Glossary

Biological yield provisional estimate of yield based on field studies of crops in spring or early summer. Centner unit of weight equaling 100 kilograms, widely used in Russian agricultural statistics. Consumption regions central and northern regions of Russia which are not self-sufficient in food production and have to import considerable amounts of grain (for human and animal consumption) and other produce from southern regions of the country. Economic regions the main administrative units of...

Weather variations and agricultural production

The role of climate in the performance of Soviet agriculture during the decade is critical. If an increase in grain production was achieved despite poor weather, then Soviet agricultural policy may deserve a more positive evaluation than we granted it above. In the 1970s, some Western experts discussed this question in connection with the prospects for the development of Soviet agriculture in the late 1970s and early 1980s. For example, Severin and Carey (1978) believed that a considerable part...

Kazakhstan

Total grain production of 164 to 180 million tons, were not met (even in the best year, 1964), nor were Khrushchev's expectations for Kazakhstan to produce no less than 20 million tons of grain annually. The expectation of a minimum average yield of 10 centners per hectare from the virgin lands for 1956 was not realized either. Moreover, in his 1954 speech the Soviet leader said that he also hoped to obtain as much as 14 to 15 centners per hectare, an amount that, he alleged, had been produced...

Table 95 Sown area of main cereal crops in the Russian Federation 19701987 percent

Food cereals Winter wheat Spring wheat Winter rye Rice Buckwheat Feed cereals Winter barley Spring barley Oats Millet Legumes Corn Source Kruchkov and Rakovetskaya, 1990 One specific Soviet problem was the unsatisfactory structure of cereal crops. Agricultural statistics on food and feed grain for 1970 to 1980 show that food grain production prevailed over feed grain, despite a much higher demand for the latter (Table 9.5.). In the late 1970s, the feed grain demand was 120 to 140 million tons,...

Notes

1 The name European Russia is used in statistical reports of the Russian Empire for 50 provinces (from the total number of 90) including traditional Russian provinces (such as the Central or Central Black Earth) as well as Belarus and the Ukraine. Besides European Russia, statistical reports provide aggregated data for other regions the North Caucasus (3 provinces, for example Stavropol), Poland (10 provinces), the Caucasus (9 provinces, for example Georgia), Western Siberia (4 provinces),...

Table 93 Plan targets for agricultural production in the USSR 19711990

1971-1975 1976-1980 1981-1986 1986-1990 The most striking thing concerning the five-year plans for the development of Soviet agriculture in the 1970s and 1980s, is that the Soviet planners seemed to ignore the great fluctuation in grain harvests. It is reasonable to expect that the Soviet planners would take into account the variability of grain yields and suggest some sort of buffer between the plan for grain production and that for livestock growth in order to ensure that any drop (by, say,...

Table 75 Livestock numbers in the USSR and USA

Number of cattle (millions) Cows (millions) Sheep and goats (millions) Pigs (millions) Convenient units (millions) Meat production (millions of tons) Meat production (kg per capita) * Data on the livestock inventory relate to January 1962. Data on meat production are given for 1960. The number of convenient units (or heads) is calculated on the basis that one pig equals 0.6 head of cattle and one sheep or goat equals 0.4 head of cattle. total. Managers had long tended to keep more cows than...

Major developments in agriculture

There were two major stages in the development of Soviet agriculture in the 1930s a very short stage during which the NEP was demolished and a longer stage which saw the accelerated construction of the Soviet system of collectivized agriculture. During two years, 1928 and 1929, the use of coercion by the state replaced the market mechanism of the NEP. The emergency measures of the state grain procurement plan at the beginning of 1928 became a permanent feature of the new system. From the...

Year Deviation of yield from trend 10 percent30 percent50 percent

Source Agroklimatichesky prognoz , 1978. amounts of precipitation reached only 20 to 60 percent of the norm. In some regions no rain was observed for 20 to 30 days. In June and July the drought spread to the east and occupied Northern Kazakhstan and the south of Western Siberia. The parameters of the main droughts of the post-war period show that the drought of 1975 was the largest, and of an unprecedented character (Table 8.9.1.) The Volga basin, the Urals and Kazakhstan were at the center of...

Thousands of tons

Source Narodnoe khozyastvo SSSR v 1989, 1990. stock inventories had grown by 3.5 percent since 1980. This meant that again only 97 million tons of feed grain were available, sufficient for producing only 12 million tons of meat. A colossal amount of grain, 44 million tons, was imported, but it only partly helped relieve the feed grain shortage. The Soviet Union produced 17.3 million tons of meat instead of the 18.3 million tons planned (initially as much as 19.5 million tons were planned). Four...

