Sea Level Rise and Sea Water Intrusion

Precipitation Ipcc

Global sea level rise is one of the many anticipated consequences of global warming. A rise in global atmospheric temperature will cause thermal expansion of the oceans, melting of mountain glaciers, and promote the ablation of the polar ice sheets. Predictions of sea level rise vary widely and generally range up to 0.6 m over the period 1980-1999 to 2080-2099. This sea level change will not be distributed uniformly around the world 16 and some regions may experience more severe impacts....

References

Buntebarth G, Chelidze T, Melikadze G (2004) Hydrodynamic and microtemperature monitoring in seismic areas. Georgian Engineering News 3, pp 12-132 2. Jimsheladze T, Kapanadze N, Melikadze G (2008) Microtemperature observation in Tbilisi seismoactiv region. J Georgian Geophys Assoc 12, pp 75-81 3. Bunterbart G, Kapanadze N, Kobzev G, Melikadze G (2009) Re-assessment of the geothermal potential of Tbilisi region the hydrodynamic digital model project. In Environment and resources, Association of...

Application of Geothermal Energy

People have been using geothermal energy for bathing and washing of clothes since the dawn of civilization in many parts of the world. However, it was first in the twentieth century that geothermal energy was used on a large scale for direct heat extraction for district urban heating, industrial processing, domestic water and space heating, leisure, balneotherapy applications and electricity generation. Prince Piero Ginori Conti initiated electric power generation with geothermal steam at...

Groundwater Levels

Considering the strong groundwater dependent nature of the area, the groundwater levels in Torbali-Bayindir plain is monitored by State Hydraulic Works on a monthly basis since 1960s. Considering the large time period between two consecutive data, the information from these wells could best be used in assessing the long-term general trend in groundwater levels in the plain. An example of such change in a well is presented in Fig. 25.4. In this study, the long-term data from 21 such wells are...

Comparison of Results of Direct GCM Output

The estimates for temperature and precipitation change in the twenty-first century are more dramatic than the estimates based on IS92a and IS92c emission scenarios used in previous study. The direction of expected changes (e.g., strongest increase in air temperature and precipitation decrease in the summer) is the same but their intensity is different. Table 23.6 Projected changes of average daily air temperature ( C) and precipitation ( ) for (a) eastern part of Macedonia under continental...

Introduction

The Tbilisi-Baku-Ceyhan pipeline is of course very beneficial for the country of Georgia. At the same time, even after its opening, there are intensive discussions on the possibility of ecological catastrophe in the case of its damage (spilling) at some areas. Seismic Monitoring Centre, Ilia State University, 77, Nuthubidze Str., 0177 Tbilisi, Georgia e-mail g.melikadze seismo.ge Mikheil Nodia Institute of Geophysics, 1, M. Alexidze Str., 0193 Tbilisi, Georgia P. Malik Department of...

Conclusion

Electrochemically synthesized NCMC(Ti) colloidal solutions are highly efficient photocatalysts. Photodegradations of MeO can be done at NCMC(Ti) concentration of about 1 ug l. The time of MeO degradation in the pH interval of 1-4.4 under a UV lamp is about 3-5 min and under sunlight is 2-3 h. This nanocomposition destroys cyanobacteria in water under the UV lamp in 8-10 min and under sunlight in 3-4 h. Under field test conditions, the consumption of nanocompositions is low (about 10 g ha or 50...

Climate Change Mitigation with Renewable Energy Geothermal

Abstract On a global scale, there is increasing evidence that climate is changing and of a discernible human influence. Many of scientists are confident that if current emissions of greenhouse gases continue, the world will be warmer, sea levels will rise and regional climate patterns will change. According to some scientist, global temperatures are expected to rise faster over the next century than over any time during the last 10,000 years. From this token, geothermal energy is now considered...

Distinctive Characteristics of Karst Aquifers

With their specific morpho-hydrology, karst terrains are distinct from non-karstic areas. Effective porosity is mostly tertiary in karstic terrains, which gives rise to high anisotropy and heterogeneity, distinctive characteristics of karst aquifers. Flow in a dissolutional (karstic) porosity media is likely rapid and turbulent, which, in most cases, prevents the application of Darcy's law to predict flow. Recharge may occur either as concentrated (not seen in granular aquifers) or dispersed,...

Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Climate Impacts

For the last century, human activities have been altering the global climate. Climatic warming is a fact it endangers the environmental living conditions as well as global economy 8 . The global average surface temperature increased from 1900 to 2006 by at least 1.0 C during the same time period the CO2 content of the atmosphere doubled 4 . It is widely recognized that the most probable cause of climatic warming is the increasing content of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Observations show...

Conclusions

The major aquifers in Turkey are installed in the carbonate rocks which cover more than 30 of the territory. The well karstified subcutaneous zone of these carbonate rocks have high permeability and large karstic openings such as caves and solution channels. The surface morphological features function as point recharge features which allow rapid inflow into the aquifers. Flow in these rock masses is dominantly of conduit type. Particularly in allocthonous carbonate rock masses, whose...

Hydrogeological and Geological Conditions

Geological Map Azerbaijan

Due to the diversity of natural environments and geological structure of Azerbaijan, the hydrogeological conditions are extraordinarily complex. Azerbaijan is situated within the Alpine fold belt and includes mountain regions of the Greater and the Lesser Caucasus (the mountainous Talish region is considered part of the Less Caucasus region), the Kura intermountain depression and part of the Caspian Sea (Fig. 13.1). The FGWR are limited within the territory of Azerbaijan and distributed...

Results and Discussions

The results of the simulations provide insights into the degree of sustainability of the groundwater under the imposed pressures in terms of both quantity and quality. To investigate the sustainability of the quantity, groundwater budget calculated by the model is examined. Recharge and discharge components of the groundwater budget, as well as the changes in these components induced by the simulated pressures are determined for each sub-scenario. Based on these outcomes, capture attributable...

Model Calibration and Validation

The model is calibrated and validated with soil ECe data obtained by Champion et al. 14 at the Fruita Research Center in Grand Valley in Coloroda. The soil in the Center contains gypsum and soluble salts. The topsoil thickness is 74 cm of loam and sandy loam. The underlying material to a depth of 150 cm is stratified loamy fine sand, silt loam, silty clay loam and very fine sandy loam. The experimental site contained six lysimeters of 1.55 x 1.22 x 1.22 m deep. The weather data consists of...

Downscaling of GCM Projections

GCMs are coupled land-atmosphere-ocean numerical models that are used to estimate climate variables such as temperature and precipitation, and are set up for various greenhouse gas and aerosol emission scenarios. GCMs use horizontal grid cells that can have dimensions in the range of 150-500 km. Therefore, GCMs are not capable of accurately estimating climate variables at the groundwater basin scale. Consequently, spatial downscaling methods have been developed to derive finer resolution data...

Risk Characterization of Contaminated Water Pathways and Toxicity Determination

Abstract Radionuclide contaminants of most environmental significance are those taken up by plants and have high rates of transfer to vegetable and animal products, such as crops, milk and meat, and have relatively long radiological half-lives. Soil type (particularly clay mineral composition and organic matter content), tillage practice, and climate affect radionuclide transport to rivers and groundwater. Prior to the Chernobyl accident, the respective concentrations of the 90Sr and 137Cs in...

Urban Wastewater Treatment in Turkey

The Ninth National Development Plan established for the period 2007-2013 11 . On the other hand states that, according to the statistical information gathered from 1,911 municipalities out of the total number of 3,225, 80 of the population benefits from sewer systems, 47 are provided with wastewater treatment, whereas 93 of the total population is supplied with drinking water, but only 42 is being served by drinking water treatment facilities. The development plan also stipulates that European...

General Characteristics of the Study Area

The study area is located within the boundaries of the districts of Torbali and Bayindir in Izmir Province of Turkey. It is situated about 50 km south of the city of Izmir in western Anatolia (Fig. 25.1). Torbali-Bayindir Plain forms northern portions of Kucuk Menderes River Basin and is located in a wide alluvial zone (Fig. 25.1). Within the plain, Torbali, Bayindir, Caybasi, Ayrancilar, Subasi, and Kuscuburun are main population centers. Agriculture is the main economic activity of the area...

