University of Alaska

the university OF Alaska system has three main campuses (University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF), University of Alaska Anchorage, and University of Southeast) and 15 satellite campuses. However, beyond individual researchers at various campuses, all four global warming or climate change research centers, institutes, and groups are found at the UAF campus. The four centers are the Alaska Climate Research Center (ACRC), the International Arctic Research Center (IARC), Center for Global Change and Arctic System Research, and the Alaska Center for Climate Assessment and Policy (ACCAP).

Under the direction of the Geophysical Institute, the ACRC conducts secondary data gathering, storage, and report analysis. The ACRC is funded by the State of Alaska under Title 14, Chapter 40, Section 085. The IARC is a joint venture between Japan and the United States. It is an international focused research center that includes 20 research groups and over 60 international scientists. The IARC mission is to determine whether climate change is manmade or natural, what the data points are needed to make this determination, and what the possible effects of climate change are.

In 2007, a national and international controversy sprang out of the IARC when Director Syun-Ichi Akasofu claimed the 2005 peer-review Internatioal Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report was methodologically flawed. Dr. Akasofu claimed the IPCC did not have an anthropogenic (natural) greenhouse gases control to account for their assertion of a 0.6 degrees man-made climate change over the past 100 years. Professor Akasofu also claimed that CO2 and other greenhouse gases are not responsible for climate change the researchers would have included anthropogenic greenhouse gases. In a public response to criticism from the academic community, Akasofu noted that, "Since I am not a climatologist, all the data presented in my note are found in papers and books published in the past; that is why I do not want to publish my note as a paper in a professional journal." Although not a climatologist, Akasofu learned speculation on climatology has widely circulated among antiglobal warming groups.

The Center for Global Change and Arctic System Research was founded in 1990 with the goal of fostering interdisciplinary Arctic and sub-Arctic research in Arctic biology, atmospheric chemistry, climatology, engineering, geophysics, hydrology, natural resources management, social sciences, and marine sciences to better understand global change in the Arctic. There are two subgroups and a 1,042-page Arctic research study by the Center for Global Change and Arctic System Research affiliates. One subgroup is the Globe Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE), founded in 1997. GLOBE is an international group that develops hands-on environmental science curriculum for K-12 students, teachers, and scientists. Another subgroup, founded in 1994, is the University of Alaska-National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (UA-NOAA) Cooperative Institute for Arctic Research (CIFAR). CIFAR is one of 13 national university-based NOAA institutes.

It focuses on atmospheric and climate research/ modeling. The UA-NOAA studies focus on arctic haze, marine science, fisheries, and sea ice research. The last subgroup is a research study called the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA). The ACIA report was prepared for the Fourth Arctic Council Meeting in Reykjavik, Iceland, in November 2004. Some of the findings from the report note that over the past 50 years, the mean surface air temperature has increased 3.6-5.4 degrees F (2-3 degrees C) and late summer ice decreased by 15-20 percent over the past 30 years; in addition, between 1961 and 1998, North American glaciers lost 108 cu. mi. of ice.

The ACCAP was founded in 2006. The ACCAP mission is to determine the biophysical and socioeconomic effect of climate change within Alaska and to improve regional, local, and Alaskan ability to create policies that address the changing climate. The ACCAP works in affiliation with NOAA-Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessments, Institute of

Northern Engineering, International Arctic Research Center, the Institute for Socioeconomic Research at the University of Alaska Anchorage, and the Alaska Climate Research Center.

sEE ALsO: Alaska; Climate Change, Effects; Education.

BIBLIOGRAPHY. S. Akasofu, www.iarc.uaf.edu/highlights /2007/akasofu_3_07/index.php (cited April 24, 2007); Alaska Center for Climate Assessment and Policy, www. uaf.edu/accap/; Alaska Climate Research Center, www. climate.gi.alaska.edu/index.html; Arctic Climate Impact Assessment, "Impacts of a Warming Arctic, Arctic Climate Impact Assessment," 2004; Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme, 1998; "Arctic Pollution Issues: A State of the Arctic Environmental Report," www.amap.no/ (under scientific papers); Center for Global Change and Arctic System Research, www.cgc.uaf.edu/; Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, www.ipcc.ch; International Arctic Research Center, www.iarc.uaf.edu/; World View of Global Warming, www.worldviewofglobalwarming.org/ index.html.

Andrew Hund University of Alaska, Anchorage

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