Gold Prospecting and Mining

Scrap Gold Business Model

Have you wanted to work a job that does not require you to come in at certain hours just to allow you to keep it? Would you rather make more money doing something that is more interesting than spending a lot of time in a cubicle? This is the solution for you: become an expert in scrap gold! Gold is historically one of the most stable investments, so your market is not going under any time soon! You will learn how to start dealing in scrap gold and how to start your business for less than $50! You will also learn how to test the gold that you come across so that you don't get ripped off. You will learn how to trade peoples gold for cash, and how to find gold in the first place. Start making your own business that deals in the most secure investment of all time!

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The Impact of Disused Whaling Stations in Peri Antarctic Islands

South Georgia was the first land to be sighted south of the Antarctic Convergence when, in 1675, a London merchant rounding Cape Horn was blown off course during a storm. Later, the abundance of fur and elephant seals described in the account of Cook's voyage spurred the 1785 gold rush of sealers. Intense exploitation led to the virtual extermination of South Georgia fur seals by about 1810. Subsequent recovery of seal populations yielded lesser fur-sealing peaks in about 1820 and 1870. Elephant seals also were exploited for oil. Within the framework of the International Polar Year, a German scientific expedition operated a station at South Georgia in 1882 and 1883. The Norwegian whaling industry began to permanently settle the island in 1904, and six shore-based stations and eight floating factories operated up to 1917. Although sealing ceased in 1913, more than 175,000 whales were killed in this period. At this time, South Georgia also became a Gateway to Antarctica two of...

The Canadians Look North

Canada's armed forces have, of course, long had some presence north of the Arctic Circle, but it has not been much of a presence. Officers of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police had often been despatched to various outlying settlements and regions to reaffirm Ottawa's political authority, and had stepped up their numbers there during the Gold Rush in 1898, when a volunteer force helped to maintain law and order. But there has only been a regular contingent since 1970, when a permanent base was established at Yellowknife in the Northwest Territories for a unit, known as the Rangers, that is drawn almost entirely of Inuits who have a deep knowledge of and close familiarity with local conditions.

Bogoraz Vladimir Germanovich

Bogoraz's career as an Arctic fieldworker began in 1890, shortly after his arrival in northeastern Siberia, where he started to collect and record folkloric materials among the Russian population. Although his work among the so-called Russian Old Settlers is rarely remembered today, it resulted in a valuable body of texts and also triggered further inquiries into the ethnic landscapes of the Lower Kolyma River. A major event during Bogoraz's years as an involuntary fieldworker was his participation in the so-called Sibiryakov Expedition, which was funded by the rich gold miner Alexander M. Sibiryakov and organized by the Russian Geographical Society. The expedition explored different areas of what is now the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), and Bogoraz's assignment was the study of the Chukchi and Even peoples. In the course of the expedition, Bogoraz participated in the conduct of the first All-Russian census of 1897 along the Kolyma River. The materials collected enabled Bogoraz to...

Historical Note on the Placer Gold Deposits of Alaska

Gold typically occurs as a native metal and is found in lode deposits or placer deposits. Lode gold includes primary deposits in hard bedrock or in vein systems in the bedrock. In contrast, placer deposits are secondary, concentrated in stream gravels and soils. Gold is chemically unreactive so it persists through weathering and transportation and concentrates in soils and as heavy minerals in stream gravel deposits known as placers. Placer gold was the sought-after treasure in the great gold rushes of the Fairbanks gold district and the Yukon Territories The placer gold mining in Alaska was started after George Washington Carmack and his Native American brothers-in-law Skookum Jim and Tagish Charlie discovered rich deposits of placer gold on a tributary of the Klondike River in the Yukon Territory in 1896. Tens of thousands of would-be gold miners rushed to the Klondike in 1897-98, and many more struggled over the treacherous Chilkoot and White Passes in 1898, only to find that all...

Sustainable Agriculture In Central America Agricultural tradeoffs to mitigate deforestation

Side of the coin is habitat destruction. In Central America, forest conversion increasingly occurs on dwindling remnants of biodiversity-rich tropical forests, often in and adjacent to protected areas (Brandon and Wells, 1992 Rudel and Roper, 1996). As much as 90 of species extinctions (over 20,000 annually, according to Myers, 1993) have occurred in tropical forests, though these regions make up a fraction of the world's land cover. These processes impoverish Central America's considerable gene pool, a potential gold mine for scientific advancements and food production (Smith and Schultes, 1990 Myers, 1996).

Why preserve the chemical diversity of plants

Despite the problems associated with screening plant extracts and the strictures of patent requirements and drug development laws, the case for continued exploration of ethnobotanicals is strong. The chemical arsenals of plants represent 300 million years of evolution of ecologically active compounds (Swain, 1974). The challenge of today is to convert what we intuitively perceive to be a gold mine of useful substances and information into a form which can be used in the modern world, probably as money.

The limits of climate capitalism

Though views are now more sanguine and realistic, early on, many companies and project developers were persuaded by the idea that the CDM would bring about a 'gold rush' of easily accessible funds that would deliver a 'Robin Hood effect' a redistribution of resources from the rich to the poor. As we saw in Chapter 5 these expectations were talked up by consultants and brokers who stood

Jordan Restoration Can Sometimes Simply Involve Removing Immediate Pressures

Many officially designated wilderness areas have been settled in the past and are now being managed to restore values of naturalness and wilderness. For example, the Coronado National Forest in Arizona contains many wilderness areas that have previously been subject to gold mining, settlement, logging, and ranching. All logging has now been banned from these areas, and relics of human activity are left to decay over time. Current visitation is managed, with, for instance, camping permitted in only a few designated areas. These management actions reflect a desire to increase wilderness values in what is already a fairly natural forest from the perspective of biodiversity, although gold mining would still be legal in the area (information collected on site visit).