Some Selected Case Studies

Kirshen 12 used MODFLOW 13 to study the impact of climate change on a highly permeable aquifer in the northeastern United States. Groundwater recharge was estimated using a separate model based on precipitation and potential evapotranspiration. Both hypothetical and GCM-predicted changes to the input parameters were used, resulting in higher, no different, and significantly lower recharge rates and groundwater elevations, depending on the climate scenario used. In another study, Croley and...

Predicted Patterns Trends

Climate predictions made by Global Circulation Models (GCMs) are excellent tools for assessing the possible impacts of climate change on water resources. However, their coarse spatial resolution is insufficient to support basin scale hydro-logic applications. Downscaling methods for GCM outputs have been proposed which can be classified as statistical and dynamical downscaling methods. The studies focused on climate predictions over Turkey utilized the latter ones, in which regional climate...

Post Communist Evolution of Agricultural Water Management

During 1990s most agricultural lands and assets of dominating public farms were privatized, and entire farming activity transferred into newly evolving unregistered farms, cooperatives and agri-firms.2 For a long-period of time the rights on major recourses (farmland, irrigation facilities) and the diverse environmental rights (on use and preservation of natural resources) were not defined or were badly defined and enforced 1 . Most agrarian activities were carried out in less efficient and...

Atmospheric Variables 12211 Temperature

Temperature controls evapotranspiration and snow ice melt processes and has a strong affect on the amount and seasonal distribution of soil moisture and runoff. According to the recent IPCC report global average temperature records show significant warming trends between 1910-1940 and 1960s-recent, which is more significant over the last 50 years 1 . Many researchers analyzed a large number of station records scattered over Turkey to detect overall trends and regional seasonal characteristics...

Natural Climatic Conditions

The peculiarities of physico-geographical conditions, complexity of a terrain and general atmospheric circulation causes the unique natural climatic conditions of Azerbaijan. In Azerbaijan, there exist 9 of the world's 11 climate zones, including semi-desert, arid steppe, and mountain tundra 1, 3 . At the same time, the formation of climate in the country is influenced by cold air masses of arctic (Kara and Scandinavian anticyclones) and temperate (Siberian anticyclones) and maritime (Azores...

Groundwater Recharge Estimation

Areal groundwater recharge to the aquifer occurs due to infiltration of precipitation and or irrigation return flow. The estimation of current and future recharge rates is an essential element of climate change impact assessments. Relative changes in recharge rates are of interest, and how these changes affect the groundwater levels. There are several methods to quantify groundwater recharge Scanlon et al. 5 provide a useful review on choosing the appropriate technique to determine recharge....

Impacts of Climate Elements on Groundwater 1331 Total Water Balance

The total water balance (excluding water resources of transboundary rivers) in Azerbaijan are precipitation - 427 mm (3,696 km3) and river discharge - 119 mm (10.31 km3) which consists of 69 mm (5.96 km3) of a direct run-off and 50 mm (4.35 km3) of a groundwater run-off. The average long-term drainage modulus is 3.78 l s per km2 (drainage coefficient - 0.28). The total evaporation is 308 mm (26.66 km3) 4, 3 . Over the whole territory, the evaporation is twice more than discharge and it is...

Predictive Simulations

Results from the first stage of modeling, which ended up with the equilibrium (or virgin state) hydraulic head and concentration distribution, are used as initial conditions for the second stage in which the long term effects of decreasing recharge rates and increasing demand are assessed. In the second stage, effects of a 15 decrease in recharge are examined together with five different pumping stresses (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 L s). For simulation of the effects of groundwater pumping, a well is...

Impacts of Climate Change on Groundwater Resources Review of a Case Study in Azerbaijan

Israfilov Abstract Groundwater and surface water are the sources of water supply in Azerbaijan. The hydroeconomic balance of Azerbaijan is characterized by annual and seasonal deficits arising from the implementation of hydroeconomic measures for increasing the water supply to different branches of the national economy. When almost all available surface water resources are involved in the national economical production, the optimal use of aquifers' fresh...

