Recharge in the south of Europe the potential

It is necessary to distinguish between the existing recharge, (mainly) non-planned recharge and the possibilities for future development of the technique. As explained, there are two types of recharge using reclaimed wastewater intentional and non-intentional. When dealing with wastewater reuse the terms are planned and unplanned reuse. Unplanned reuse is usual in Mediterranean rivers when treated wastewater is disposed of into rivers or lakes. Sometimes, the unique water flowing in most...

B S Sukhija

National Geophysical Research Institute, Hyderabad-500 007, India (e-mail bssngri rediffmail.com) Abstract Extreme climate conditions are expected in the twenty-first century in the form of higher maximum temperature (with more hot days) resulting in frequent droughts. The continents of Africa and Asia are anticipated to be extremely vulnerable to droughts. In the impending extreme climate conditions, humanity's sustenance hinges on groundwater as it forms the world's largest freshwater...

A D Benderev1 T V Orehova1 E K Bojilova2

1 Geological Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., bl. 24, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria (e-mail orehova geology.bas.bg) 2National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tzarigradsko chaussee 66, 1784 Sofia, Bulgaria Abstract Groundwater regime in Bulgaria is influenced by climate variability. The impact is evident especially for karst water. A time series analysis of spring discharge for selected karst basins was performed. The impact of the...

Main tools to study the relations between groundwater and climate variations

A good knowledge of the geology and hydrogeo-logy of the study system is an essential prerequisite to investigating the impact of climate change. Ideally, the study of groundwater resources should be based on a reliable, continuous and dense database of hydrometeorological data and soil moisture, covering a long time interval. These data should be coupled with a large amount of spatially distributed quantitative information such as hydraulic conductivity and porosity. However, adequate data are...

Climatic data and spatial approach

Rainfall and temperature monthly time series of the Italian hydrological service (Servizio Idrografico e Mareografico Nazionale, SIMN), have been considered (SIMN 1916-2000). A total of 126 rainfall gauges were finally selected from among 817 gauges (SIMN 1976) (Fig. 1). The gauges were selected to obtain a sufficient gauge density and spatial continuity mainly of rainfall and secondly of temperature, covering the maximum monitoring period with the minimum of data gaps 41 of the selected gauges...

JIMill

PERCOLATION (1 -ir)(V1 - V2) At time T2 Chloride in the Tank V2C2 Chloride loss due to evaporation 0 Chloride loss due to percolation (1- 1)(V1 - V2)Cp .*. Chloride balance V1C1 V2C2 + (1- f)(V1 - V2)CP Fig. 2. (a) Schematic representation of a percolation pond. (b) The principle of measurement of efficiency of percolation ponds based on chloride mass balance. by empirical relationship of meteorological parameters (humidity, temperature, wind speed, sunshine hours etc.) or is based on...

Concluding remarks

The integrated analysis of geological and hydrogeo-logical data indicates that the Yperia Krini spring has little storage capacity and that it is very sensitive to rainfall variations. On the other hand, historical information indicates that important climatic changes have influenced the whole Mediterranean area in the past, affecting the Yperia Krini spring in such a way that the broader area suffered a strong social and political decline. During the last few decades, the concomitance of a...

The regional climate gauge network

The regional rain gauge network has changed greatly in recent years as the mechanical rain gauge stations were replaced by digital stations funded after the tragic landslide event which took place in May 1998 in the area around the town of Sarno (> 150 fatalities). The new digital rain gauge network became fully operational in the year 2000. The old network, with inadequate density for forecasting and warning in the event of landslides and floods, is very effective for analysing monthly and...

Hydrogeological situation

The study area was explored up to maximum depth of 500 m by 32 test holes, of which 16 tapping fresh groundwater were converted into tube wells. The unconsolidated sediments are mainly of fluvial origin and consist of slightly calcareous and micaceous, fine-grained sand covered and interbedded by sandy-silty clays (Fig. 3). With increasing depth the sands become fine- to medium-grained, locally even coarse-grained. Those sediments form a typical semi-confined aquifer system down to a depth of...

Palaeohydrologic situation in the Thar Desert

The different recharge rates of the shallow and deep groundwaters in the study area may be explained by means of the palaeohydrologic situation. Reliable temporal information exists from the eastern part of the Thar Desert in India. Sedimentological and geochemical evidence as well as 14C dates of salt-lake deposits of Sambhar (Thar Desert), Lunkaransar (India) and Didwana Lake (SE Cholistan) revealed that pluvial conditions existed between 13 000 and about 4000 years BP (Singh et al. 1972,...

