P

Pacala, Stephen 34

Pacific Northwest 51, 199-201

panther 162

Parmesan, Camille 153-154 particulates 27 Payne, Roger 173-174 PCC (precipitated calcium carbonate)

56-57 Peabody Energy 50

Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge 164 peat 97 pelicans 147 penguins 146

perfluorocarbons (PFCs) 21, 22 permafrost 36, 37, 146, 202, 205-207 Perth, Australia 231 Peterson, Bruce 181, 182 petroleum. See oil

Pew Center on Climate Change 61-62 PFCs. See perfluorocarbons pharmaceuticals 101-103, 108-109

physics of greenhouse gases 18-21

phytoplankton 34-36

Piacenza, Italy 177-178

Pied flycatcher 142

pikas 150-152, 151, 157

Pimm, Stuart 111-112

plantations 109

plant decomposition 11

Plantinga, Andrew 57-58

polar bears 143-144, 144, 157, 226, 228

polar regions 205

pollutants, global dimming by 27, 28 positive radiative forcing 16, 17 prairie pothole region 146-147, 158 precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC)

56-57 precipitation and agriculture 62, 68, 81-82 in Alaska 201 deforestation and 102-104 in Great Plains 195-196 land use change and 121 in midwestern U.S. 195 in Pacific Northwest 199-201 in southeastern U.S. 190 proactive adaptation 229 property insurance 139 prothonotary warblers 157 public lands 125-128

Qinghai-Xizang railroad 207

radiant heating 6

radiant power 6

radiative forcing 16, 17

Rahall, Nick 168

Rahmstorf, Stefan 182

rainfall. See precipitation rain forest 102-104, 108, 110

Rappahannock River Valley National

Wildlife Refuge 164 Raupach, Michael 117 Ray, Chris 150, 152 reactive adaptation 229 reduced tillage 78. See also conservation tillage red-winged blackbirds 157 redwoods 95

reflection, of solar radiation 6-9, 27, 120

reforestation 91, 93, 97-98 refuges (wildlife) 158-166 regulation of agricultural industry

69-70 reindeer 203 renewable energy 75 reproduction traits of plants 67 reservoirs. See carbon sinks respiration 11, 34-35 Retallack, Simon 98 Reynolds, Anna 180 Rhode Island National Wildlife Refuge

Complex 164 rice cultivation 20 Rio Summit (1992) 236c Roberts, Kerry 231 robins 153, 156 Robock, Alan 118 rockslides 207

Rocky Mountain National Park 150 roofs, for and urban heat mitigation 135, 136

Root, Terry 112, 142, 143, 158 Rosenbaum, Barry 151 Rudd, Kevin 51 ruminants 19, 69 runoff 195 Russia 205-206

Safe Climate Act of 2007 167-168 Sahel 28

San Luis National Wildlife Refuge 165 Saxton, James 168 Schimel, David 54, 68 Schneider, Steve 142-143 Schneider, Uwe 40 Schwarzenegger, Arnold 218 seafloor sediments 53, 55 sea-level rise

2003 studies 238c and Antarctic ice sheet loss 205 in coastal areas 123, 129-133, 130 cultural losses from 138-139 in northeastern U.S. 188 in Oceania 179-180 in Pacific Northwest 200-201 in southeastern U.S. 190, 192 underestimation of 118 seasonal events, timing of 152-158 sea turtle 152

sedimentary basins 215-216 sediments 31-32 Sedum spurium 136 seeds 67, 68 selective logging 109 semiconductor industry 24 sensible heat 120

September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks 27 sequestration. See carbon sequestration serpentinite 55

severe weather. See extreme weather events sewage treatment 20 sheep 147

Shrestha, Surendra 174 sinks. See carbon sinks Slagle, Angela 223 slash-and-burn agriculture 109 Sleipner Gas Field 215 smelting 24 snowmelt 197 sockeye salmon 156 soil in boreal forest 96, 97, 109 as carbon sink 36-37, 75 as carbon source 11, 93 global warming's effect on 54, 61

and NO 20

soil erosion 66 soil moisture 158 solar radiation 3, 5-10 songbirds 149 sooty shearwaters 156 South Africa 139 South America 184, 185 southeastern United States 58, 189-192, 191

species conservation 57-58

Sperber, Georg 178

spruce trees 178

Statoil 215

Stephenson, Jack 224

Stern, Sir Nicholas 238c

storm surges 192, 202

stratosphere 25

sub-Saharan Africa 86

subsistence livelihoods 202-203

subtropics 81-82

sulfur dioxide (SO2) 24

sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) 21, 22, 24

Sunbelt. See southeastern United States surface temperatures 4

swamp gas 19 Swetham, Tom 128 Swiss Re 139-140

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