of Case Studies

Most studies to date dealt with estimating the potential impacts of climate change on surface water resources. Relatively fewer studies deal with the modeling of impacts on groundwater. In this section, an overview of some selected case studies about groundwater impact modeling are presented in chronological order, followed by a summary of a recent impact modeling study for the Tahtali basin in Izmir-Turkey that was conducted by Elgi and Fistikoglu 11 . The overview is intended to focus on the...

The Assessment of the MCIA

Meliorative condition of the area is assessed according to categories good, satisfactory, and unsatisfactory depth to ground water, and soil salinity. The area is assessed unsatisfactory by meliorative condition under the following criteria hj lt h S j gt S 13 Ecef gt Ece 19.1 where hf, h is the actual and acceptable depth to ground water Sf 5 is the actual and acceptable degree of soil salinization and Ecef Ece is the actual and acceptable soil conductivity. Acceptable values were established...