The Complete Grape Growing System

The Complete Grape Growing System

The Complete Grape Growing System developed by Danie Wium is an excellent guide with comprehensive details to assist the enthusiast grape grower in achieving a successful outcome for years. It's designed for the absolute newbie but also contains information even the most experienced grape grower can use to boost their own grape farm. This book is so well written that even a person with no knowledge at all about growing grapes can easily understand and follow the directions given. The drawings and photographs are excellent and make this a very user friendly book indeed. The written work is very easy to understand and is not complicated by a lot of scientific jargon. Danie is a professional grape grower and has put together a course to help people grow grapes at home. His course also includes a video series that shows professional tips all recorded on his own farm. I recommend anyone considering growing their own grapes to buy this e-book. Continue reading...

The Complete Grape Growing System Summary


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The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation

These two flows unite to form the Gulf Stream, which passes along the east coast of North America. The Gulf Stream influences the climate of the east coast of North America. For example, it keeps the waters of southeast Florida considerably warmer than the rest of the North America in the winter, while in the summer it maintains warmer temperatures in Nantucket and Martha's Vineyard than are found slightly more inland, in Massachusetts Bay. Southeast of Newfoundland, Canada, the Gulf Stream turns easterly across the North Atlantic, where it breaks into numerous branches.

Agriculture and forestry

Changes in crop phenology provide important evidence of responses to recent regional climate change (Table 1.10). Such changes are apparent in perennial crops, such as fruit trees and wine-making varieties of grapes, which are less dependent on yearly management decisions by farmers than annual crops and are also often easier to observe. Phenological changes are often observed in tandem with changes in management practices by farmers. A study in Germany (Menzel et al., 2006c) has revealed that between 1951 and 2004 the advance for agricultural crops (2.1 days decade) has been significantly less marked than for wild plants or fruit trees (4.4 to 7.1 days decade). All the reported studies concern Europe, where recent warming has clearly advanced a significant part of the agricultural calendar.

Box 12 Wine and recent warming

Wine-grapes are known to be highly sensitive to climatic conditions, especially temperature (e.g., viticulture was thriving in England during the last medieval warm period). They have been used as an indicator of observed changes in agriculture related to warming trends, particularly in Europe and in some areas of North America. In Alsace, France, the number of days with a mean daily temperature above 10 C (favourable for vine activity) has increased from 170 around 1970 to 210 at the end of the 20th century (Duchene and Schneider, 2005). An increase associated with a lower year-to-year variability in the last 15 years of the heliothermal index of Huglin (Seguin et al., 2004) has been observed for all the wine-producing areas of France, documenting favourable conditions for wine, in terms of both quality and stability. Similar trends in the average growing-season temperatures (April-October for the Northern Hemisphere) have been observed at the main sites of viticultural production in...

Agriculture and Forestry in Europe

Five major agricultural regions can be discerned in Europe as described by Kostrowicki (1991). These regions are determined by both environmental and socioeconomic factors. Zone I is the northern region, where agriculture is mainly market oriented, with extensive cattle breeding. Zone II includes the Atlantic and Central Continental regions that are characterised mainly by intensive and market-oriented agriculture. Zone III, including the Mediterranean countries, shows diverse patterns of agriculture, ranging from a market-oriented type with mainly typical crop cultivation (e.g. fruit trees, olive and grapes) to considerable areas of traditional type. Zone IV is the eastern region, where traditional agriculture is still predominant, but the proportion of marked-oriented and socialised agriculture has been rapidly changing. Zone V is the European part of the former USSR, which was dominated by large-scale socialised agriculture, but is now slowly adapting to a more quality oriented...

Rising Atmospheric Concentrations of C02

When looking strictly at North America, research by the IPCC in their 2007 report concluded Moderate climate change will probably increase the production of 'rain fed' agriculture. Estimates of the increases, however, have been lowered from what they once were. Over the next few decades, agricultural yields are expected to increase by 5 to 20 percent. Food production is expected to benefit some areas of the continent but decrease in others. The U.S. Great Plains Canadian prairies regions are expected to be some of the most vulnerable to climate change. They have also determined that the crops grown closest to climate thresholds (regions of abrupt change) such as California's wine grapes will suffer the most serious decreases in yields and quality. Crop production in the Southern Plains, Appalachia, the Corn Belt, and in the Delta States are expected to have a decrease in productivity of 16 to 21 percent. On the other hand, fruit crops in northern regions such as the Great Lakes and...

