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as global warming. Washington's research also shed light on other mechanisms of global climate change. In interviews and statements, Washington has made it clear that he firmly believes that global warming is to the result of human actions: "For researchers in climate science, the question of whether or not climate change is attributable to human activity was put to rest several years ago with our DOE-supported simulations showing that the only way to duplicate the sharp increase of the global average temperature observed in the late 20th century was to include human generated greenhouse gases in the simulations. When the same simulation was run without the human-generated greenhouse gas increases, the model simulations show that the Earth would be in a slight cooling trend with the natural forcings of volcanic and solar activities. For us, that was the smoking gun for human-induced climate change." He has thus pleaded for climate science to rise in priority as a science problem for American administrations. He has also claimed that the Department of Energy has a particular responsibility to help find solutions for the global warming problem. According to Washington, "as the impacts of climate change become more apparent with increased severity of heat waves, droughts, water shortages, and more severe hurricanes, there will be more emphasis on understanding how we can better mitigate and adapt to the changes." The meteorologist has suggested that the Department of Energy study the carbon footprint and effect of various technology paths for the production of energy. He has also argued for an increased focus on what strategies to use to mitigate climate change and to find a long-term stabilization for carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.

Throughout his career, Washington has published over 100 professional articles about atmospheric science, scientific textbooks, and an autobiographical volume. He has also served as a member and a director of prestigious institutes and commissions. Washington was appointed the director of the Climate and Global Dynamics Division at NCAR in 1987. In 1994, he was elected president of the American Meteorological Society. He is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and a member of its board of directors, a fellow of the African Scientific Institute, a distinguished alumnus of Pennsylvania State University, a fellow of Oregon State University, and founder and president of the Black Environmental Science Trust, a nonprofit foundation that encourages African-American participation in environmental research and policymaking. From 1974 to 1984, Washington served on the President's National Advisory Committee on Oceans and Atmosphere. In 1995, he was appointed by President Bill Clinton to a six-year term on the National Science Board. In 1997, he was awarded the Department of Energy Biological and Environmental Research Program Exceptional Service Award for Atmospheric Sciences in the development and application of advanced coupled atmospheric-ocean general circulation models to study the effects of anthropogenic activities on future climates.

sEE ALso: Climate Models; Education.

BIBLioGRAPHY. "Advanced Computing for Understanding and Adapting to Climate Change. Interview with Warren Washington," http://www.scidacreview.org/0702/html/ interview.html; Warren Washington, Odyssey in Climate Modeling, Global Warming and Advising Five Presidents (Lulu.com, 2007).

LuCA PRONO University of Nottingham

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