Results and Discussion

Experiments revealed that yield of NCMC(Ti) in the electrolysis process depends on voltage V between electrodes and pH of the solution. The yield dCTi dt of Ti after 6 min of the electrolysis process, where CTi is the concentration of Ti in the electrolyte, increases with increasing voltage between electrodes up to 12-13 V but then decreases slowly (Fig. 17.1). This behavior is explained as the formation of three valence titanium on the surface of Ti-electrode (electrode becomes of blue color)....

Climate Change and Water Resources Challenge of Our Civilisation

Abstract The geological view to the issue of impact climate change on water resources on the Earth is the main objective of the paper. The geological excursion into the past of the Earth clearly shows that the climate cannot be stabilized. The volume of water existing on the Earth is stable and has never changed. About 96 of countries have sufficient resources of water. The major reason for water scarcity on the Earth is not unfavorable distribution of natural resources but poverty and lack of...

Using Numerical Modeling for Assessment of Pollution Probability of Drinking Water Resources in Borjomi Region Southern

Melikadze, Tamaz Chelidze, Natalia Zhukova, Peter Malik, and Tomas Vitvar Abstract Borjomi mineral waters field is a source of famous mineral water, which is exported to dozens of countries and forms a significant part of budget of Georgia. Currently, in connection with construction of Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline by British Petroleum (BP), serious concerns arise with respect to vulnerability of water supply of the city of Borjomi to possible oil spills related to operation of the...

Climatic Conditions

Climate change is currently considered to be one of the greatest environmental problems that mankind faces today. The Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) shows that the global mean surface temperature has risen by 0.74 C over a period of 1906-2005 5 . Around the world, many scientists are actively working to understand and mitigate the effects of climate change on the environment and on human life style. In many areas including the project...

An Introduction to Nanoparticles

Nanoparticles exist everywhere, the vast majority of them being naturally formed. In wellwaters sampled from a sandstone aquifer in Birmingham, we 3 have estimated there to be around 1011 particles L, most < 100 nm. In unpolluted sandstone ground-waters, this work found most particles to be of silica, though other elements also present included Al, Fe, and Ti. Humic acids, fulvic acids, exudates from bacteria, and viruses are also present. However, industrial manufacture has widened the range...

Climate Change Impact on the Water Resources

According to climate change vulnerability assessment for water resources sector, reduction of outflows in the country is primarily caused by the climate change (Fig. 23.2) 9 . Current overall annual water demand is 2.3 x 106 m3 mil and projected for the year 2020 is 3.5 x 106 m3. On the other hand, developed scenarios for climate change impact on the water resources indicate that Groundwater recharge for Vardar River catchment would continuously decrease in the future reaching about 57.6 of the...

Transboundary Water Resources

In general, Macedonia is an upstream country. All Macedonian rivers flow into neighboring countries (Table 23.8). Transboundary river catchments in Macedonia are Crn Drim catchment including Ohrid and Prespa Lakes (MK-AL-GR), Vardar Axios catchment (MK-GR) where small part inflows from Yugoslavia (Lepenec and Pcinja rivers) (MK-SRB), Strumica Struma catchment (MK-BG) and Lake Dojran catchment (MK-GR) (Table 23.8) 11, 12 . Regarding shared groundwater resources, the Prespa - Ohrid lake system...

Tectonic Framework

Mapa Autopistas Buenos Aires

Regional WNW-ESE and NNE-SSW fault systems divide the South Dobrogea structure into tectonic blocks with uneven thickness and differing positions of the strati-graphic limits. Constanta domain is located on the following tectonic blocks (Fig. 28.2) Block 5 (Constanta) Block 10 (South Constanta) Block 13 (Eforie - Techirghiol). Fig. 28.4 Piezometric map of the Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous aquifer complex (modified after 2 ) Fig. 28.4 Piezometric map of the Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous...

Measurements of Transpiration

Total transpiration of plants, mainly trees, can be nowadays estimated or even monitored in time by in-situ sap flow measurements. The sap flow (Qs), represents the passage of water containing inorganic ions through the system of very thin, plant structural pipes called tracheids and vessels within the conductive sapwood area (xylem) of the stems and branches. The Qs is calculated as a product of sap velocity which is also known as sap flux density (v) and sapwood (xylem) area (A) The v is...