Patterns Of Landscape Structure And Insect Biodiversity

Bridge gaps in the life cycles of entomophagous insects and crop pests (Altieri and Whitcomb, 1979). A classic case is that of the egg parasitoid wasp, Anagrus epos, whose effectiveness in regulating the grape leafhopper, Erythroneura elegantula, was increased greatly in vineyards near areas invaded by wild blackberry (Rubus sp.). This plant supports an alternative leafhopper (Dikrella cruentata) which breeds in its leaves in winter (Doutt and Nakata, 1973). Recent studies show that French prune orchards adjacent to vineyards provide overwintering refuges for Anagrus and early benefits of parasitism are promoted in vineyards with prune trees planted upwind from the vineyard.

Box 175 Gender aspects of vulnerability and adaptive capacity

Among wine producers in British Columbia, Canada, Belliveau et al. (2006) demonstrate how adaptations to changing economic conditions can increase vulnerability to climate-related risks. Following the North American Free Trade Agreement, grape producers replaced low quality grape varieties with tender varieties to compete with higher-quality foreign imports, many of which have lower costs of production. This change enhanced the wine industry's domestic and international competitiveness, thereby reducing market risks, but simultaneously increased its susceptibility to winter injury. Thus the initial adaptation of switching varieties to increase economic competitiveness changed the nature of the system to make it more vulnerable to climatic stresses, to which it was previously less sensitive. To minimise frost risks, producers use overhead irrigation to wet the berries. The extra water from irrigation, however, can dilute the flavour in the grapes, reducing quality and decreasing market...

Residues generation and key reasons for coproduct recovery

The waste portion in the processing of some fruits and vegetables can be as large as 70 of the harvested material, as is the case of artichokes, passion fruits and some lettuce cultivars. In leaf vegetables (lettuce, spinach, Swiss chard, etc.) the external leaves are often removed as they are too hard and green and often have some defects (bruises, cuts, etc.). In other products, the edible portion is the flower (or the flower heart, as in the case of artichokes) and in this case the leaves, stems and some parts of the flower (the external and harder bracts) are discarded. In celery only the stems, especially the whiter ones, are selected, and the leaves and greener and thinner stems constitute waste product. In onions, the residues are external membranes and sometimes scales. The peels are frequently wastes, as in the case of most fruits, potatoes, tomatoes, etc. In other products the wastes are the fruit husks (banana, citrus, pomegranate, etc.) and shells (pistachio, almonds,...

Cropping systems to mediate biologically based soil suppressiveness

Although extended cultivation of apple selected for a microbial community lacking apparent inhibitory activity towards soil-borne fungal pathogens (Mazzola, 1999), this does not appear to be a universal response in perennial plant production systems. Long-term grapevine monoculture enriched the soil with fluorescent pseudomonad genotypes that produce 2,4-DAPG and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) (Svercel et al., 2009), bacterial characteristics which have been repeatedly associated with disease suppressive soils (Haas and D fago, 2005). While the duration of grapevine monoculture examined in this study was excessive, with certain sites planted since the first millennium without interruption, this example does demonstrate again the capacity of crop monoculture to selectively enhance microbial communities functional in the development of disease suppressive soils.

Estimation of present environmental and habitat differences between areas

Iberian plants and insects (e.g., Lobo et al. 2001, Lobo and Martin-Piera 2002, or Hortal et al. 2004). These analyses usually include geomorphologic and structural variables, such as altitudes, slopes, aspects, etc. However, we use such information to develop friction surfaces and connectivity analyses (see below). Thus, we have excluded them from the calculation of the environmental matrix, in order to avoid self-replication and to separate more clearly both sources of faunistic variability. *The second one, diuic, accounts for the differences in the land use land cover of each area, that is, for differences in habitat structure among areas. To develop this matrix, the original CORINE Land Use Land Cover map (EEA 2000) were reclassified into 13 categories (urban areas, dry cultures, irrigated cultures, patchy cultures, olive, vineyard and fruit plantations, anthropogenic pastures, natural pastures, broadleaf forests, conifer forests, mixed forests, shrubland, bare rock and land...

Early Agriculture And Civilization

Technological and agricultural innovations continued. The wheel, invented nearly 6,400 years ago in the region west of the Black Sea, spread through all of Eurasia by 5,000 years ago. By 5,500 years ago, people had learned how to plant cuttings or seeds and create orchards of olives, figs, dates, and grapes. Later, using the more demanding technique of grafting, they planted orchards of apples, pears, cherries, and plums. Former weeds like oats, turnips, radishes, lettuce, beets, and leaks were domesticated and cultivated. By 2,000 years ago, virtually every major food crop we know today was under cultivation somewhere in the world.