First Contacts

The first contacts between Europeans and Athapaskan populations took place both progressively and in different places. To the east of the region, contact was essentially with fur traders and missionaries, while the Russians came to the Alaskan shores in 1741. At first such contacts remained sporadic, and even though more and more Europeans ventured into the North, it took an event the magnitude of the 1898 Klondike gold rush (with its 30,000 prospectors) to accelerate the process.

Poverty And Ecocide

Ghana, the Philippines, and Indonesia serve as warning examples of the damaging environmental consequences of structural adjustment programs that mandate intensified export production to gain foreign exchange. Ghana increased its production of cocoa to deal with its debt, but unfortunately the terms of trade deteriorated because the rise in cocoa production in Ghana was accompanied by a 48 per cent decline in the world cocoa price between 1986 and 1989. Burdened with deteriorating terms of exchange, Ghana was forced into even greater indebtedness to cover its burgeoning trade deficit, with its external debt risingfromUS 1.1 billion in1988toUS 3.4 billion in1988.20 To make up for declining foreign-exchange earnings from cocoa, the Ghanaian government with World Bank support revived commercial forestry. Timber production rose from 147,000 cubic meters to 413,300 cubic meters per annum from 1984 to 1987, accelerating the destruction of Ghana's already reduced forest cover. At the 1990s...

Frobisher Sir Martin

Frobisher's failure in August 1576 to establish that his strait was merely a bay helped keep alive hopes for a North West Passage, and might have secured backing for a second expedition even if the lure of gold had not become the principal goal of his sponsors. Frobisher's acquiescence in this shift, as well as his earlier career as a privateer and pirate, suggest that achieving fame and wealth counted for more than the means to do so. Thus, further opportunities for geographical discovery were left to successors such as Henry Hudson. A poor navigator, even given the uncertainty of longitude, Frobisher's acceptance of received cartographic wisdom helped perpetuate the confusion about Friesland, and caused successive generations to relocate his discoveries from Baffin Island to Greenland, the so-called Greenland Transfer. Reports of the Inuit's ability to survive in the Arctic helped sustain the notion of a navigable North West Passage. The failure of the gold mining enterprise,...

Superior Craton

English Wabigoon River Map

To the east of the Kapuskasing uplift, the Abitibi belt forms a wide area of island arc type rocks similar in aspect and age to the Wawa belt, with 2.73 to 2.70 billion year old basaltic to komatiitic lava complexes intruded by diorite-tonalite-granodiorite plutons and intruded by 2.7 to 2.67 billion-year-old suites of more silicic volcanic rocks. The Abitibi province is the site of many gold mines, with many of them hosted in quartz veins in shear zones. Other massive sulfide deposits are directly associated with the volcanic rock sequences. A group of strongly deformed turbidites called the Pontiac belt on the south side of the Abitibi belt is interpreted to be an accretionary prism associated with the Abitibi arc.


Fairbanks is situated in the heart of Alaska, 370 miles (595 km) south of Prudhoe Bay, and 93 miles (150 km) south of the Arctic Circle. The city grew rapidly in the 20th century fueled by gold mining, military bases, and discovery of oil in Alaska's North Slope but until 1901, the Tanana and Yukon Valley area was known only to the native Athapaskans. Fairbanks is 95 miles (153 km) by road from the Yukon River, 358 miles (576 km) by road from Anchorage, 123 miles (198 km) from the entrance to Denali National Park, and 483 miles (777 km) via the Alaska Railroad from the port of Seward. The Trans-Alaska Oil Pipeline (Aleyska Pipeline) passes through Fairbanks. The Alcan Highway connects Fairbanks by land with Canada and what Alaskans call the lower 48 or outside. The climate is typically continental, with very cold winters and pleasantly warm summers. Several consecutive days or weeks of -40 F (-40 C) are not uncommon. Summer temperatures usually top out in the 70-80 F (21-27 C) range....

Alaska Highway

The Klondike Gold Rush of 1898 presented Canada with the dilemma of maintaining sovereignty over the Yukon. To counter the construction of the White Pass and Yukon Railway, which favored American access, the Northwest Mounted Police started to blaze an overland trail to the Klondike gold fields in 1905 however, only 600 km of a horse trail was completed.


Produced by a micro-organism called crenarchaeota. These uninteresting looking organisms are a type of bacteria that are found in oceans and lakes. They might not be very easy on the eye, but crenarcheota are a gold mine when it comes to reconstructing past climates. During growth, the water temperature controls the production of a lipid called tetraether in their membrane. When the little critters die this lipid falls to the sea floor and becomes locked up in the sediment. By measuring the tetraether within sediments that were laid down in the past, it's possible to come up with a temperature scale called TEXg6. To simplify matters, I'll just call it the TEX scale. The key thing is that the TEX result from 55 million-year-old Arctic sediments shows that temperatures rose to as high as 25 C. But what does this number mean


Chukotka's economic future hinges on the exploitation of its mineral wealth, including gold and silver mining and oil and gas extraction, fishing in the Bering Sea, and possibly tourism. Limited gold mining in surface deposits is ongoing, and in late 2002 a Canadian company bought a major stake in the Kupol subsurface gold and silver deposit in west-central Chukotka, the okrug's first investment by a foreign company. Oil and gas exploration on the Bering Sea shelf may yield results, but the sea-ice conditions and weather would make production very expensive. Most of Chukotka's present industrial infrastructure consists of coal mining and electricity generation, the capacity of which is largely unused, while the lack of transport infrastructure and the okrug's extreme isolation make economic development very costly. Tourism, which might be expected to capitalize on Chukotka's isolation and pristine expanses, is hindered by the bureaucratic restrictions of the border regime, high travel...