And provinces per one hectare and provinces per one hectare of arable landof arable land

Northern

Kaluga

0.33

Arkhangelsk

1.72

Tula

0.12

Vologda

2.55

Ryazan

0.26

Karelia

1.03

Orel

0.17

Northwestern

Central Black Earth

Petersburg

1.15

Tambov

0.13

Novgorod

1.13

Kursk

0.11

Pskov

0.73

Voronez

0.15

Central

Volga

Smolensk

0.59

Pensa

0.19

Moscow

0.67

Simbirsk

0.21

Vladimir

0.49

Saratov

0.19

Nizhy Novgorod

0.23

Urals

Kostroma

0.60

Vyatka

0.24

Yaroslavl

0.87

Perm

0.73

Tver

0.89

Source: calculated on the basis of work carried out by Lubny-Gertsik (1925).

Source: calculated on the basis of work carried out by Lubny-Gertsik (1925).

ent value. The quality and quantity of feed was only sufficient to keep cattle more or less alive by the end of winter, even in an average year. In a bad year it was not uncommon for the straw from roofs to be fed the cattle and for more than a third of the cattle of the village to be slaughtered or sold due to the lack of adequate means to maintain them (Dobb, 1966).

Keeping one head of cattle in a stall required 12.8 centners of feed units (about 32 centners of hay if all feedstuffs are converted to hay equivalents of average quality) for 200 days of winter and 10.2 centners of feed units (about 25.5 centners of hay) for 160 days of cold season in steppe regions. However, the actual reserve was 3.2 to 6.5 centners of feed units (8 to 16 centners of hay) in Northern and Central regions, and less than 3.2 centners of feed units (less than 8 centners of hay) in the Central Black Earth region. To keep one head per day in a stall, about 6.5 kilograms of feed units (i.e., a little less than the current norm for feeding, which is 8 kg of feed units) were wasted. Real figures for the daily diet of Russian cattle were 3 to 3.6 kilograms of feed units in forest regions and 1.8 to 2.0 kilograms of feed units in steppe regions. This level of feeding during the cold season could be qualified as a "semi-starvation" allowance (Lubny-Gertsik, 1925).

As both the population and the number of households grew, the shortage in feedstuff resources naturally worsened. The average number of working horses per peasant household worked out at less than one. The number of cattle per peasant household is estimated to have declined between 1870 and 1900 by 30 percent, the number of working horses per working male by a similar proportion, and the number per 1,000 hectares by 23 percent (Dobb, 1966).

The poor situation in the livestock sector is indicative of the problematic development of Russian agriculture in the pre-war period despite the remarkable growth in arable farming.

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