Reference Soil Solarization

Proc West Soc Weed Sci 36 174-177 Bello A, Lopez-Perez JA, Diaz-Viruliche L, Tello J (2001) Alternatives to methyl bromide for soil fumigation in Spain. In Labrada R, Fornasari L (eds) Global report on validated alternatives to the use of methyl bromide for soil fumigation. FAO-UNEP Paper 166, Roma, Italy, pp 33-46 Bello A, Arias M, Lopez-Perez JA, Garcia-Alvarez A, Fresno J, Escuer M, Arcos SC, Lacasa A, Sanz R, Gomez P, Diez-Rojo M, Piedra Buena A, Goitia C, Horra JL de la, Martinez C (2004) Biofumigation, fallow, and nematode management in vineyard replant. Nematropica 34 53-64 Bendavid-Val R, Rabinowitch HD, Katan J, Kapulnik Y (1997) Variability of VA-mycorrhizal fungi following soil solarisation and fumigation. Plant Soil 195 185-193. doi 10.1023 A 1004200316520 Benlioglu S, Boz , Yildiz A, Kakavalci G, Benlioglu K (2005) Alternative soil solarization treatments for the control of soil-borne diseases and weeds of strawberry in the Western Anatolia of Turkey. J Phytopathol 153...

Lipochitooligosaccharides and Controls on Crop Production

Enhancement of plant photosynthesis due to B. japonicum soybean associations has been reported. Imsande (1989a,b) reported increased net photosynthesis and grain yield in soybean inoculated with B. japonicum as compared with plants not inoculated but adequately supplemented with N fertilizer. Thus it seems probable that rhizobial associations enhance photosynthesis and that this might be mediated by signal molecules. To test the hypothesis that LCO is responsible for the increased photosynthesis a series of experiments were conducted in the greenhouse and in the field. Spray application of LCO at submicromolar concentrations enhanced the photosynthetic rates of soybean, maize, rice, bean, canola, apple and grapes. On average there was a 10-20 increase in the photosynthetic rate and this was concomitant with an increase in stomatal conductivity and constant or decreased leaf internal CO2 concentration. Under field conditions, spray application of LCO at concentrations of 106, 10 8 and...

The Mesopotamians Southwest Asia 3700 bce to 1600 bce

Settlement in the Tigris-Euphrates valley dates back to at least 6000 bce. Like the Egyptian civilizations later, first settlers in Mesopotamia developed a hunting economy, supplemented by harvesting of wild grain.49 Indeed, the culinary achievements of the Mesopotamians and the Egyptians are very similar. Cheese, butter, and buttermilk enriched the palate of the upper classes in both societies. The great gardens of Babylonia, some of them raised on terraces, harbored many of the vegetables that were later to become staples of the Western kitchen, such as carrots and fennel. Though quantities of Mesopotamia's river fish were not equal to those of Egypt, there were plenty of birds to be caught in the marshes between the rivers. Long-tailed sheep grazed in the fertile marshes between the rivers of Babylon. Grapevines grew abundantly, but the consumption of wine was usually limited to the rich.50

Examples of phytochemical extracts from plant food wastes

From onion residues, flavonol (quercetin) extracts can be produced although these are not yet on the market (Erlund, 2004). Grapes are also a source for stilbenoids (resveratrol and piecatannol). Their content in grapes is very small but can be concentrated in the extracts. Several strategies can be used to increase the resveratrol content of grapes before extract production (Cantos et al., 2001). Glucosinolate extracts could also be prepared from Brassicaceae wastes these are not yet available in the market. A combination of glucosinolates with flavonols and hydroxycinnamates could be a reasonable approach for extract preparation from broccoli wastes (Tom s-Barber n et al., 2005).

Augmentation Of Beneficials

Altieri (1983) divided the crop landscape into two groups (1) heterogeneous (crop, meadow, woodland, windbreak, etc.) and (2) homogeneous (continuous crop cultures). The latter could be further subdivided into extensive plantings of annual monocultures, (e.g., small grains), semiperennials (e.g., alfalfa), perennials (e.g., grapes), or mixtures of these in small to moderate size.

