industrialization is likely to increase the risks of climate change. Forests protect watersheds, provide erosion control, and absorb carbon that would otherwise contribute to global warming. Deforestation rates are estimated between 200,000 and 300,000 hectares per year. Extensive forest exploitation is related to the production of charcoal, which contributes to carbon monoxide emissions. Eighty-three percent of urban households use charcoal for cooking fuel.

Miombo woodlands provide an important source of timber and nontimber forest products. Although Miombo woodlands require regular burning, rising temperatures and declining rainfall may lead to increases in wildfires. Wildfires and deforestation threaten traditional bark-hive beekeeping and the reproductive capacity of Mophane caterpillar products, an important source of nutrition and income for rural households.

SEE ALSO: Climate Change, Effects; Current; Deforestation; Drought.

BIBLIOGRAPHY. R.T. Mano, J. Arntzen, S. Drimie, P. Dube, J.S.I. Ingram, C. Mataya, M.T. Muchero, E. Vhurumuku, and G. Ziervogel, "Global Environmental Change and the Dynamic Challenges Facing Food Security Policy in Southern Africa" GECAFS Working Paper 5 (2007); Joseph Schatz, "Farmers Scorched by Climate Change," Zambia Daily Mail (July 11, 2007); Newton Sibanda, "Charcoal Burners Feeding Urban Poor, Deforestation," Zambia Daily Mail (April 2, 2007).

Robert B. Richardson Michigan State University

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