Conclusions

Most studies of the temporal variability of piezo-metric levels that appear in the literature refer to short-term cyclic variations, with periods ranging from hours to days or weeks, such as the variations deriving from tidal waves that may be observed in coastal aquifers. Some series presenting long-term fluctuations have been studied qualitatively, and then compared with rainfall data, with which there is not necessarily a parallel (Hanson & Dettinger 2005). The most relevant aspects of...

Analysis method

The empirical and theoretical distributions of the annual spring discharges were studied. The method for analytical approximation and multi-criterial optimization of the empirical distributions proposed by Gerassimov (1988) was used. The main ideas of the method are as follow (i) approximation of the empirical distribution functions by regression analysis of appropriately transformed coordinates (ii) transformation of the empirical cumulative frequencies to normal distribution quan-tiles, and...

Scibek1 D M Allen1 P H Whitfield2

1 Department of Earth Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada 2Meteorological Service of Canada, Environment Canada, Pacific and Yukon Division, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V6C 3S5 Abstract A three-dimensional transient groundwater flow model, implemented in MODFLOW, is used to quantify the impacts of climate change on groundwater in an unconfined aquifer with demonstrated strong connection to surface water (Kettle and Granby Rivers). The Grand Forks aquifer...

Results

The harmonic analysis of the time series of waterhead variations on the network of piezometers detects the presence of four distinctive periodicities a decadal cycle, a cycle of 3.2 years, an annual cycle and a semi-annual cycle. The decadal cycle is related to the climatic 11-year cycle, in turn related to sunspot activity in the context of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The 3.2-year cycles could be related to the climatic cycle of the NAO (it has been recognized that the NAO has an...

Model calibration

Model calibration involved comparing the simulated water levels to observed historic water levels for both steady-state and transient model runs. Figure 12 shows the calibration graph for observation well 217, which is the only provincial observation well in the valley. The graph displays the observed long-term monthly mean water elevation and modelled groundwater elevation after model calibration (1961-1999). Also shown are observed and simulated discharge hydrographs for the nearby Kettle...

Kp Seiler1 Wz Gu2 W Stichler1

LGSF National Research Centre, D-85758 Neuherberg, Germany (e-mail seiler gsf.de) 2Institute of Hydrology, Hohai University, Nanjing, P. R. China Abstract Groundwater flow is steered by both the groundwater recharge rate and by discharge altitudes above or below sea level it is further controlled by the hydraulic properties of the aquifer system and often contains a transient flow component affected by natural hydrologic processes. All present groundwater discharges have both recent (< 100...

Responses to climate change

In order to conduct a water balance assessment, the model domain was divided into several water budget zones (Fig. 14), and Zone Budget (ZBUD) was run. ZBUD (McDonald & Harbaugh 1988) calculates sub-regional water budgets using results from MODFLOW simulations. In the top two aquifer layers, ZBUD zones were delineated for all cells. Zone 1 includes the City of Grand Forks (GF) and other areas considered as background to the main irrigation districts. In the five irrigation districts (zones 3...

Lithological and hydrogeological setting

The region of Campania in the southern part of the Italian peninsula has an area of about 13 500 km2, and a coastline along the Tyrrhenian Sea. The landscape is dominated inland by the Apennine mountain ranges reaching altitudes of 1000-2000 m, accounting for 32 of the land area. Coastal plains account for a further 18 , while the rest of From Dragoni, W. & Sukhija, B. S. (eds) Climate Change and Groundwater. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 288, 25-38. DOI 10.1144 SP288.3...

Environmental isotope measurements

For measurement of 82H in water, a 5-ml water sample was reduced to H2 gas using BDH zinc shots in a closed evacuated tube at 450 C (Coleman et al. 1982). The H2 gas produced was analysed using a 602E mass spectrometer (VG Isogas, UK). The 82H values reported were with respect to SMOW (standard mean ocean water) standard. The precision of measurement was 1 c (2s). For 818O measurement of the water, a 5-ml sample was taken in a flask and equilibrated with CO2 gas at 25 C for 8 hours (Epstein...

