Climatic characteristics of Campania

The region of Campania has a Mediterranean climate, affected by the Azores, Siberian and South African anticyclones and the Aleutian and Icelandic lows, with hot, dry summers and

Fig. 2. Climate gauge stations examined in this study. Triangles represent rain gauge stations. Filled triangles represent the temperature and rain gauge stations.

moderately cool rainy winters. Mean annual temperatures are in the range of about 10°C in the mountainous interior, 18°C in the coastal areas, and 15.5°C in the plains surrounded by the carbonate massifs. In Campania the correlation between temperature and elevation is extremely high (generally > 0.9), with a gradient of about — 0.5°C to —0.7°C each 100 m.

The Italian rainfall regime consists of four different types: (1) Alpine continental; (2) Alpine sublittoral; (3) Apennine sublittoral; and (4) Marine. The rainfall regime in Campania is Apennine sublittoral, with a maximum in autumn/winter. Precipitation is influenced mainly by the mountain chains, in terms of elevation (often 1500-2000 m a.s.l.), location of ridges (barrier effect) and proximity to the Tyrrhenian Sea.

The lowest mean annual rainfall, about 700 mm, occurs in the eastern part of the region, on the other side of the Apennine watershed; the highest, about 1800 mm, occurs in the central part of the Apennine ridge.

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