Historical observations

The importance the local people attached to the spring and its relationships with the natural and economical conditions of the area can be discerned in the name the Ancients gave to this spring. According to philologists, the toponym Yperia krini (Y pepia Kp-fjvri) can be interpreted as a composite name by separating yp from epeia. Based on spa ( earth), a term confirmed by ej-epaw ( to outpour, to vomit, to evacuate), and two notes of Hesychius relative to epasai ( vacuous) and epa ( earth...

Climate change analysis in Campania

Climatic phenomena are often the product of two or more, simple, interacting non-linear processes. As a result, chaotic processes in the atmosphere are extremely sensitive to small disturbances. Small variations in atmospheric turbulence can result in very different outcomes and then it becomes impossible either to measure the system accurately or to predict its future state (Bryant 1997). The actual atmospheric phenomena taking place over an area are the final stage of a number of different...

National Hydrogeological Network in Bulgaria

The National Hydrogeological Network (NHGN) in Bulgaria was found in 1958-1961. Nowadays the National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology is responsible for data collection, processing, maintenance of stations and archives, supplying the state institutions and consumers with data from NHGN, and dissemination of information. Data received from NHGN includes time series for groundwater levels in observational wells and discharge for springs (Orehova & Roussev 2004). The frequency of...

General observations regarding scenarios future climate and water resources

The IPCC prepared five reports, the latest of which, in a preliminary version, was released in January 2007. The conclusions of this report most relevant to water resources and groundwater are (IPCC 2007) Projected warming in the twenty-first century shows geographical patterns similar to those observed over the last few decades. Warming is expected to be greatest over land and at the highest northern latitudes, and least over the Southern Oceans and parts of the North Atlantic Ocean Snow cover...

References

Geochimie des eaux d'acquiferes karstiques. II les analyses chimiques en hydrogeologie karstique. Annales de Sp l ologie, Moulis (Ari ge), 29(4) 461-483. Asteriadis, G. & Contadakis, M. E. 1994. A decade of research of the shallow underground water level and temperature in the area of Mygdonian Basin, Northern Greece for precursory phenomena. European Seismo-logical Commission, XXIV General Assembly, September 19-24 1994, Athens, Proceedings, 2, 1142-1151. Bakalowicz, M....

Practical application of groundwater recharge

Many groundwater recharge applications (Pyne 1995) can be easily identified however, for simplicity, only the basic applications are briefly described here (Anderbouhr & Perez-Paricio Table 10. Groundwater recharge uses of reclaimed water Table 10. Groundwater recharge uses of reclaimed water Potable quality if treated for domestic uses Modified from Brissaud et al. (2005). Modified from Brissaud et al. (2005). 1999). More than one of the possibilities mentioned can be true for the same...

Conclusions

A widespread decreasing trend of annual rainfall is observed over 97 of the whole area from 1921 to 2001. The spatial average of trend value and MAP highlight the fact that the rainfall trend worsens or decreases as the MAP increases. This phenomenon is extremely worrying because high MAP areas are wide Apennine portions of the widest drainage basins of the artificial lakes which guarantee a relevant percentage of water supplies. The spatial mean of trend ranges from 0.8 mm a in Apulia to 2.91...

Hydrochemical situation

A detailed overview on the spatial distribution of the fresh, brackish and saline groundwaters in the study area was obtained by an electrical resistivity and an air-borne electromagnetic survey. The 18-Vm line of the apparent resistivity of the Fig. 1. Map of northern Cholistan. The former bed of the Old Hakra River stretched from Fort Abbas to the west of Yazman (light grey). The fresh groundwater body has been shifted to the south due to the southwesterly flow direction of the groundwater...

Climatic characteristics and hydrological zones

The climate of Bulgaria is influenced by intensive atmospheric circulation from the Atlantic Ocean coast, continental Europe, the Aegean Sea and the Black Sea. The transfer of air masses is determined by the location of mountain chains in the territory of the country. In this respect, we should mention the Balkan range (Stara Planina mountain). The Balkan range is a barrier stopping the cold continental air masses and their propagation to the south. The Rila-Rhodopes massif, which is situated...

Rapticaputo1 B Helly2

1 University of Ferrara, Department of Earth Sciences, via Saragat 1, I-44100 Ferrara, Italy 2Institut Fernand-Courby (UMR 5649 du CNRS), Maison de I'Orient, 7 rue Raulin, F-69007 Lyon, France (e-mail Bruno.Helly mom.fr) Abstract The development of past civilizations and the foundation of towns have always been strictly linked to the availability of water. In this paper, we analyse more than 2000 years of evolution of Yperia Krini spring in Thessaly (Greece), by investigating possible...

Southern Italy

1 Department of Geotechnical Engineering - Federico II University, Piazzale Tecchio, 80-80125 Naples, Italy (e-mail daniela unina.it) 2Department of Inland and Marine Waters Protection - National Agency for Environmental Protection - APAT, Via Curtatone, 3-00185 Rome, Italy Abstract In order to estimate the influence of global climate change upon the hydrological regime, variations in the water budget prompted by precipitation and temperature changes were evaluated in the region of Campania...

