Conclusions

In the present conditions of water demand in the south of Europe, integrated management of water resources becomes increasingly important. In this context, groundwater recharge with reclaimed water can play an important role, especially in southern European countries.

Recharge is paramount for water reuse schemes, because it: improves reclaimed water quality; increases storage capacity and the amount of water available; reduces evaporation losses; and allows the reduction of seawater intrusion, among other positive impacts. Negative impacts include the possible mixture with water to be used for tap purposes, flooding if excessive amounts of water are applied or undue appropriation of resources.

Adequate studies are needed before implementing groundwater recharge schemes. Such studies must include geological, geochemical, hydrologi-cal, biological and engineering features. Risk-related, environmental impact and other basic studies are also a necessity.

Social aspects, including communication procedures and economic feasibility, are paramount for the success of the practice.

Inexpensive tools for water management, waste-water reclamation and reuse will be needed in the light of changes that the water cycle will experience due to the climatic change.

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