On the Izmir Tahtali Groundwater System

This section presents an overview of the climate change impact study on the Izmir-Tahtali basin groundwater system. This study by Elgi and Fistikoglu 11 is the first published study of its kind performed for a basin in Turkey. The main goal of this study is to estimate climate change induced groundwater level and flow changes in the Izmir-Tahtali stream basin with a numerical groundwater flow model by considering the IPCC's SRES scenarios. The Tahtali dam reservoir was built on the Tahtali...

Irrigation Needs

Mesta River

In order to have a complete view of the current agricultural production in the Nestos delta region, agricultural survey data aggregated by municipality were obtained from the National Statistic Service of Greece for the years 1999-2003. The collected data were stored in the ArcGIS project database and contain the aggregated field areas by town district for the ten main products of the region soft wheat, durum (hard) wheat, sugar beet, cotton, rice, barley, maize, asparagus, alfalfa and tobacco....

The Case Study

The Mesta Nestos transboundary river catchment, shared between Bulgaria and Greece is part of the UNESCO HELP network of basins, for the following reasons (1) it combines internationally shared surface and ground waters, (2) there are serious issues of environmental concern in the upper basin and the delta region, and (3) competing water uses have been increasing from the time when Greece built a series of hydro-electrical plants and Bulgaria entered a market economy and embarked on a struggle...

Direct Use of Geothermal Energy

Direct-use of geothermal energy is one of the oldest, most versatile and also the most common form of utilization of geothermal energy 10 . The early history of geothermal direct-use has been well documented for over 25 countries in the Stories from a Heat Earth - Our Geothermal Heritage 11 that documents geothermal use for over 2,000 years 12 . As of 2009, direct utilization of geothermal energy worldwide is 50,583 MWt. The total annual energy use is 438,071 TJ (121,696 GWh). The five...

Impacts on Efficiency and Sustainability

The newly evolved system of agrarian governance (market and private incentives, smaller size and owner operating nature of farms, etc.) let avoid certain problems of large public enterprises from the past.11 It has also led to a sharp decline in all crop (except sunflower) and livestock (except goat) productions.12 The share of water intensive crops like vegetables, rice and maize considerable decreased, while some traditional and more sustainable technologies, varieties and breeds introduced....

The Global Climate Change Impact on Water Resources of Armenia

Anahit Adanalyan and Suren Gevorgyan Abstract The global climate change impact on water resources of Armenia is shortly reviewed. The mountainous character of Armenia causes the great differentiation in landscape types, as well as geological characteristics, climate, soils and water resources. The present day Armenia is disposed to significant ecological risks and becomes a country which economy is based on the intensive use of natural resources which eco security vulnerability is continually...

Management of Karst Aquifers Under Climate Change Sustainable Use of Unsustained Resource

The consequences of climate change on water resources is due to the alteration of the seasonal distribution of precipitation, temperature increase and the change in evapotranspiration, as a result of the change on vegetation cover. All these changes affect the recharge regime of groundwater systems. Long-term droughts may result in storage reduction and in groundwater discharge to streams and other surface water bodies. Therefore, if the effects of the droughts are to be mitigated by the use of...

The Modcou Hydrological Model

The hydrological model MODCOU (MOD lisation COUpl e in French) is able to simulate the spatial and temporal relationship between precipitation and the evolution of the water table and river flows. It is a physically based distributed hydrological model developed by the Centre d'Informatique G ologique of the Ecole Nationale Sup rieure des Mines de Paris to simulate surface-groundwater interactions 6 . It was applied at different spatial scales (river watersheds from a few to hundreds of...

Results of Direct GCM Output for the Entire Territory of the Country First Estimate

The projected changes of average daily air temperature ( C) and precipitation ( ) for Macedonia were based on direct GCM output interpolated to geographic location 21.5 E and 41.5 N with regard to the period 1961-1990. The values were presented separately for different seasons and based on projections of results from four GCMs (CSIRO Mk2, HadCM3, ECHAM4 OPYC3, NCAR-PCM) scaled to six emission scenarios (SRES A1T, A1Fl, A1B, A2, B1, and B2). The Mean values were calculated as average across...