References

Alvarez Rodriguez, J. & Estrela Monreal, T. 2000. Regionalization and Drought Characterisation in Europe. ARIDE Technical Report no. 9. CEDEX, Madrid. Andreeva, T., Martinov, M. etal. 2003. Mild winters and the precipitation in the mountain regions in Bulgaria. International Conference on Alpine Meteorology and MAP-Meeting. Brig, Switzerland, Volume A. Antonov, H. & Danchev, D. 1980. Groundwater in the Republic Bulgaria. Technika, Sofia (in Bulgarian). Bernhard, L. & Doll, P. 2001....

Groundwater in desert areas

Humid areas have typically high groundwater recharge and small catchment sizes in contrast drylands have extended catchment areas with very low groundwater recharge. In many dry lands, low salinity lakes occur as well as freshwater springs adjacent to salt lakes or sabkhas. In the Badain Jaran Shamo (Gobi desert) more than 70 lakes with a total surface of area about 27 km2 are known, having either high (180 g l) and low salinities (< 1 g l) (Chen et al. 2004) the same area also hosts fresh...

Discussion

The following discussion focuses on how the two different approaches of artificial recharge for augmenting groundwater resources, and identifying and characterizing renewable and non-renewable deep aquifers, can prove highly useful for sustaining groundwater resources through droughts. In the first approach it is shown that percolation ponds constructed across monsoon streams can prove highly successful by augmenting ground-water resources (Sukhija et al. 2005). It has been shown that after...

Contents

Climate change and groundwater a short review 1 Benderev, A. D., Orehova, T. V. & Bojilova, E. K. Some aspects of groundwater regime 13 in Bulgaria with respect to climate variability Ducci, D. & Tranfaglia, G. Effects of climate change on groundwater resources in 25 Polemio, M. & Casarano, D. Climate change, drought and groundwater availability in 39 Luque-Espinar, J. A., Chica-Olmo, M. & Pardo-IgUzquiza, E. Climatological cycles in 53 groundwater...

Recharge rate of the fresh and saline groundwater

The initial hydrogeological working hypothesis was that the fresh groundwater is still being replenished. However, at three different places in the Thar EC (mS cm) 613C 0 10 20 -6 -4 -2 0 EC (mS cm) 613C 0 10 20 -6 -4 -2 0 14C (100-150 m) 3.4 mm a (100-200 m) 6.8 mm a present Fine to mediums and with thin clay interbeds, below 100 m depth partly coarse-sandy Fig. 3. Layer-wise sampling during test hole drilling yielded the 14C age depth gradient corresponding to a past recharge rate between 3.4...

Study area

This paper presents four different studies from arid regions intended to highlight applications of isotopic studies in arriving at specific hydrologic understanding. These studies employed environmentally stable isotopes 2H, 18O, 13C and radioactive isotopes 3H and 14C. The Thar Desert extends from the western side of the Aravalli mountain ranges in India up to the limit of the Indus valley in Pakistan (Fig. 1). It covers about 60 of the area of Rajasthan state in the northwestern part of...

Summary and conclusions

Two case histories of survival of human societies in an arid region have been discussed. In both, creativity and invention enabled survival when climate conditions were moderate. Yet, when extreme negative climate changes occurred, human innovation was not sufficient to enable survival. At ancient Arad during the Early Bronze Period (third millennium BCE) the city flourished due to the application of artificial recharge of a shallow local perched water table. At Jericho the transition from a...

River runoff variability during the 19821994 drought period

A recent study (Gerassimov et al. 2001, 2004a, 2004b) concerned water resources in Bulgaria during the 1982-1994 drought period. An investigation was made of precipitation (P, mm) and river discharge (runoff depth, h, mm) for two periods one with a duration of 13 years (the T l l TTT TTT1 T TT TTTT TTTT TTTT TTTT 1TTT TTT TTTT 11 0.01 0.05 0.1 0.5 1 2 5 1 0 2 0 30 40 5 0 6 0 70 80 90 95 98 99 99.5 99.9 Fig. 3. Probability distribution curves for springs 48 and 63 located in the Black Sea basin....

Geological Society books refereeing procedures

The Society makes every effort to ensure that the scientific and production quality of its books matches that of its journals. Since 1997, all book proposals have been refereed by specialist reviewers as well as by the Society's Books Editorial Committee. If the referees identify weaknesses in the proposal, these must be addressed before the proposal is accepted. Once the book is accepted, the Society Book Editors ensure that the volume editors follow strict guidelines on refereeing and quality...