The Okanagan Valley Canada

Tteir efforts to manage climate-related risks, which to them are the ones they can readily adapt to, include measures such as fruit thinning or 'dropping crop' in cold and wet seasons to address poor weather for the grapes, and investing in risk-reducing technologies such as wind machines. By reducing the cropload, more energy is available to achieve a higher quality of grapes. Some of their anticipatory strategies are site selection and changing topography, avoiding or removing frost pockets in the vineyard, choosing to plant varieties that mature earlier in the season, or having vineyards in different locations to have a greater chance that one region will sufficiently mature the grapes.

Natural dyes from food processing wastes representative examples

Table 19.7 Berries and grapes results of screening for natural dyes, selected colour and fastness properties and assessment of properties as pass fail Table 19.7 Berries and grapes results of screening for natural dyes, selected colour and fastness properties and assessment of properties as pass fail Grapes The equivalent concentration ceq - calculated as the mass (in g) of Reactive Red 4 dye per 1 litre of extract - obtained from different materials is given in Table 19.10. Depending on the material used for extraction the maximum absorbance obtained during extraction of the different samples ranges from 0.7 (grapes) to 28.1 (rhubarb), which corresponds to a dyestuff concentration ceq of 0.62-2.9 g L (calculated as commercial reactive dye). The theoretical equivalence between 1 kg of plant material and the commercial reactive dye Cibacron Brillant Red 3B-A is also shown in Table 19.10. Provided a comparable degree of dyestuff fixation is achieved on the textile substrate, equivalence...

Impacts of Climate Change in Japan

Climate Change Japan

The observed and projected impacts of climate change are described for several sectors The impacts on food (agriculture, livestock and fisheries) contain changes in the rice production, Ukikawa symptoms (detached fruit skin and flesh) in mandarin and grapes due to high temperature and delayed seaweed harvests due to a later cooling down of water temperatures in autumn. It is expected that poor ripening of rice increases, a shift northward will take place for apple cultivation lands (Fig. 1.38), a northward shift of damage and pest, water shortages during rice planting, a decreased habitat for salmon and northward shift for herring, slower growth of the Pacific saury (Fig. 1.39) and a northward shift of suitable aqua-farming of Blowfish (Torafugu).

Sierra de las Minas Guatemala

Besides its robust population of diverse flora and fauna, the Sierra de las Minas plays an important role in providing fresh, clean water to the many farms and villages in the Polochic and Motagua valleys below. More than 63 permanent rivers drain the reserve, making it the country's biggest single water resource. Local people depend on these small rivers for their agricultural crops (e.g., melon, tobacco, grapes, citric fruits, tomatoes). Bigger industries, such as soft drinks, fertiliser and paper-recycling plants, and hydroelectricity all rely on water

Uses of plant food residues as sources for phytochemical extracts

Examples of the actual use of wastes from fruit processing industries to produce extracts that are available in the market include orange, grape, apple and olive residues. The residues from orange-juice extraction industries (orange albedo and flavedo, and fruit segments) have already been exploited for many years for the extraction of flavanones (hesperidin and related compounds) and pectin. Grape wastes from the wine-making industries (grape pomace and seeds) are also used industrially for the extraction of anthocyanin pigments, procyanidins and polyphenol extracts (Gabrielska et al., 1997 Lu and Foo, 1999). From the olive-oil extraction industries the residues can also be used for extraction of hydroxytyrosol (Visioli et al., 1999), the main phenolic antioxidant in olive oil, an efficient process for this purpose, has been patented and exploited industrially (Fernandez-Bolanos et al., 2002). From the cider industries, the apple pomaces are already used for extraction of pectins...

Impact of Climate on Agriculture and Forestry in Europe

In the Mediterranean countries cereal yields are limited by water availability, heat stress and short duration of the grain filling period. Cereals are therefore less important in this region. Permanent crops (olive, grapevine, fruit trees, etc.) are important here. These crops are affected by extreme weather events (such as hail and storms) which can reduce or completely destroy yield. Irrigation is important for crop production in many Mediterranean countries due to high evapotranspiration and restricted rainfall.

Glaciated Coasts

When glaciers move across the land surface, they can erode bedrock by a combination of grinding and abrasion, plucking material away from the bedrock, and ice wedging where water penetrates cracks, expands as it freezes, and pushes pieces of bedrock away from its base. The material removed from the bedrock and overburden is then transported with the glacier to its end point, often at the coast, where it may be deposited as a pile of gravel, sand, and boulders known as a glacial moraine. some glacial moraines are relatively small and outline places where individual glaciers flowed out of valleys and ended at the sea. These form where the glaciers were relatively small and were confined to valleys. other glacial moraines are huge, and mark places where continental ice sheets made their farthest movement southward, depositing vast piles of sand and gravel at their terminus. on the eastern seaboard of the united states, New York's Long island and Massachusetts's Cape Cod, martha's...