Approach for Groundwater Impact Modeling Studies

The general approach for any kind of climate change impact modeling assessment is principally straightforward. The process starts by selecting one or more climate change scenarios that explore possible future changes in climate variables. If the scenarios are taken from the results of a GCM (global circulation model) then the next crucial step is to downscale the GCM results to the basin scale. The downscaled GCM results are then used as input for the hydrological model that is constructed for...

Effects on Water Resources

Issues of National and Global Security Edited by Alper Baba G kmen Tayfur Orhan G nd z Ken W.F. Howard Michael J. Friedel Antonio Chambel Climate Change and its Effects on Water Resources NATO Science for Peace and Security Series This Series presents the results of scientific meetings supported under the NATO Programme Science for Peace and Security (SPS). The NATO SPS Programme supports meetings in the following Key Priority areas (1) Defence Against Terrorism (2) Countering other Threats to...

Toxicity of mNPs

Evaluating the various toxicities of mNPs is a very active research area 7, 8 , made difficult by the number of variables types of mNP and organism NP properties (shape, size, crystal form, composition, concentration) types of 'cap' or suspension stabilizers dispersants used , and by the difficultly of separating the toxicological effects of the NPs from those of the associated dissolved phases 4, 7 . Not surprisingly, some apparently contradictory results exist, though these may be resolved in...

Definition and Scope of Analysis

Water governance refers to the specific system of social order regulating relations related to water (suppliers, users, polluters, interest groups etc.) and stimulating appropriate behavior for sustainable exploitation of water resources. Agricultural water management is studied as integral part of the systems of water management, farm management and environmental management (Fig. 24.1). The analysis takes into account all critical factors affecting specific management choice related to water -...

Future of Water Resources and Wastewater Reuse in Turkey

Idil Arslan-Alaton, Ayfen Turkman, and Derin Orhon Abstract Having a water potential of 1,500 m3 capita-year, Turkey cannot be classified as a water rich country. It is estimated that in 2030 the population will reach 100 million and consequently the water potential will drop down to 1,000 m3 capita-year. Considering the predictions about regional and global climate change trends these figures obviously indicate a probable water scarcity in the nearest future and the importance of efficient...

List of Participants

Multimedia Environmental Simulations Laboratory (MESL), School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 790 Atlantic Dr., Mason Building, Atlanta, GA 30332-0355, USA Engineering Faculty, Department of Civil Engineering, Izmir Institute of Technology, Urla, 35430 Izmir, Turkey Institute of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Academy, 125 Tzarigradsko Shose, Blvd., Blok 1, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria Institute for National Marine Geology and Geoecology - GEOECOMAR,...

Future of Water Resources in Turkey

Of 501 billion m3 of annual precipitation in Turkey, 274 billion m3 is assumed to evaporate from surface and transpire through plants. 69 billion m3 of precipitation directly recharges the aquifers, whereas 158 billion m3 forms the precipitation runoff. There is a continuous interaction between surface runoff and groundwater, but it is estimated that a net 28 billion m3 of groundwater feeds the rivers. So, average annual surface water potential is 186 billion m3, with the surface runoff of 7...

Hydropower Generation

Two major hydropower plants (Thissavros and Platanovrissi) were constructed in the Greek part of the Nestos river basin and their characteristics are shown in Fig. 10.5. A third dam (Temenos) is under consideration (Fig. 10.5). Fig. 10.4 Geographical location and local characteristics of the Mesta Nestos river basin Fig. 10.4 Geographical location and local characteristics of the Mesta Nestos river basin One of the main uses of these dams is the exploitation of hydropower. Since the fuel of a...

WWTP of Messolonghion

The installations of Messolonghion are located near the torrent of Koukos, North of Kleisova lagoon. The area covered by installations is about 1 ha. The altitude is 0.8 m and geographical continents are N 38 22 08 and E 21 2731 in HATT system. The treated wastewaters are drained into the torrent of Koukos, which terminates in the Kleisova lagoon, which in connected to the Patras Gulf. The WWTP has been designed to serve 16,000 people with the future extension capacity by 50 with a mean daily...