Preface

The concept of 'Climate Change' (basically implying global warming) has been with us for two to three decades. Not a day passes without a new story on climate change, and often the evidence and the hypotheses offered are uncertain and conflicting. This suggests that there is still much to learn about the causes, the magnitude and the persistence of the processes that are going on however, in spite of all the uncertainties, the reality of global warming is no longer questioned. Global warming...

B

Deposits (shallow aquifer), has groundwater level measurements from 1926 until 2000 every three days (Italian Hydrographic Survey 1948-1999). As regards groundwater discharge, the springs of the Matese mountains in the northern part of Campania and the springs of Mt Terminio, with more than 1 m3 s of discharge, have extensive records on a monthly basis. In Campania in the last 10-20 years a sharp reduction in the discharge of many important springs at the foot of carbonate aquifers has been...

Aquifer model development

The valley shape was modelled using profile extrapolation, constrained by well lithologs and geostatistical interpolation. The valley attains a maximum depth of 250 m below ground surface, but typical sediment thickness is about 100 m. The hydrostratigraphy of the aquifer was interpreted from selected high-quality well lithologs, with layering constrained by the Quaternary depositional history of the valley sediments. Approximately 150 well lithologs are used to constrain the hydrostratigraphic...

Overview

Bulgaria is located in southeastern Europe. The country is bounded by the Danube River to the north, the Black Sea to the east, Greece and Turkey to the south and Serbia and Macedonia to the west. The territory of Bulgaria, despite its small area of around 111 000 km2, is characterized by a large variety of relief forms. The altitude in the country ranges from 0 m (near the Black Sea) up to 2925 m (Moussala peak in the Rila mountains). The average elevation of the country is around 470 m above...

Climate Change and Groundwater

The Geological Society of London Books Editorial Committee John Gregory (UK) Jim Griffiths (UK) John Howe (UK) Phil Leat (UK) Nick Robins (UK) Jonathan Turner (UK) Society Books Advisors Mike Brown (USA) Eric Buffetaut (France) Jonathan Craig (Italy) Reto GierE (Germany) Tom McCann (Germany) Doug Stead(Canada) Randell Stephenson (Netherlands)

Hydrogeological framework

According to surficial observations, and due to their subaerial position for several million years, all the carbonate rocks cropping out in the area are deeply and intensely karstified (Fig. 4). Although the spring emerges from the Upper Pleistocene Red Beds, the source volume of the spring consists mainly of rocks belonging to the Mesozoic bedrock. Due to the complex geological and tectonic setting of the area uphill of Yperia Krini and its surroundings, the hydrogeological system is a typical...

Climate change and groundwater a short review

1Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita di Perugia, Piazza Universita 1, 06001 Perugia, Italy (e-mail dragoni unipg.it) 2National Geophysical Research Institute, Hyderabad-500 007, India (e-mail bssngri rediffmail.com) Abstract There is a general consensus that climate change is an ongoing phenomenon. This will inevitably bring about numerous environmental problems, including alterations to the hydrolo-gical cycle, which is already heavily influenced by anthropogenic activity. The...

Acknowledgements

The editors are grateful to the following people for their assistance with their reviewing of the papers submitted to this special publication. Dr Andreas Angelakis, National Foundation for Agricultural Research, Iraklio, Greece Prof Andrew Binley, Lancaster University, UK Dr Costanza Cambi, Perugia University, Italy Prof Mebus A. Geyh, R beland 12 - OT Bannetze 29308 Winsen Aller Germany Dr S. K. Gupta, Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad, India Miss Lindsey E. Gulden, University of Texas,...

U K Sinha S V Navada

Isotope Hydrology Section, Isotope Applications Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai - 400 085, India (e-mail udayks apsara.barc.ernet.in) Abstract Environmental isotope studies of groundwaters carried out in the arid region of Rajasthan, India, suggest that recharge to shallow groundwater occurs as a result of direct infiltration of precipitation and or through river channels during episodic floods. In many parts of Rajasthan deep fresh groundwater is available, which was...

M Salgot A Torrens

Institut de l'Aigua de la Universit t de Barcelona, Laboratori d'Edafologia, Facultat de Farmacia, Institut de Recerca de l'Aigua, Universitat de Barcelona, Joan XXIII, s n. 08028 Barcelona, Spain (e-mail M. Salgot salgot ub.edu) Abstract In an era of increasing contest for limited water resources, the wise joint management of conventional and non-conventional water resources must be considered. Water scarcity is aggravated in coastal zones which are often characterized by high population...