Plowing in conventional agriculture incorporates crop residues into the soil profile to produce homogeneous soils that favor the bacteria, protozoa, and bac-tivorous nematode portions of the underground food web in contrast, minimal tillage leaves organic residues on the surface and a rich organic layer near the surface, enhancing the fungal, Collembola, and earthworm portions of the underground food web (Hendrix et al., 1986 Lee and Pankhurst, 1992). The protozoan communities differ between the two systems in the greater prominence of r-selected colpodid ciliates (reflecting less species diversity) in conventional fields (Foissner, 1992 Bamforth, unpublished data). The biomass of amoebae and flagellates, however, is greater in the surface layer of ecofarmed systems (DeRuiter et al., 1993) and is associated with increased nitrogen mineralization (DeRuiter et al., 1993). Using testacea as bioindicators, Wodarz et al. (1992) found organically farmed field and vineyard soils showed...


Amylases break down starches and lipases break down lipids and fats. Exogenous enzymes are used to break down elements of plant tissues and cell-wall-degrading enzymes are present in fruits and vegetables. Pectic enzymes may be used to increase the efficiency of juice and colour extraction from grapes, citrus fruits and apples. Suspension of intact cells may be achieved with enzymes that promote cell separation without affecting the cell wall. Complete liquefaction of fruit tissues can be brought about by pectic and cellulolytic enzymes (Whittaker et al., 2002). Cellulase and proteinases have been used to hydrolyse the plant cell wall and allow extraction of proteins. Fermentation may be used to modify structure for a subsequent process such as extraction (Aguilera and Stanley, 1990).

Ex Situ Conservation

Ex situ conservation activities have been undertaken since 1964. They are still in progress within the framework of NPGRRP. Collection by sampling maximum variations and determination of the interspecific, agroecological and phytogeographical distribution of plant species are the first steps of the project. Data of former surveys and expeditions are compiled, and priorities of locations and plant species are considered to eliminate duplicate efforts, during planning of the collection missions. The missions each year are programmed to collect the existing plant genetic resources for eight plant groups (cereals, forage, food legumes, vegetables, industrial crops, ornamental, medicinal and aromatic plants, fruit and grapes) and endemic plant species. The collections in each plant group consist of landraces, wild relatives and other wild plant species considered to be in the plant group. The endemics are collected specifically, separately from the plant groups.


Massachusetts has a humid, continental climate, with long, hot summers and cold winters. New England weather and climate are influenced by latitude (warm, moist air from the south and cold, dry air to the north), coastal orientation (position within the zone of the westerlies), and elevation changes. The sea breeze circulation, particularly along the east coast, tends to mitigate frequencies and intensities of thunderstorms in the coastal zone, while bringing relief in the form of mild temperatures in the peak summer heat. In winter, these waters remain warm relative to land. Cape Cod and the islands of Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket experience cooler summers and warmer winters because of the moderating effects of the Atlantic Ocean. Annual average precipitation is 40-46 in (16-18 cm.) per year. Massachusetts already experiences the effects of higher temperatures and rising sea levels with eroding coastlines. On average, 65 acres of land are submerged each year due to a combination...

Grape and wine

The majority of the solid wastes are produced during the first steps of the processing of the grapes. Grapes are harvested and crushed, resulting in mash and stems (2-8 of processed material). The mash is then pressed and separated into juice and pomace (10-20 ). Stems and pomace are the principal by-products of wine production and are the source of valuable components (ethanol (see Section 16.5.4), tartrate, citric acid (see Section 16.5.5), hydrocolloids (see Section 16.4), dietary fibres (see Section 16.3.1)) (Schieber et al., 2001). High-value antioxidants can be extracted from stems - such as resveratrol used in nutraceuticals, cosmetics or biopharmaceuti-cals. Pomace also contains other antioxidants (procyanidins, polyphenol extracts) and pigments (anthocyanin) (Tomas-Barberan et al., 2004) and can be used for production of grape seed oil.

