University of Hawaii

the university of Hawaii, also known as UH, is a public, coeducational college and university system that confers associate, bachelor's, master's, doctoral, and postdoctoral degrees through three university campuses, seven community college campuses, an employment training center, three university centers, four education centers, and various other research facilities distributed across six islands throughout the state of Hawaii. All schools of the UH system are accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges. UH at Manoa is the flagship institution of the system. It is well respected for its programs in Hawaiian/Pacific studies, astronomy, east asian languages and literature, asian studies, second language studies, linguistics, ethnomusicology, medicine, and law. UH education centers are located in more remote areas of the state, supporting rural communities via distance education.

A total of 616 programs are offered throughout the UH system, with 123 devoted to bachelor's degrees, 92 to master's degrees, 53 to doctoral degrees, three to first professional degrees, four to postbaccalaure-ate degrees, 115 to associate's degrees, and various other certifications. The Department of Oceanography offers a bachelor's degree program in global environmental science. This program emphasizes the study of Earth and Earth's physical, chemical, biological, and human systems. Students learn to investigate natural as well as economic, policy, and social systems and their response to and interaction with the Earth system.

The School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST) was established by the Board of Regents of UH in 1988 in recognition of the need to realign and further strengthen the excellent education and research resources available within the university. SOEST brings together four academic departments, three research institutes, several federal cooperative programs, and support facilities of the highest quality in the nation to meet challenges in the ocean, Earth, and planetary sciences and technologies.

The Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI), located on the campus of UH, is a one of the many research institutes housed by the SOEST. HNEI has become an acknowledged international leader in the energy field and has broadened its expertise to encompass the development of technologies that will enable us to tap our oceans for energy, food, minerals, and other resources. The institute's responsibilities include conducting and supporting basic research, managing research facilities and laboratories, demonstrating the applications of its work, and investigating the social, environmental, and financial effect of energy- and marine-related activities. Researchers at HNEI have a long history of investigating technology solutions, such as renewable energy systems and carbon sequestration, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Since 1989, HNEI has been a major participant in an international effort to study the feasibility of sequestering carbon dioxide in the deep ocean. Laboratory studies conducted in a novel large deep ocean

Divers clean the outside of SeaStation 3000, an open-ocean aquaculture project operated by the University of Hawaii.

simulator designed and built by HNEI have provided extensive data on the breakup of liquid carbon dioxide jets and fundamental information on carbon dioxide hydrate formation. HNEI cooperates in these endeavors with faculty from UH; federal, state, and local governments; private industry; public utilities; foreign governments; community groups; and universities and research institutes throughout the world.

The International Pacific Research Center is a climate research center housed by SOEST. This center was founded to gain greater understanding of nature and the causes of climate variation in the Asia-Pacific region, to determine whether such variations are predictable and to discover how global climate change affects the region.

sEE ALsO: Hawaii; National Science Foundation; Pacific Ocean.

bibliography. Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, http://www. hnei.hawaii.edu; International Pacific Research Center, http:// www.iprc.soest.hawaii.edu; School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, http://www.soest.hawaii.edu.

Fernando Herrera University of California, San Diego

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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