A

Flow (arrows) and age distribution (broken lines) in an aquifer system with hydraulic conductivities and relative discharges (b, left and right), with (a) and without (c) groundwater abstraction from deep groundwater. Badain Jaran Shamo doubtless indicates that the lake waters represent uncovered groundwater, flowing through the lakes with low flow velocities. The present lakes in the Badain Jaran Shamo are residuals of more extended lakes in the historic and geological past. This is...

Groundwater recharge studies

Direct recharge of precipitation to the groundwater was studied during 1982-1984 and 1990-1992 in Jodhpur and Barmer districts of western Rajasthan using artificial 3H tracer as tritiated water (HTO) in the unsaturated zone (Shivanna et al. 1994). The results showed negligible groundwater recharge due to low rainfall (c. 200-300 mm) during the study periods. Since the artificial 3H tracer method determines recharge for the study period only, other methods such as environmental H, 36Cl and...

Wastewater reclamation and reuse

Percolation Tank Contents

Wastewater to be reclaimed can be generated by towns, industries and agriculture in the broad sense (i.e. cattle, forestry, aquiculture). Nevertheless, the most studied reclamation procedures are those with domestic or urban wastewater. In this case, the whole flow can be assimilated to domestic wastewater with respect to quality. As the EU Directive (91 271) on wastewater is theoretically implemented and the water generated has at least secondary treatment, wastewater-related impacts are...

Climate Change and Groundwater

National Geophysical Research Institute, Hyderabad, India 2008 Published by The Geological Society London The Geological Society of London (GSL) was founded in 1807. It is the oldest national geological society in the world and the largest in Europe. It was incorporated under Royal Charter in 1825 and is Registered Charity 210161. The Society is the UK national learned and professional society for geology with a worldwide Fellowship (FGS) of over 9000. The Society has the power to confer...

Discussion and results

The analysis performed herein stressed the following points. In the last 20 years precipitation in Campania has decreased by about 15 , although the reduction is not uniformly distributed throughout the region. The most severely affected areas are those at higher elevations. The substantial rainfall reduction is also evident from the trends at stations with rainfall data records from 1920. The number of rainy days has decreased roughly in the same way as the rate of precipitation. Consequently,...

Nonconventional water resources

If conventional resources are not usually available to cover excess or peak demands, non-conventional resources are employed. Among natural non-conventional water resources several possibilities are considered, but the usual ones are runoff water, natural brackish water, or desalinated seawater (Georgopoulou et al. 2001). Non-conventional water resources coming from the anthropic water cycle can also be used reclaimed wastewater will be considered (Asano & Levine 1998). In the Mediterranean...

Weather generation using LARSWG

At present, output from GCMs is of insufficient spatial and temporal resolution and reliability to be used directly in hydrologic models. A stochastic weather generator, however, can serve as a computationally inexpensive tool to produce multiple-year climate change scenarios at the daily time scale, which incorporates changes in both mean climate and climate variability (Semenov & Barrow 1997). Stochastic weather ensures that daily values of variables are realistic, consistent,...

Spectral analysis

The statistical technique used to find cyclic components in a time series is known as spectral analysis (Jenkins & Watts 1968 Yevjevich 1972 Bras & Rodriguez-Iturbe 1985). The signal component represents the structured part of the time series, made up of a small number of embedded Fig. 3. Representative time fluctuations of piezometric levels in the aquifer showing an increase of the irregular data (a-d). Levels are in metres above sea level (masl). Fig. 3. Representative time...

The case of Arad

The ruins of the ancient city of Arad are located on the southern semi-arid flanks of the Hebron Mountains. The average annual precipitation is about 200 mm, and there is no perennial water source in the region. The bedrock is composed of chalks of Eocene age (Avedat Group) overlain by loess of Late Pleistocene age (Issar & Bruins 1983). The chalks are mostly impervious, enabling the ancient and present inhabitants to dig cisterns for collecting rainwater flowing along the hillslopes. At the...

General characteristics of karst basins in Bulgaria

Due to the complex geological structure and variable relief in Bulgaria, numerous karst basins are formed. According to Boyadjiev (1964) there are more than 170 karst basins. Each of them is characterized according to its location, recharge and drainage conditions, with inherent regime and different vulnerability to human impacts. In Figure 1 the main outcropping karst collectors in the country are presented in a light grey colour. The dots in the figure locate the karst springs that will be...

Recharge studies in Jalore Rajasthan

Jalore district (Fig. 7) is situated adjacent to Barmer in the SW part of Rajasthan. An environmental isotope investigation was undertaken to understand the groundwater recharge mechanism at the study area (Fig. 8). The region receives a mean annual rainfall of c. 380 mm and is drained by Sukri river, a tributary of the Luni river system, which is ephemeral in nature. The younger alluvium which is present along the river course is unconso-lidated to semi-consolidated coarse to fine sand and...