Impact of climate changes on groundwater resources

Spatial variation in mean annual rainfall Input data included mean monthly and annual precipitation and temperature data from 110 rain gauge stations. Figure 2 shows the distribution of the rain gauge stations in the area. The correlation between precipitation and elevation is extremely low (0.1), as expected in such a large area. Indeed, it has been demonstrated (Guida et al. 1980) that the correlation P-h is quite high only for small homogeneous areas (subzones), but is very low for a whole...

Adaptive measures sustainable groundwater management by identification of deep confined aquifers

Robot Para Dibujar

There are different approaches to mitigate drought. The approaches can be preventive, as discussed above, by integrated management of surface and groundwater or using deep confined aquifers which should be identified before the calamity. The important consideration is that the potential aquifer identified is assessed to be resistant against droughts using geological, hydrogeological, geophysical and isotopic methods. UNESCO (2003) has recently formed an Expert Group called Groundwater for...

Groundwater in Bulgaria an overview

The structural-tectonic conditions are of primary importance for the occurrence of groundwater. This overview reflects a large variety of hydrogeo-logical settings. They have influence on the groundwater regime, and on its vulnerability to climate variability. In the territory of Bulgaria three main hydrogeological units are distinguished (Antonov & Danchev 1980). This region covers the north part of Bulgaria, from the Balkan mountains up to the Danube River. It is a typical platform...

The case of Jericho

Jericho Spring Diagram

Ancient Jericho (Tell es-Sultan) is located in the wide plain of the Jordan valley about 16 km NW of the northern shore of the Dead Sea and just to the east of the mountains of Judea. At its maximum height on the NW side, the mound rises 24 m, and its area is approximately 4 hectares. The fertile plain in which the site is situated is artificially irrigated by the spring of 'Ain es-Sultan' or Elisha's Fountain. It is fed by the regional aquifer formed by the 800-m-thick Judea Group, which...

Changes of climate droughts and net rainfall

Time and spatial variability of annual rainfall The annual rainfall trend is determined as the Angular Coefficient (AC) of the least-square line for each rainfall time series in the MSP. The increasing trends or positive values of AC are typical only of 12 of the whole 126 series the maximum observed slope is about 2.5 mm a. Decreasing trends are observed for 114 series (90 ) the minimum is about 9 mm a. If a 5 significance level is considered for correlation coefficients, 60 negative trends...

Characteristics of groundwater flow based on field and modelling studies

Groundwater recharge and discharge altitudes are driving forces of groundwater flow. Groundwater recharge occurs in all climate zones, albeit at different rates. In desert regions groundwater recharge is small (< 5 mm a) and occurs irregularly (Verhagen et al. 1979). In semi-arid regions it is > 5 mm a and < 25 mm a and undergoes significant annual fluctuations. In tropical regions it ranges mostly between > 25 mm aand < 100 mm a and again varies considerably year-to-years. In...

Hydrogeology of the Vega de Granada aquifer

The Vega de Granada is an important Mediterranean aquifer located in an alluvial plain surrounded From Dragoni, W. & Sukhija, B. S. (eds) Climate Change and Groundwater. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 288, 53 -62. DOI 10.1144 SP288.5 0305-8719 08 15.00 The Geological Society of London 2008. Figure 1. Geographical location on the Vega de Granada aquifer in Southern Spain with the location of piezometers represented in Figure 3a-d. Figure 1. Geographical location on the Vega...

Geological and structural framework

The town of Velestino is located at the base of the eastern slope of the Central Hills, also referred to as Revenia (Sivignon 1974), which represent one of the major structural highs of Thessaly (Caputo 1990) bounded by the Larissa Basin to the east, and the Karditsa Basin to the west. This hilly area is mainly characterized by Pliocene to Upper Pleistocene weakly deformed subhorizontal sediments. In the broader study area, these deposits uncon-formably cover different lithologies of the...

Historical observations

The importance the local people attached to the spring and its relationships with the natural and economical conditions of the area can be discerned in the name the Ancients gave to this spring. According to philologists, the toponym Yperia krini (Y pepia Kp-fjvri) can be interpreted as a composite name by separating yp from epeia. Based on spa ( earth), a term confirmed by ej-epaw ( to outpour, to vomit, to evacuate), and two notes of Hesychius relative to epasai ( vacuous) and epa ( earth...

