UKRAINE IS A republic in east Europe, part of the former Soviet Union. Its capital and largest city is Kiev (50 degrees 27 minutes N, 30 degrees 30 minutes E, population of 2.6 million in 2007, estimation by the

Department of Ukrainian State Statistics). The total area of Ukraine is 233,090 sq. mi. (or 603,700 sq. km., the 44th country in size and second in Europe after European Russia). The total population is around 46.6 billion (in 2007, estimation by the Department of Ukrainian State Statistics). The word Ukraine originally meant "near the border" (of Russia and Poland).

The country has a mostly temperate continental climate, though a more Mediterranean climate is found on the southern Crimean coast. Precipitation is disproportionately distributed, being highest in the west and north (up to 31-39 in., or 800-1,000 mm. per year) and lesser in the east and southeast (around 16-18 in., or 400-450 mm. per year). Winters vary from cool along the Black Sea to cold farther inland. Summers are warm across the greater part of the country but are generally hot in the south. The average temperature in January is 18-19 degrees F (minus 7 to minus 8 degrees C) in the northern Ukraine, while it is 37-39 degrees F (3-4 degrees C) in the southern Crimea. The absolute January minimum/maximum temperature minus 43 degrees F to 67 degrees F (minus 42 degrees C to 19.5 degrees C) was observed in the northeast/Crimea. January precipitations vary from 1-2.5 in. (35-65 mm.) per month. The average temperature in July is around 64-75 degrees F (18-24 degrees C). The absolute July maximum/minimum temperature 106/36 degrees F (41.0/2.4 degrees C) was observed in the northeast. July precipitations vary from 1-7 in. (30-185 mm.) per month.

The linear temperature trend varies from around 1.8-3.6 degrees F (1-2 degrees C) per 100 years for the northern Ukraine in winter/spring to 30 degrees F (minus 1 degree C) per 100 years for the southern Ukraine in summer/fall. The linear trend of precipitation varies from around 4 in. (100 mm.) a year per 100 years for drier regions to minus 4 in. (100 mm.) a year per 100 years for wetter regions. So, the continental climate of Ukraine is becoming more mild. The interannular climate variability of Ukraine (especially its northern part) is under the strong control of the North Atlantic Oscillation.

The Ukrainian landscape consists mostly of fertile plains, or steppes, and plateaus, crossed by rivers such as the Dnieper, Seversky Donets, Dniester, and Southern Buh as they flow south into the Black Sea and the smaller Sea of Azov. To the southwest, the delta of the Danube forms the nation's border with Romania. The Danube is the largest European river,

UN Conference on Trade and Development/Earth Council Institute: Carbon Market Program

which rises in the Alpine region. Its average discharge from 1947-2001 was about 6,350 cu. m. per second. The maximum/minimum discharge (9,180/4,420 cu. m. per second) is observed in May/October. There is a positive linear trend of mean annual Danube discharge, which is about 200 cu. m. per second per 50 years. The country's only mountains are the Carpathian Mountains in the west, of which the highest is Mount Hoverla at 6,762 ft. (2,061 m.), and those in the Crimean peninsula in the extreme south, along the Black Sea coast.

The Black Sea is the southern border of Ukraine and is the largest natural reservoir of sulfate dioxide in any sea in the world. As a result of cyclonic general circulation in the Black Sea, the upper boundary of the sulfate dioxide zone is situated at a typical depth of about 262-328 ft. (80-100 m.) in the internal parts of the sea, and it deepens to up to 492-590 ft. (150-180 m.) along the shelf slope. The intensity of the principal element of the Black Sea general circulation (the so-called Rim current) varies from one decade to another as a result of quasi-periodic low-frequency changes of external forcing (such as wind stress, fresh/heat balance, and Mediterranean water inflow). The upper boundary of the sulfate dioxide zone moves up and down because of such quasi-periodical variability. There is also small negative trend of depth of sulfate dioxide zone (around minus 10 m. per 50 years), which points to its shoaling in the internal part of the sea in recent decades. This is

The Black Sea, bordering the south of the Ukraine, is the largest natural reservoir of sulfate dioxide.

the result of Rim current intensification caused by stronger external forcing.

sEE ALsO: Climate Change, Effects; Oceanic Changes.