Groundwater regime variability during the 19821994 drought period

The orographical, climatic and hydrological conditions influence groundwater occurrence, recharge intensity and regime. Our previous studies concerning the drought period in Bulgaria confirmed the sensitivity of karst springs and shallow groundwater to climate variability (Orehova & Bojilova 2001 Gerassimov et al. 2004a). For these studies the examples of springs and observational wells from the NHGN were used. The impact of the 1982-1994 drought period on groundwater was observed all over...

Adaptive methods for sustaining groundwater regime techniques adopted for artificial recharge

There are several important techniques (Athavale 2003 Sharma 1998) used for artificial recharge as described below. In the water spreading technique, surface water from perennial rivers streams is allowed to spread over a large area for a sufficiently long period so that it percolates to recharge the aquifers. With recharge basin and percolation tanks ponds, the concept is to maximize the contact area and time of surface water with soil so that surface water percolates down to recharge...

Groundwater availability and role of climate change

Main characteristics of selected aquifers The effects of recent climate variations on ground-water availability are evaluated considering five wide hydrogeological structures (HSs). In each HS the shallow or outcropping aquifer is considered three are porous, two are constituted by carbonate rocks, all are coastal aquifers. The Apulian Tableland HS, Tavoliere HS, consists of a shallow and large porous aquifer within a conglomerate sandy-silty succession, less than 60 m deep, with a clayey...

Groundwater recharge in a limestone belt

The limestone belt of Jodhpur-Nagaur district of Rajasthan extends from Bilara (SE of Jodhpur) to Fig. 13. Plot of 14C versus S18O for all samples collected from Barmer area. 72 Fig. 14. Sample location map in the limestone belt of Jodhpur-Nagaur district of Rajasthan. 72 Fig. 14. Sample location map in the limestone belt of Jodhpur-Nagaur district of Rajasthan. Phalodi (north of Jodhpur) shown in Figure 14. In the southern part of the study area a controlling fault has channelized the flow of...

GCM climate predictions

For many climate change studies, scenarios of climate change derived directly from global climate models (GCMs) are of insufficient spatial and temporal resolution. Spatial downscaling techniques (Hewitson & Crane 1996 Wilby & Wigley 1997) are used to derive finer resolution climate information from coarser resolution GCM output. The fundamental assumption behind all these methods is that the statistical relationships, linking observed time series to GCM variables, will remain valid under...

Environmental isotope studies along an identified palaeochannel

Interpretation of satellite imagery of the western parts of the Jaisalmer district (western Rajasthan) 'revealed' the buried course of a river orientated in the NE-SW direction (Kar 1986 Bakliwal & Grover 1988) (Fig. 2a). In spite of the highly arid condition of the region, comparatively good quality groundwater is available along the course below 30 m depth. The aquifer consists of medium to fine sand with very little clay. A few dug wells do not dry up even in summer and the tube wells do...

Hydrologic modelling

In order to model the interaction between groundwater and surface water in the valley, stage elevations are required as a function of time for each river node in the groundwater flow model for each climate scenario. The challenges in constructing the model were firstly, balancing the discharge volume in the valley, given that hydrometric stations are located outside the valley and have different periods of record secondly, modelling basin-scale discharge from downscaled GCM outputs and thirdly,...

Isotope investigation of dynamic changes due to longterm exploitation of groundwater

The Bhadka-Bheemda area in Barmer district is situated in the SW part of Rajasthan. At the request of the Groundwater Department, Rajasthan, environmental isotope investigations were undertaken in the 1980s to understand the recharge processes and dynamics of groundwater in these areas. A fresh look at the isotopic and chemical characteristics of groundwater was attempted subsequently in order to understand their response to large-scale exploitation of groundwater. Figure 10 shows the geology...

General characteristics of chosen karst springs

For the purposes of this study, some typical karstic springs were selected. The springs are chosen to represent the main hydrological zones of Bulgaria. The location of the springs is represented in Figure 1. The numbering of the chosen springs is in accordance with the system used in NHGN. This spring is one of the largest in Bulgaria. It drains the main part of the so-called Zlatna Panega karst basin (according to Antonov & Danchev 1980). The karst basin is built from Upper Jurassic...

Recharge modelling

There are many methods for recharge modelling (York et al. 2002), but the methodology presented here generates spatially distributed and temporally varying recharge zonation using a GIS linked to the one-dimensional software HELP (US EPA Hydrologie Evaluation of Landfill Performance model) (Schroeder et al. 1994). The program WHI UnSat Suite Plus (Waterloo Hydrogeologic Inc. 1999), which includes the sub-code Visual HELP, is used to estimate recharge to the Grand Forks aquifer. HELP is a...

Study of sustaining groundwater resources through percolation ponds during droughts in India

The vagaries of climate change are already being felt in many countries including India. Droughts and floods have perhaps become more common. The time series of rainfall data for c. 100 years in a semi-arid region of India shows (Fig. 1) that every fourth year is a drought year and every seventh year is a year of surplus water causing floods. Thus it becomes imperative for a country like India, situated in the monsoon region (other monsoon countries include Korea, Philippines, China, Japan,...