A

Academies of the Group of 8

Industrialized Countries 170 Adams, R. M. 66 adaptation 61, 68, 224-233, 227 adaptive capacity 226 Adélie penguins 146 aerobic bacteria 55 afforestation 91 Africa 28, 86, 179-181 agricultural sequestration 43-45, 45 agriculture air pollution and 82 average temperature increase and 81 biofuel production 79-80 climate change response 61-86 deforestation and 88, 90 extreme events and 81 and food supply 80-86 global warming's effects on 60-61,

66-74 Great Plains 195 and greenhouse gases 60-86 and greenhouse gas mitigation 74-79,

76, 77 midwestern U.S. 194 Pacific Northwest 199 precipitation changes 81-82 and rising CO2 concentrations 82-83,

85-86 2

southeastern U.S. 190-191 total greenhouse gas emissions 73-74 AgSTAR program 72-73 airlines 225 air pollution 58-59, 82 air quality regulations 69 Alaska 159-160, 165-166, 201-203, 206 albedo 6, 15-16 alligators 157 alluvial fans 55 alpine ecosystems 198 alpine wildlife 150-151

Amazon region 68, 104, 107-108, 122 American alligators 157 American lobsters 157 American pikas 157 American robins 153, 156 ammonium 72 anaerobic decomposition 19 anaerobic digester systems 70-71 anaerobic lagoons 70 Andersons Marathon Ethanol LLC 53 Andres, Robert 59 Angstrom, Knut 2

Antarctica 26, 146, 182-184, 204-205 Antarctic Ice Sheet 235c, 237c Antarctic ice shelves 182-183 anthropogenic causes/effects of greenhouse gases 113-140 Arrhenius's studies 3-4 Callendar's studies 4 carbon footprint 114-119, 119 cities at risk 128-138 and climate change 18 cultural losses 138-139 early greenhouse effect studies 2 economic impacts 139-140 land-use change 119-122 public lands 125-128 anthropogenic greenhouse warming. See enhanced greenhouse effect Arctic 143-144, 146, 148, 181-182 Arctic sea ice melt 118, 202, 203 Arrhenius, Svante 2-4, 234c Asia 131, 173-176 atmosphere 5, 9, 32

atmospheric lifetime of greenhouse gases 22

Australia 51, 180, 230-231

automobiles 38

Aziende Agricole Miranti 177

bacteria 20, 35, 69, 70 Baker, B. B. 66 bald eagles 164 Bangladesh 132 bark beetle 106, 178

barn swallow 153 basalt 49, 51, 56, 221 Bass, Brad 136 Bavaria, Germany 178 bees 177

Beever, Erik 151-152 Belize Barrier Reef 139 Beshear, Steve 50-51 Bhutan 174 bicarbonates 55 bighorn sheep 147 bio-bubble 69

biodiversity 89, 101-102, 108, 110-112

biofuels 79-80

biogas 71-72

biomass 35, 43, 55

biome 125

biosphere 31, 54

birds 153, 163, 164

black guillemots 156

Black Sunday 234c bleaching (coral) 123, 157

Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study 96

boreal forest 36-37, 96-97, 109, 122

boron 86

Boston, Massachusetts 138 Bourdon, R. M. 66 Bowersox, Rick 50 Brazil 63

Brennan, Jean 167 Buddemieir, Robert 132 building heating/cooling 38 Burgelt, Jeff 167 Bush, George W. 49, 232, 238c butterflies 163

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