Climate change analysis in Campania

Climatic phenomena are often the product of two or more, simple, interacting non-linear processes. As a result, chaotic processes in the atmosphere are extremely sensitive to small disturbances. Small variations in atmospheric turbulence can result in very different outcomes and then it becomes impossible either to measure the system accurately or to predict its future state (Bryant 1997). The actual atmospheric phenomena taking place over an area are the final stage of a number of different...

National Hydrogeological Network in Bulgaria

The National Hydrogeological Network (NHGN) in Bulgaria was found in 1958-1961. Nowadays the National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology is responsible for data collection, processing, maintenance of stations and archives, supplying the state institutions and consumers with data from NHGN, and dissemination of information. Data received from NHGN includes time series for groundwater levels in observational wells and discharge for springs (Orehova & Roussev 2004). The frequency of...

General observations regarding scenarios future climate and water resources

The IPCC prepared five reports, the latest of which, in a preliminary version, was released in January 2007. The conclusions of this report most relevant to water resources and groundwater are (IPCC 2007) Projected warming in the twenty-first century shows geographical patterns similar to those observed over the last few decades. Warming is expected to be greatest over land and at the highest northern latitudes, and least over the Southern Oceans and parts of the North Atlantic Ocean Snow cover...

Practical application of groundwater recharge

Many groundwater recharge applications (Pyne 1995) can be easily identified however, for simplicity, only the basic applications are briefly described here (Anderbouhr & Perez-Paricio Table 10. Groundwater recharge uses of reclaimed water Table 10. Groundwater recharge uses of reclaimed water Potable quality if treated for domestic uses Modified from Brissaud et al. (2005). Modified from Brissaud et al. (2005). 1999). More than one of the possibilities mentioned can be true for the same...

Hydrochemical situation

A detailed overview on the spatial distribution of the fresh, brackish and saline groundwaters in the study area was obtained by an electrical resistivity and an air-borne electromagnetic survey. The 18-Vm line of the apparent resistivity of the Fig. 1. Map of northern Cholistan. The former bed of the Old Hakra River stretched from Fort Abbas to the west of Yazman (light grey). The fresh groundwater body has been shifted to the south due to the southwesterly flow direction of the groundwater...

Climatic characteristics and hydrological zones

The climate of Bulgaria is influenced by intensive atmospheric circulation from the Atlantic Ocean coast, continental Europe, the Aegean Sea and the Black Sea. The transfer of air masses is determined by the location of mountain chains in the territory of the country. In this respect, we should mention the Balkan range (Stara Planina mountain). The Balkan range is a barrier stopping the cold continental air masses and their propagation to the south. The Rila-Rhodopes massif, which is situated...

Rapticaputo1 B Helly2

1 University of Ferrara, Department of Earth Sciences, via Saragat 1, I-44100 Ferrara, Italy 2Institut Fernand-Courby (UMR 5649 du CNRS), Maison de I'Orient, 7 rue Raulin, F-69007 Lyon, France (e-mail Bruno.Helly mom.fr) Abstract The development of past civilizations and the foundation of towns have always been strictly linked to the availability of water. In this paper, we analyse more than 2000 years of evolution of Yperia Krini spring in Thessaly (Greece), by investigating possible...

Southern Italy

1 Department of Geotechnical Engineering - Federico II University, Piazzale Tecchio, 80-80125 Naples, Italy (e-mail daniela unina.it) 2Department of Inland and Marine Waters Protection - National Agency for Environmental Protection - APAT, Via Curtatone, 3-00185 Rome, Italy Abstract In order to estimate the influence of global climate change upon the hydrological regime, variations in the water budget prompted by precipitation and temperature changes were evaluated in the region of Campania...

A

Flow (arrows) and age distribution (broken lines) in an aquifer system with hydraulic conductivities and relative discharges (b, left and right), with (a) and without (c) groundwater abstraction from deep groundwater. Badain Jaran Shamo doubtless indicates that the lake waters represent uncovered groundwater, flowing through the lakes with low flow velocities. The present lakes in the Badain Jaran Shamo are residuals of more extended lakes in the historic and geological past. This is...

Groundwater recharge studies

Direct recharge of precipitation to the groundwater was studied during 1982-1984 and 1990-1992 in Jodhpur and Barmer districts of western Rajasthan using artificial 3H tracer as tritiated water (HTO) in the unsaturated zone (Shivanna et al. 1994). The results showed negligible groundwater recharge due to low rainfall (c. 200-300 mm) during the study periods. Since the artificial 3H tracer method determines recharge for the study period only, other methods such as environmental H, 36Cl and...

