Golf Swing Guide
Given the complexity of the bioremediation process, it is often as critical to know the limitations of the site-specific scenario as it is to know how to apply the technology. Bioremediation is not unlike a golf swing to play well, good mechanics are everything. Yet, recognizing flaws and adjusting them seems to be an insurmountable task. Environmental factors may stunt or preclude biod gradation even in the presence of engineered organisms. Biod gradation at residual concentrations of the target substrate frequently is a function of the presence of toxicants 34 . During acclimatization and log growth phase, insufficient oxygen and nutrient are the dominant constraints to growth rate. As a target substrate is reduced to levels below 200 mg kg soil, substrate concentration and substrate inaccessibility may reduce the microbial population to maintenance levels. If the application is being attempted in situ, the transport of oxygen and nutrients to the contaminated zone and the...
In an ecologically ideal situation, dunes are not just a line of sandy, grass-covered hillocks between the coastal road or golf course and the sea, but occur as a series of ridges interspersed by level plains usually described as dune slacks (Fig. 7.44). The word slack (cf. slake, to allay thirst) implies a tendency for these plains to be flooded, particularly when the water table rises in spring. In well-developed coastal systems there can even be a successional series of dune-slack communities. These begin with slacks still exposed to intermittent sea flooding which have a characteristic salt-loving flora with sea milkwort (Glaux maritima Fig. 7.45) and sea plantain (Plantago maritima). These are replaced by a freshwater, nutrient-poor slack where creeping willow (Salix repens) is usually a dominant feature. As dunes generally block the flow of water to the sea, the slacks furthest from the sea have higher water tables and longer periods of flooding than those near the sea. To...
Land Farms, which received untreated wastewater and night soil from nearby communities. Today, land application systems have included application to edible and nonedible crops, to rangelands, to forests and wood plantations, to recreational areas including parks and golf courses, and to disturbed lands such as mine spoil sites. There are two major categories of reuse of wastewater, which have been practiced throughout the world potable use and nonpotable use. The potable use of wastewater mainly includes injecting reclaimed water to the drinking water supply after multiple levels of treatments, or using natural systems (including land applications) to treat wastewater directly. Nonpotable uses of wastewater are many direct irrigation of agriculture fields using food wastewater with low BOD5 and TSS irrigation of parks, forests, or golf courses with low-load wastewater and use for aquaculture are the most promising examples. In many areas of the world, wastewater reuse has been...
Various other examples can be found in the Sydney area 12 . A typical application for agricultural irrigation is Gerringong-Gerroa, where secondary treatment and tertiary treatment is used comprising a biological reactor, clarification, sand filtration, ozonation, biologically activated carbon, microfiltration, and UV filtration 21 . Other examples can be found in Picton (2.4ML day for 134 ha) and in Richmond. Furthermore, 1 ML of tertiary treated water in St. Mary is used for irrigation of a golf club. In Wollongong, the Illawarra Wastewater Strategy will involve production of high-quality recycled water (using microfiltration and reverse osmosis) for a steel factory 22 . Agriculture (indirect) Golf clubs Agriculture (indirect) Golf clubs
Recycling is often the next most cost effective adaptation to reduced water supplies or increased demand for water. Used water can be purified and reused in industry, on farms and domestically. Gray water is untreated or semi treated wastewater that can be cheaply used for such things as irrigating golf courses, lawns, parks and gardens in urban and suburban areas. It is also effective in recharging groundwater storage. Recycling the same water during production is an example of a design change from improved technology that can save large amounts of water. While such changes may temporarily increase costs, they ultimately lead to increased savings as the price of steadily decreasing water supply rises. Through improved technologies, even now many cities reuse their own wastewater directly in what is called closed loop reclamation through the 3Rs of return, repurify and reuse. Water recycling also reduces water pollution.
The efficacy of Steinernematids and Heterorhabditids in the management of crop insect pests has been worked out by several workers in the past. Kumar et al. (2003) studied the efficacy of Heterorhabditids against S. litura collected from castor bean. The insect mortality was significant within 48 h of exposure when infective juveniles of Heterorhabditis were released against the larva of S. litura at the rate of 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150 infective juveniles per 100 g of soil. Narayanan and Gopalakrishnan (2003) reported that mustard sawfly, Athalia lugens proxima was highly susceptible to S. feltiae on radish under field condition. Toledo et al. (2006) for the first time demonstrated the infectivity of H. bacteriophora on third instar of tropical fruit fly, Anastrepha serpentina under laboratory conditions. Adjei et al. (2006) reported that S. scapterisci applied in stripe to a 10 ha bahia grass pasture reduced populations of mole crickets, Scapteriscus spp. by 79.2 over a period of 3...
Onchocerciasis may provide the best example of how biodiversity relates to freshwater vectors and the diseases that they transmit. For example, cryptic species or strains, with varying competence in transmitting the disease or influencing its severity, are characteristic of both the black fly vector and the parasitic roundworms. Likewise, much of the success of OCP was also based on biodiversity. For example, the choice of insecticides used was based on maintenance of fish and nontarget invertebrate biodiversity. But even more unusual, the drug used to control oncho-cerciasis was also based on biodiversity. It was derived from a natural strain of Streptomyces avermitilis, a fungus discovered while screening a soil core from a golf course in Japan for potential nematocidal toxicity.
