Adaptive measures and mitigation of climate changes are vital activities to counter the effects of droughts and floods. Integrated management of surface and groundwater resources through artificial recharge and water conservation are very important as a precautionary measure. The identification of deep confined aquifers with large groundwater potential which can serve during severe droughts, without much change in the groundwater yield and quality, is another adaptive and mitigation measure which is advocated.

This work was carried out under the CSIR Emeritus Scheme for which the author is very grateful to the Council of Scientific & Industrial Research, New Delhi. The author is grateful to Dr V. P. Dimri, Director, NGRI, for providing facilities at NGRI, Hyderabad. Mr P. Nagabhusanan, Dr D. V. Reddy and Dr N. C. Mondal provided various inputs, and Dr S. K. Gupta has taken pains to review this paper for which author is very grateful.

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