Methodology

The analysis is based on the application of a continuous hydrological model coupled with stochastic generation models of rainfall and temperature at hourly scale. Such a coupling permits to achieve long synthetic series of discharge through which, by extracting the maximum annual flow, the flood frequency of extreme events can be obtained. Then, by considering hypothetical future scenarios of temperature and rainfall predicted by the GCM-HadCM3 of Hadley Centre (http the previous stochastic...

Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Turkish Water Resources A Review

Abstract Water resources are mainly controlled by the climate conditions. Global warming will therefore have evolving impacts on water resources and poses important challenges for sustainable development. Studies are rapidly emerging with focus on potential implications of climate change on Turkish water resources. These studies can be grouped into two major fields (1) Studies investigating the degree of climate change reflected in the past observed hydro-meteorological records, and (2) studies...

Salt Transport Model

The model simulates salt transport downward and upward. Downward movement involves two parts - (1) modeling movement in the top layer of 10 cm thickness and (2) modeling the movement under the layers below the top layer (Fig. 22.1). In the top layer, total water flow leaving the surface layer consists of rainfall, lateral subsurface flow, and vertical percolation (Fig. 22.2). In other soil layers, the total water flow consists of only lateral subsurface flow and vertical percolation (Fig....

Quantification of Groundwater Quality A Polish Case

The above-discussed different methods of characterisation of hydrogeochemical field can be adopted to assessment of groundwater quality in the framework of national (European) legislation. In order to achieve appropriate protection of Fig. 27.6 Cumulative frequency diagrams of SO4 (a) and regionalization of SO4 distribution (b) in the K dzierzyn aquifer (the NE region of MGWB 332) in southern Poland 7 . A - 4 to 10 mg L, B - 5 to 50 mg L, C - 30 to 200 mg L Fig. 27.6 Cumulative frequency...

Current Situation

Mediterranean Basin Climate

The present Mediterranean climate is characterised by mild winters and hot, dry summers, similar to conditions found in central Chile, the southwestern United States and the southern tip of Africa. Three central-northern countries, France, Italy and Turkey, enjoy half of the region's precipitation, while dry areas predominate to the south and east (Fig. 2.1) 1-4 . Although mountains and inland seas create an Fig. 2.1 Mean rainfall distribution in the Mediterranean basin (After Margat 2 ) Fig....

Climate Change and the Hydrogeologie Framework in Constanta City South Dobrogea Romania

Glieherie Caraivan, Irina Dinu, Costina Fulga, and Daniela Popeseu Abstract Constanta city is located on the Black Sea coast in the eastern part of the Romanian South Dobrogea region. Global warming in the Dobrogea region promotes drought conditions that decrease groundwater levels and increase abstraction rates in the shallow unconfined aquifers (loess deposits and karstified Sarmatian limestones) being used for public supply. This study advocates using an alternative confined and high quality...

Groundwater Resources Balance Calculation

For quantification of the climate elements impacts on groundwater resources their balance parameters have been analyzed. Because of various formation conditions of the fractured and fluvial aquifers, their balance structures are also different. The most complete balance approach for the estimation is the equation of water balance, where the groundwater run-off is taken into account. This is giving possibility to assess the basic part of annual renewable groundwater resources and symbolically it...

Water Monitoring in Republic of Macedonia

Guadalupe County

The Republic Hydrometeorological Service performs systematic monitoring of the surface, ground water and springs. There is a network of 110 stations (68 active) for river hydrometric measurements. For groundwater levels, temperature and quality, IS92C IS92a Group(A1,B1,A2,B2) monitoring stations exist in several regions (Polog, Skopsko Pole, Kocansko Pole, Stipsko Pole, Strumicko Pole and Strusko Pole). However, due to present financial limitations, the monitoring activities are limited and the...

Hydrologic Variables 12221 Streamflow

Streamflow represents the integrated response of a watershed to precipitation and evapotranspiration (partly driven by temperature) processes after being filtered by watershed physical characteristics and, in some cases, human-induced factors. Due to this close link between global warming and streamflow response of a watershed, several studies focused on possible trends in Turkish streamflow records. The regional patterns emerging from these studies are in general parallel to the trends in...