Wastewater reclamation and reuse

Percolation Tank Contents

Wastewater to be reclaimed can be generated by towns, industries and agriculture in the broad sense (i.e. cattle, forestry, aquiculture). Nevertheless, the most studied reclamation procedures are those with domestic or urban wastewater. In this case, the whole flow can be assimilated to domestic wastewater with respect to quality. As the EU Directive (91 271) on wastewater is theoretically implemented and the water generated has at least secondary treatment, wastewater-related impacts are...

Discussion and results

The analysis performed herein stressed the following points. In the last 20 years precipitation in Campania has decreased by about 15 , although the reduction is not uniformly distributed throughout the region. The most severely affected areas are those at higher elevations. The substantial rainfall reduction is also evident from the trends at stations with rainfall data records from 1920. The number of rainy days has decreased roughly in the same way as the rate of precipitation. Consequently,...

Nonconventional water resources

If conventional resources are not usually available to cover excess or peak demands, non-conventional resources are employed. Among natural non-conventional water resources several possibilities are considered, but the usual ones are runoff water, natural brackish water, or desalinated seawater (Georgopoulou et al. 2001). Non-conventional water resources coming from the anthropic water cycle can also be used reclaimed wastewater will be considered (Asano & Levine 1998). In the Mediterranean...

Weather generation using LARSWG

At present, output from GCMs is of insufficient spatial and temporal resolution and reliability to be used directly in hydrologic models. A stochastic weather generator, however, can serve as a computationally inexpensive tool to produce multiple-year climate change scenarios at the daily time scale, which incorporates changes in both mean climate and climate variability (Semenov & Barrow 1997). Stochastic weather ensures that daily values of variables are realistic, consistent,...

Spectral analysis

The statistical technique used to find cyclic components in a time series is known as spectral analysis (Jenkins & Watts 1968 Yevjevich 1972 Bras & Rodriguez-Iturbe 1985). The signal component represents the structured part of the time series, made up of a small number of embedded Fig. 3. Representative time fluctuations of piezometric levels in the aquifer showing an increase of the irregular data (a-d). Levels are in metres above sea level (masl). Fig. 3. Representative time...

The case of Arad

The ruins of the ancient city of Arad are located on the southern semi-arid flanks of the Hebron Mountains. The average annual precipitation is about 200 mm, and there is no perennial water source in the region. The bedrock is composed of chalks of Eocene age (Avedat Group) overlain by loess of Late Pleistocene age (Issar & Bruins 1983). The chalks are mostly impervious, enabling the ancient and present inhabitants to dig cisterns for collecting rainwater flowing along the hillslopes. At the...

General characteristics of karst basins in Bulgaria

Due to the complex geological structure and variable relief in Bulgaria, numerous karst basins are formed. According to Boyadjiev (1964) there are more than 170 karst basins. Each of them is characterized according to its location, recharge and drainage conditions, with inherent regime and different vulnerability to human impacts. In Figure 1 the main outcropping karst collectors in the country are presented in a light grey colour. The dots in the figure locate the karst springs that will be...

Recharge studies in Jalore Rajasthan

Jalore District Map

Jalore district (Fig. 7) is situated adjacent to Barmer in the SW part of Rajasthan. An environmental isotope investigation was undertaken to understand the groundwater recharge mechanism at the study area (Fig. 8). The region receives a mean annual rainfall of c. 380 mm and is drained by Sukri river, a tributary of the Luni river system, which is ephemeral in nature. The younger alluvium which is present along the river course is unconso-lidated to semi-consolidated coarse to fine sand and...

Groundwater regime variability during the 19821994 drought period

The orographical, climatic and hydrological conditions influence groundwater occurrence, recharge intensity and regime. Our previous studies concerning the drought period in Bulgaria confirmed the sensitivity of karst springs and shallow groundwater to climate variability (Orehova & Bojilova 2001 Gerassimov et al. 2004a). For these studies the examples of springs and observational wells from the NHGN were used. The impact of the 1982-1994 drought period on groundwater was observed all over...

Adaptive methods for sustaining groundwater regime techniques adopted for artificial recharge

There are several important techniques (Athavale 2003 Sharma 1998) used for artificial recharge as described below. In the water spreading technique, surface water from perennial rivers streams is allowed to spread over a large area for a sufficiently long period so that it percolates to recharge the aquifers. With recharge basin and percolation tanks ponds, the concept is to maximize the contact area and time of surface water with soil so that surface water percolates down to recharge...