Example of MBR application for wastewater reuse City of Key Colony Beach Florida MBR used as pretreatment for reverse
By 1998, the City of Key Colony Beach's (Fig. 10) municipal wastewater treatment plant had reached its rated capacity, limiting development opportunities. The city anticipated that stringent effluent requirements of 5 mg L biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total suspended solids (TSS), 3 mg L total nitrogen (TN), and 1 mg L total phosphorous (TP) would likely be imposed in the future because of the coastal discharge. The existing treatment facility would be unable to achieve this effluent quality without significant capital upgrade. In addition, the community wanted to irrigate the local golf course using recycled wastewater, but substantial salinity removal would be required because of seawater intrusion into the municipal sewer network.
Of sand, most sandy beaches can repair storm damage. However, resistant as they are to frontal attack from the ocean, these natural coastal defences are nevertheless vulnerable to an attack from the rear through windblow and sometimes river erosion as well as other unexpected alterations in their environment. Although sand dune vegetation is highly drought resistant the water table must be accessible. Falling water tables, removal of expected resources such as seaweed, truncation oftheir natural development by roads and golf courses, all contribute to weakening the resilience of dune systems to withstand physical disturbance, whether from human interference or natural disasters. The conservation of biodiversity in dune systems therefore requires more than just ensuring the physical preservation of the front line of dunes. Equally, over protection can also result in dominance of a few aggressive species with the result that diversity is lost. For long-term preservation of dune systems...
If climate matters to crop choice, then farmers could plausibly gain by switching crops if new climates favor a different crop over the one currently grown. This is the basic thrust of the so-called Ricardian estimates of climate change impacts on agriculture (Chapter 6). Instead of determining the potential impacts of climate change on the yield of a specific crop, as many studies do, these studies seek to isolate the effect of mean climate on land values in a given region, while controlling for other factors beyond climate that might affect land value (slope, soil type, etc.). The argument is that with well functioning markets, the value of land should reflect the current and (discounted) future stream of profits that can be made from using the land - whether it be used to grow corn or wheat or golf courses. The estimated effect of climate on land values should then in theory reflect all of the crop-switching adaptations farmers could make over the long run (Mendelsohn et al. 1994).
Tourism-recreation operators is a broad category comprised of diverse stakeholders, including businesses involved in the travel planning and transportation phase (e.g., travel agents, event planners, transportation companies, international tour companies) to the wide range of businesses involved in hospitality (i.e., hotelsresorts, restaurants), attractions management (e.g., museums, golf courses, etc.), and other services (e.g., tour guides, equipment rentals, etc.) at specific destinations. While part of the same tourism-recreation sector actor group, there is an important distinction in the adaptive capacity of tourism businesses that operate in single and
Much of the desert Southwest region of the United States was settled in the past century following a century of historically high rainfall. Towns and cities grew, and the Bureau of Land Management diverted water from melting snows, rivers, and underground aquifers to meet the needs of growing cities. Some of the country's largest and newest cities, including Phoenix, Tucson, Denver, Las Vegas, Los Angeles, San Diego, and Albuquerque, have grown out of the desert using water from the Colorado River system. Even though the temperatures can be high, the air is good, and many people have chosen to move to these regions to escape crowded, polluted, or allergen-rich cities and air elsewhere. The surge in population has been met with increases in the water diverted to these cities, and fountains, swimming pools, resorts, golf courses, and green lawns have sprung up all over. In general the life can be comfortable.
Snows, rivers, and underground aquifers to meet the needs of growing cities. Some of the country's largest and newest cities, including Phoenix, Tucson, Denver, Las Vegas, Los Angeles, San Diego, and Albuquerque, have grown out of the desert using water from the Colorado River system. Even though the temperatures can be high, the air is good, and many people have chosen to move to these regions to escape crowded, polluted, or allergen-rich cities and air elsewhere. The surge in population has been met with increases in the water diverted to these cities, and fountains, swimming pools, resorts, golf courses, and green lawns have sprung up all over. In general the life can be comfortable.
Slow-rate systems can encompass a wide variety of different land treatment facilities ranging from hillside spray irrigation to agricultural irrigation, and from forest irrigation to golf course irrigation. The design objectives can include wastewater treatment, water reuse, nutrient recycling, open space preservation, and crop production. restricted public access Acceptable for controlled agricultural irrigation, except for human food crops to be eaten raw Acceptable for application in public access areas such as parks and golf courses
Within the university, the College of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources encompasses 27 programs of study and two preprofessional programs ranging from animal science, fisheries and wildlife, and agribusiness to professional golf course management. The areas related to climate change and the environment include Environmental Restoration Science, environmental studies, natural resource and environmental economics, and applied climate sciences.