The availability and reliability of statistical agricultural data for Russia

One specific issue in retrospective analyses of Russian economic development is the availability of reliable statistical data that is freely accessible and can be used to check the claims of any researcher. The availability of Soviet agricultural statistical data at a regional level is extremely important in research on the impact of climate (mainly in the form of droughts) on agricultural production. Ideally there should be no interruptions in data sets for regions and years covered by the...

Table 78 Grain production millions of tons and grain yields centners per ha in the USSR and in the virgin lands of

Indicator 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 Grain 85.6 106.8 127.6 105 141.2 125.9 1 25.5 130.8 140.2 107.5 152.1 121.1 production Yield 7.6 8.5 10 8.4 11.3 10.5 10.9 10.7 10.9 8.3 11.4 9.5 Grain 7.7 4.8 23.8 10.6 22 19.1 18.7 14.6 15.9 10.6 23.6 7.6 production Yield 9.2 2.9 10.6 4.6 9.4 8.6 8.5 6.6 6.5 4.4 9.8 3.1 Source Narodnoe khozyastvo v 1965, 1966. This situation, however, was reversed in 1955 when Western Siberia and Kazakhstan suffered from an extensive...

The Stalin era 19291953

This period is prominent due to the lack of any reliable statistical data on agriculture and the economy in the Soviet Union. Most of the statistical parameters published in the pre- and post-revolutionary period are missing in the Stalin era. The most important data on cereal production were incorrect, if not deliberately falsified. The turning point was in 1936, when the Stalin terror led to the suppression of any economic data. In the last years of Stalin's life, hardly any statistics were...

Introduction climate and agriculture in Russia

When analyzing the development of Soviet agriculture it should be borne in mind that Russia is comparatively poorly endowed in terms of agricultural land and climate and that, under any system of farming, agricultural productivity would be appreciably lower than, for example, that of the United States or Western Europe. Russian farming is characterized by its extreme northerly location. The center of Russia lies at roughly the same latitude as Hudson Bay, and St. Petersburg is actually at the...

Table 54 Estimates for grain production in the USSR between 1928 and 1940 millions of tons

Source Wheatcroft and Davies, 1994. good but less than planned about 83.5 million tons. The Western estimate is only 64 million tons. Grain delivery was less than planned but twice that of 1928. It was a very good result and the country was able to export about 5.8 million tons in 1930. Much of the grain harvested should have been reserved for the state grain stock (Conquest, 2002). The planned target for 1931 was fixed at 97.9 million tons but already by 1...

Food problems

There is some contention about the scale of the food crisis in the drought years in pre-war Russia. Soviet experts believe that mass famine occurred because of the droughts. They inevitably quote the words once articulated by V. Lenin about famine occurring in drought years in pre-revo-lutionary Russia. Quite typically, one Soviet news agency (Voskresensky, 1982), when discussing agricultural development in pre-revolutionary times, claimed that mass famine occurred in Russia in 1911. According...

References

Will Climate Change Affect Food and Water Security in Russia Summary Report on the International Project on Global Environmental Change and Its Threat to Food and Water Security in Russia. Available from Center for Environmental Systems Research, University of Kassel, Germany, Report No. A0302. A preliminary look at Soviet agriculture in 1980 livestock. 1980. Radio Liberty Research. 1 December. A time of troubles for the Soviet economy. 1972. Radio Liberty Research. 20...

Table 36 Grain production per capita and number of migrants from the provinces of European Russia in 1911 and 1912

Province Number of migrants in Net grain production 1911 (thousands) per capita in 1910-1911 Province Number of migrants in Net grain production 1912 (thousands) per capita in 1911-1912 *1. Central Black Earth region 2. Middle Volga 3. Low Volga 4. Urals 5. Novoros- syskaya 6. Southwestern region 7. Malorrosyskaya (Ukraine) 8. Belarus Source Statisticheskii ezhegodnik Rossii 1915, 1916. *1. Central Black Earth region 2. Middle Volga 3. Low Volga 4. Urals 5. Novoros- syskaya 6. Southwestern...

List of Tables

Grain production in the Russian Empire Table 2.2. Regions affected by famine, and average food consumption in selected regions of the USSR Table 2.3. Per capita meat consumption (kilograms per annum) in the USSR and European countries 29 Table 3.1. Changes in crop area (thousands of hectares) and population (thousands) in the economic regions of the Russian Empire from 1904 to 1914 37 Table 3.2. The availability of grassland in European Russia Table 3.3. Cereal yields in the major...