Groundwater availability and role of climate change

Main characteristics of selected aquifers The effects of recent climate variations on ground-water availability are evaluated considering five wide hydrogeological structures (HSs). In each HS the shallow or outcropping aquifer is considered three are porous, two are constituted by carbonate rocks, all are coastal aquifers. The Apulian Tableland HS, Tavoliere HS, consists of a shallow and large porous aquifer within a conglomerate sandy-silty succession, less than 60 m deep, with a clayey...

Groundwater recharge in a limestone belt

Disarticolazione Anca

The limestone belt of Jodhpur-Nagaur district of Rajasthan extends from Bilara (SE of Jodhpur) to Fig. 13. Plot of 14C versus S18O for all samples collected from Barmer area. 72 Fig. 14. Sample location map in the limestone belt of Jodhpur-Nagaur district of Rajasthan. 72 Fig. 14. Sample location map in the limestone belt of Jodhpur-Nagaur district of Rajasthan. Phalodi (north of Jodhpur) shown in Figure 14. In the southern part of the study area a controlling fault has channelized the flow of...

GCM climate predictions

Borehole Recharge

For many climate change studies, scenarios of climate change derived directly from global climate models (GCMs) are of insufficient spatial and temporal resolution. Spatial downscaling techniques (Hewitson & Crane 1996 Wilby & Wigley 1997) are used to derive finer resolution climate information from coarser resolution GCM output. The fundamental assumption behind all these methods is that the statistical relationships, linking observed time series to GCM variables, will remain valid under...

Environmental isotope studies along an identified palaeochannel

Interpretation of satellite imagery of the western parts of the Jaisalmer district (western Rajasthan) 'revealed' the buried course of a river orientated in the NE-SW direction (Kar 1986 Bakliwal & Grover 1988) (Fig. 2a). In spite of the highly arid condition of the region, comparatively good quality groundwater is available along the course below 30 m depth. The aquifer consists of medium to fine sand with very little clay. A few dug wells do not dry up even in summer and the tube wells do...

Hydrologic modelling

In order to model the interaction between groundwater and surface water in the valley, stage elevations are required as a function of time for each river node in the groundwater flow model for each climate scenario. The challenges in constructing the model were firstly, balancing the discharge volume in the valley, given that hydrometric stations are located outside the valley and have different periods of record secondly, modelling basin-scale discharge from downscaled GCM outputs and thirdly,...

Reference Of Groundwater

C. & Wei, M. 2004. Ground-water and climate change a sensitivity analysis for the Grand Forks aquifer, southern British Columbia, Canada. Hydrogeology Journal, 12(3), 270-290. Allison, G. B. & Hughes, M. W. 1978. The use of environmental chloride and tritium to estimate total recharge to an unconfined aquifer. Australian Journal of Soil Research, 16, 181-195. Anderson, L. J. & Sevel, T. 1974. Profiles in the unsa-turated and saturated zones, Gronhoj, Denmark....

Isotope investigation of dynamic changes due to longterm exploitation of groundwater

The Bhadka-Bheemda area in Barmer district is situated in the SW part of Rajasthan. At the request of the Groundwater Department, Rajasthan, environmental isotope investigations were undertaken in the 1980s to understand the recharge processes and dynamics of groundwater in these areas. A fresh look at the isotopic and chemical characteristics of groundwater was attempted subsequently in order to understand their response to large-scale exploitation of groundwater. Figure 10 shows the geology...

General characteristics of chosen karst springs

For the purposes of this study, some typical karstic springs were selected. The springs are chosen to represent the main hydrological zones of Bulgaria. The location of the springs is represented in Figure 1. The numbering of the chosen springs is in accordance with the system used in NHGN. This spring is one of the largest in Bulgaria. It drains the main part of the so-called Zlatna Panega karst basin (according to Antonov & Danchev 1980). The karst basin is built from Upper Jurassic...

Study of sustaining groundwater resources through percolation ponds during droughts in India

The vagaries of climate change are already being felt in many countries including India. Droughts and floods have perhaps become more common. The time series of rainfall data for c. 100 years in a semi-arid region of India shows (Fig. 1) that every fourth year is a drought year and every seventh year is a year of surplus water causing floods. Thus it becomes imperative for a country like India, situated in the monsoon region (other monsoon countries include Korea, Philippines, China, Japan,...