Water Demand Due to Increased Population

The combined population of countries that rim the Mediterranean Sea is projected to increase by over 100 million between 2000 and 2025 with the vast majority of this growth occurring in the 12 drier SEMED countries 1 . Due to population growth alone it is estimated that by 2025, 10 of the 12 SEMED countries will be consuming over 50 of their renewable water resources, with 8 of them exceeding 100 . Most of the demand increase will come from irrigation and domestic supply needs.

Will Human Civilization Face the Exhaustion of Water Resources Due to Global Change

The climate had always been changing and will continue to evolve in the future. So far the only acceptable conception has been based on the outputs of IPCC 12 , which declare that warming up of the Earth is caused by anthropogenic activities -specifically by emissions of carbon dioxide. But a series of scandals disclosed a specialized handling of the primary data so that the seriousness of the so far achieved results was challenged or even damaged. Nevertheless, the ever present question, which...

Water Consumption by Crops in the Protected Area of Messolonghion Greece

In order to determine the water needs of the cultivations of the Messolonghion area, first the mean daily rate of the reference evapotranspiration was calculated employing the Penman-Monteith equation according to FAO-56 10 . 0,408A(R -G)+ g 900 u2(e, -ea) ET K n J T + 273 2V 1 (32.1) where ETo is the reference evapotranspiration (mm day), Rn is the net radiation at the crop surface (MJ m-2 d-1), G is the soil heat flux density (MJ m-2 d-1) which, for daily intervals, may be ignored, T is the...

Contents

1 Resilience Analysis of Climate Change Effects 2 Implications of Climate Change on Water Security 3 Climate Change Effects on Ecosystem Services in the United States - Issues of National and Global 17 4 Climate Change Mitigation with Renewable 5 Climate Change and Water Resources - Challenge 6 Impacts of Decreasing Recharge Rates on Sustainable Groundwater 43 Hasan Yazicigil, Koray K. Yilmaz, Burcu Unsal Erdemli, and Ozlem Yagbasan 7 A Model for Integrated Water Resources Management in...

Efficiency of Water Supply Assessment

Wirbels Ule Nervenzuordnung

Scientific basis for efficiency of water supply assessment is the empirical dependence of crop capacity on water consumption under different climatic regions. Under the condition of water resource deficiency, low water and land efficiency, it is suggested to take into account the sufficiency of water supply not only during the vegetation period but also its distribution within this period (that is, the regime of crop irrigation), and also the mineralization of irrigating water, which is not...

Impact of Climate Change on Hydropower Generation and Irrigation A Case Study from Greece

Jacques Ganoulis and Charalampos Skoulikaris Abstract Due to climate change, water availability for different uses such as domestic water supply, hydropower production and agricultural irrigation could be significantly reduced in the near future mainly in regions with arid and semiarid climate. Precipitation data in the form of time series from different stations in South East Europe (SEE) as well as results from global atmospheric circulation models indicate that climate change will reduce...

Assessing the Impact of Climate Change on Groundwater Resources Using Groundwater Flow Models

Abstract Climate change is a potential stressor of groundwater resources and its effects on the availability of groundwater need to be understood and determined. The impacts of climate change on groundwater systems are conceptually known, however in the context of climate change impact assessment there has been little research conducted on groundwater compared to surface water resources. One of the tools used to quantify the effects of climate change is to use groundwater flow models in...

Overview of Case Studies

Most studies to date dealt with estimating the potential impacts of climate change on surface water resources. Relatively fewer studies deal with the modeling of impacts on groundwater. In this section, an overview of some selected case studies about groundwater impact modeling are presented in chronological order, followed by a summary of a recent impact modeling study for the Tahtali basin in Izmir-Turkey that was conducted by Elgi and Fistikoglu 11 . The overview is intended to focus on the...

The Assessment of the MCIA

Meliorative condition of the area is assessed according to categories good, satisfactory, and unsatisfactory depth to ground water, and soil salinity. The area is assessed unsatisfactory by meliorative condition under the following criteria hj lt h S j gt S 13 Ecef gt Ece 19.1 where hf, h is the actual and acceptable depth to ground water Sf 5 is the actual and acceptable degree of soil salinization and Ecef Ece is the actual and acceptable soil conductivity. Acceptable values were established...