BIBLIOGRAPHY. Nikolai M. Dronin and E.G. Bellinger,

Climate Dependence and Food Problems in Russia, 1900-1990: The Interaction of Climate and Agricultural Policy and Their Effect on Food Problems (Central European University Press, 2005); James Salinger, et al., Increasing Climate Variability and Change: Reducing the Vulnerability of Agriculture and Forestry (Springer, 2005); Valentina Yanko-Hombach, et al., Black Sea Flood Question: Changes in Coastline, Climate and Human Settlement (Springer-Verlag, 2006).

Alexander Boris Polonsky Marine Hydrophysical Institute, Sebastopol

UN Conference on Trade and Development/Earth Council Institute: Carbon Market Program the united nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)/Earth Council Carbon Market Program (CMP) started in 1991 as the UNCTAD Emissions Trading Project and has opened the way for a collaboration between governments and the private sector in the development of a global carbon market. The program aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and is targeted primarily to economies in transition and third world countries. An emission trading system aims to control pollution by providing economic incentives for the reduction of polluting emissions. A central authority establishes a limit on the amount of a pollutant that can be emitted. Companies or other groups that release polluting emissions have to hold an equivalent number of credits or allowances, which represent the right to emit a specific amount. The total amount of credits cannot exceed the limit, so that total emissions cannot go beyond that level. Groups that need to increase their emissions must buy credits from those who pollute less. The transfer of allowances is described as a trade, although the buyer is actually being fined for polluting, while the seller is being compensated for their reduction of the emissions.

The starting point of the program is the recognition that future economies will be carbon constrained. UNCTAD and the Earth Council conceive their function as preparing developing countries for the likely changes in relative prices and relative production costs that the introduction of climate policies and measures will cause. They are also trying to facilitate a smoother transition to a postunregulated carbon economy.

The CMP aims to reduce the effect of climate change by contributing to the development of an integrated global emissions trading system in which all participant countries accept the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities. The United Nations Secretariat issued a major report on the subject in May 1992, as a contribution to the work of the Earth Summit held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. Since then, UNCTAD and the Earth Council have stimulated and encouraged research and capacity building in the area of greenhouse gas emissions trading. As one of their primary activities, UNCTAD and the Earth Council have lent their support to interested governments, corporations, and nongovernmental organizations for the development of a multilateral market for trading in greenhouse gas emission allowance and certified emission reduction credits, in accordance with the Kyoto Protocol and the decisions of the Conference of the Parties. The program also includes an annual Carbon Market Policy Forum, which brings together buyers, sellers, and market makers from the public and private sectors in both developed and developing countries.

A significant element of CMP is its work with economies in transition in developing their capacity to implement the Kyoto Protocol. CMP has devised a wide range of capacity-building activities and materials to assist accession countries, which form the Central Group 11 (CG11), in their development of national Kyoto strategies. CMP also has developed stocktaking reports of the current situation in relation to emissions trading and the Kyoto Protocol in accession countries. In addition, it has discussed a policy framework that identifies the various policy options and practical steps that CG11 countries may take, as well as the identification of specific capacity-build ing needs. In addition, UNCTAD and Earth Council have launched the Carbon Market E-learning Centre (CMEC), which contains modules related to emissions trading. The CMEC supplies learning opportunities for global audiences on the use of emissions trading as an economic resource to implement the UN Framework Conventions on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol. The center offers online courses and, more important, virtual workshops. These help other institutions to develop their own courses through the e-learning facilities of the CMEC.

UNCTAD and Earth Council Institute support the efforts of developing and transitional countries to participate effectively in the emerging trade and investments in allowances and credits for carbon emissions. As part of the CMP, UNCTAD and Earth Council Institute have also encouraged investments from the private sector for the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol, particularly in Least Developed Countries. The program has supported the creation of public-private bodies for the implementation of the CDM and has attempted to develop the CDM through capacity building, starting from the needs of local communities. The CMP has lent its support particularly to Brazil, as well as to African countries such as Tanzania, Uganda, Mozambique, Zambia, and Malawi.

sEE ALsO: Climate Change, Effects; Greenhouse Effect; Greenhouse Gases; Kyoto Protocol; United Nations; United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).

bibliography. Earth Institute—Geneva,; United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, emID=4348&lang=1.

Luca Prono University of Nottingham

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