Preface viii

Acknowledgments xii

Introduction xiv

The Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming 1

Discovery of the Greenhouse Effect 1 Fourier, Arrhenius, and Callendar: Pioneers of

Global Warming 3

The Greenhouse Effect 5

Greenhouse Gases 18

Global Warming Potential 21

The Role of Ozone 25

Global Dimming 27

Carbon Sequestration 30

The Earth's Carbon Cycle 30

Sinks and Sources 32

Types of Carbon Sequestration 39

The Carbon Conundrum 54

Modeling Carbon Emissions in the United States 58

Agriculture and Greenhouse Gases 60

The Effects of Global Warming on Agriculture 60

The Response of Agriculture to Climate Change 61 Acres of Opportunity—Greenhouse Gas Mitigation and Biofuels 74

Agriculture and Food Supply 80

4 Deforestation and Greenhouse Gases 87

Forests' Role in Climate Change 87

Carbon Sinks 94

Impacts of Deforestation 98

Rain Forest Facts 102

Climate Change Impacts 105

After Deforestation and the Future 109

Anthropogenic Causes and Effects 113

Carbon Footprints 114

Calculating Your Carbon Footprint 114

Land Use Change 119

Public Lands 123

Cities at Risk 128

Areas Most at Risk 133

Climate Solutions for Cities 137

Cultural Losses 138

Economic Impacts 139

6 The Fate of Natural Refuges 141

Climate Change Impacts to Nature and Wildlife 141

The Endangered Species Act 145

Working Together to Protect Wildlife 148

The Timing of Seasonal Events 152 The Myths and Realities About the Endangered Species Act 154

Wildlife in Peril 156

Refuges at Risk 158

The Role of Refuges 159

Laws in Force to Help Wildlife 166

Global Warming around the World 171

Europe, Russia, and Asia 172

Eyewitness Accounts 177

Africa and Oceania 179

The Arctic and Antarctica 181

South, Central, and North America 184

Global Warming Effects in the United States 186

8 Mitigation and Adaptation to Climate Change 204

Impacts of Global Warming 204

Mitigation Strategies—Carbon Capture and Storage 208 Mitigation—One Step at a Time: Heading in the Right

Direction 224

Adaptation Strategies 224

Chronology 234

Appendix: The Top 20 Carbon Dioxide Emitters 240

Glossary 242

Further Resources 248

Index 261

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