This Chapter provides methods for estimating carbon stock changes and greenhouse gas emissions and removals associated with changes in biomass, dead organic matter (DOM), and soil carbon on lands classified as settlements. Settlements are defined in Chapter 3 as including all developed land -- i.e., residential, transportation, commercial, and production (commercial, manufacturing) infrastructure of any size, unless it is already included under other land-use categories. The land-use category Settlements includes soils, herbaceous perennial vegetation such as turf grass and garden plants, trees in rural settlements, homestead gardens and urban areas. Examples of settlements include land along streets, in residential (rural and urban) and commercial lawns, in public and private gardens, in golf courses and athletic fields, and in parks, provided such land is functionally or administratively associated with particular cities, villages or other settlement types and is not accounted for...
Recordkeeping, and reporting provisions is required provisions is required by July 15, 1993. For the most part, the rule is self implementing, which means that citizen suits or EPA can enforce the regulation even before permits are issued. The standards will be incorporated into National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits issued by EPA or permits issued by states with approved biosolids management programs. EPA will work closely with the states to encourage their adoption of approved biosolids management programs that can carry out delegated programs. Land Applied Biosolids must Meet Quality Requirements. Land application includes all forms of applying bulk or bagged biosolids to land for beneficial uses at argonomic rates (rates designed to provide the amount of nitrogen needed by the vegetation while minimizing the amount that passes below the root zone). These include application to agricultural land pasture and range land nonagricultural land such as forests...
The exodus of a large number of refugees from the north of the island, following the Turkish deployment of troops in 1974, triggered rapid development of the Greek-Cypriot region, a process notable in the construction of a vibrant tourist industry, which has evolved from attracting mass tourism to targeted flows of visitors seeking first-class amenities. This led to the construction of golf courses, swimming pools, and elite resorts, resulting in disturbed wildlife habitats and increased demands on scarce natural resources, including water. A large military environmental footprint also disturbs fragile resources.
Global warming is expected to increase flooding, as dramatically seen in the Boxing Day Tsunami, on December 26, 2004, which devastated the northwest coast of Sumatra, especially the town of Banda Aceh, resulting in the deaths of about 131,000 people, with an additional 37,000 listed as missing. Subsequently, there has been damage sustained to the west coast of Sumatra around Bengkulu, which was struck by a number of earthquakes in September 2007, resulting in the deaths of 13 people. Flooding has the risk of increasing the prevalence of insect-borne diseases, and in 1997 malaria was detected at 6,900 ft. (2103 m.) in the highlands of West Papua (Irian Jaya), the highest place that it has been found. Some rainforests have been cleared to make way for golf courses, an issue that became important in local politics in parts of Indonesia in the early 1990s.
We live in times of change and the impact of climatic warming can already be seen in many marginal areas. Effects that appear to be directly attributable to climate change are most noticeable in polar and alpine regions with the retreat of glaciers and snow and ice cover regions (Fig. 12.1). Coastal erosion as a result of rising sea levels is also having a noticeable impact. Archaeological rescue excavations of ancient coastal settlement sites exposed by erosion are now numerous. Several Scottish coastal golf courses have had to be redesigned as sections have been totally removed by the advancing sea. A coastal Scottish National Nature Reserve (Tentsmuir) that had been
On the other hand, the topographic stretching can induce noticeable change in the meridional velocity pattern near the seamount. In fact, flow near the western slope of the seamount is equatorward (Fig. 5.65b), similar to the case of a mid-ocean ridge discussed above. Perturbations induced by topography are highly asymmetric in the meridional direction, as shown in Figure 5.64b. The negative anomaly in the interfacial displacement has a shape like a golf club.
Submerged plant species have been used in deepwater zones of FWS wetlands and are a component in a patented process that has been used to improve water quality in freshwater lakes, ponds, and golf course water hazards. Species that have been used for this purpose include Ceratophyllum demersum (coontail, or hornwart), Elodea (waterweed), Potamogeton pectinatus (sago pond weed), Potamogeton perfoliatus (redhead grass), Ruppia mar tima (widgeongrass), Vallisne-ria americana (wild celery), and Myriophyllum spp. (watermilfoil). The distribution of these species is worldwide. Optimum pH is 6 to 10. Salinity tolerance is 1 ft yr (0.3 m yr), providing dense cover in 1 year with plants spaced at 2 ft (0.6 m). Annual yields vary coontail, 8.9 (dw) ton ac (10 mt ha) Potamogeton, 2.7 (dw) ton ac(3 mt ha) and watermilfoil, 8 (dw) ton ac (9 mt ha). Tissue (dw basis) is approximately 2 to 5 N, 0.1 to 1 P 5 to 10 solids. These species provide food for a wide variety of birds, fish, and animals sago...
I was keen to work on any site that might hold a clue to what happened to the British Isles after the ice retreated from the Last Glacial Maximum. It didn't matter where a river bank in southwestern Ireland an old brick works in southern Scotland a gravel pit in Yorkshire a golf course in Cumbria an open-cast coal mine in southern Wales. Although these might sound like an eclectic
Gold Swing Secrets
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