Crop protection

Apple, grapevine, citrus, plum, pear, cherry, melon, olive, strawberry, watermelon tte necessary agrometeorological data are collected by ground stations scattered on the two countries, spatialised and integrated with rainfall data collected by the meteorological radar of Fossalon di Grado (Italy), tte territorial information obtained is then used by the system to feed two agrometeorological models the first for the estimation of leaf wetness and the second for the simulation of grapevine downy mildew, tte main output is represented by daily maps containing operational indications about the current meteorological situation, the presence and the stage of downy mildew development and the evaluation of the potential risk (Fig. 26.5). In the current system great attention is paid to grapevine downy mildew, nevertheless its modular structure allows to consider other biological processes thanks to new algorithms and subroutines.


The scope and magnitude of irrigation-related salinization problems is well documented in Ghassemi et al.5 An informative example is the Murray-Darling river basin located in southeastern Australia. This semiarid basin covers about one-seventh of Australia and contains some of the continent's most productive agricultural land. It is distinguished by very low runoff (only one percent of precipitation) and high evapotranspiration. Salinization problems are important throughout the basin but have received particular attention in the lower Murrumbidgee River watershed, a 40,000 ha region planted predominantly in irrigated paddy rice, wine grapes, citrus, and dryland pasture. It is estimated that approximately 25 of cropland in the lower Murrumbidgee is slightly salinized while up to 15 is severely salinized. Moreover, the amount of affected land is increasing each year. In the Murrumbidgee watershed, artificial drainage systems are generally installed in fields planted to high value crops...


With only small negative effects on yield (FAO, 2002). This strategy may lead to greater economic gains than that by maximising yields. In general, deficit irrigation has been more successfully applied to crops less sensitive to water deficits (such as cotton, maize, groundnut, grapevine, peach or pears) than to sensitive crops like potato (Kirda et al., 1999). In the partial rootzone drying approach, each side of the root system is irrigated during alternate periods. The plant water status is maintained by the wet part of the root system and stomatal closure is promoted by the dehydrating roots of the other half of the root system (Davies et al., 2000), using less water per plant. This type of deficit irrigation will be efficient in canopies where stomatal control over shoot water status through transpiration is important (Kang & Zhang, 2004). This is the case in crops with isohydric behaviour, where stomata do respond to root signalling, most likely through ABA synthesised in the...


With a predicted decrease in Cascade snow pack, access to fresh water will diminish and affect crops, forests, and potable water supplies, and possibly cause decreased hydroelectric output. Rising sea levels will change the coastline, including beach erosion and land loss, making infrastructure (roads and buildings) vulnerable with the possible displacement of populations. The impact of climate change on agriculture will be mixed some crops, like potatoes and wine grapes, could be negatively impacted by rising temperatures, decreasing yields. By comparison, the orchard crops will mature more quickly at higher temperatures, with increased quality and market share value. Some areas may need to change crops for those with higher drought resistance and adaptability to a warmer climate.

Susceptible host

Pathogen range shifts may occur as climatic conditions change to allow infection and overwintering or oversummering in new areas. The effects of climatic shifts may interact with other phenomena, such as the introduction of new pathogen species or pathogen genotypes. For example, overwintering of the potato late blight pathogen is facilitated by the presence of different mating types, which allows sexual production of a much hardier oospore and the potential for adaptation through production of new genotypes (Widmark et al., 2007). The combination of milder winters and introduction of new mating types may greatly increase problems with such pathogens. Range shifts and pathogen introductions will also result in new encounters between pathogen species, with the potential for hybridization to produce new pathogens (Brasier, 2001). Likewise, the introduction or range shift of new vector species may make diseases much more important, such as in the case of the movement of the glassy-winged...


Natural resources include oil, natural gas, grain, cotton, rice, tobacco, fruit, vegetables, grapes, and livestock. Agriculture in arid and semi-arid regions requiring irrigation accounts for approximately 80 percent of production. Exploitation of Azeri oil, dumping of toxic industrial waste, and agricultural practices


The LARGEST among the nations of Western Europe, France boasts a long history of world leadership in the arts, sciences, and industrialization. As the first decade of the 21st century nears its end, France remains an influential nation with a Gross Domestic Product of 2,124 billion, and the sixth largest economy in the world. The nation's moderate climate and its ample agricultural land have made it the European Union's largest agricultural producer, ranking second only to the United States in the world market. Its varied coastlines, mountain ranges, vineyards, and cities rich in culture and tradition make France one of the most popular tourist sites in the world. Like other wealthy Western nations, France has been confronted with the problems attending urbanization, industrialization, and the loss of open space. In 1971, France Of even greater concern are the effects upon France's renowned wine industry, which contributes 13 billion to the nation's economy and is intricately linked...

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