Unfortunately, the developed nations persist in seeing climate change and sustainable development as separate issues. The developed nations think globally: a ton of CO2 is a ton of CO2 regardless of where it comes from. The developing nations are adapting on a local level, and, sometimes, their local development needs create unwanted CO2. Also, negative global impacts come from sources other than climate change. Flood and drought occur independently of global warming, although, climate change exacerbates the arbitrariness of weather. The developing nations need development plans that are climate-proof, and the best way to get results is to fight the two problems simultaneously.
Under the UNFCCC, developing nations began creating National Adaptation Programs of Action (NAPA) by 2006, and eight had finished by that time. The plans include such things as Malawi's reforestation as a means of reducing floods, and Benin's project to make people in the rural northwest more capable of adjusting to water scarcity, a high risk in that area. Implementation of the plans, naturally, will require large sums of money. The World Bank estimates an annual cost of $10-$40 billion. The UNFCCC has established a Special Climate Change Fund (SCCF) and a Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF.) Both the SCCF and LDCF are funded by voluntary contributions from the developed countries. The Kyoto Protocol calls for a third source, an Adaptation Fund, that funds tangible adaptation projects in developing countries. Financing is through a tax on the trade on emission certificates. By the end of 2012, the fund should have $270-$600 million to spend. Disagree ment arose at Nairobi over who would manage the fund, with developed country representatives wanting an agency with a global agenda.
The European Commission (EC) proposed a global alliance between the European Union (EU) and developing nations. The solutions include incorporation of new technology and improved communication with the Least Developed Countries (LDC) and the Small Island Developing States (SIDS.) The EU's Spring Council 2007 offered proposals for the next climate change agreement in 2012, when the Kyoto Protocol expires. This council also committed the EU to major cuts in emissions. The Global Climate Change Alliance (GCCA) offers assistance in reducing deforestation-generated emissions, getting developing countries more involved in the global carbon market, helping in preparation for natural disasters, and making climate change part of poverty reduction and development plans. The GCCA acknowledges that development has to be climate proof. The GCCA has funding of £50 million for 2008-10. The EC also appealed to EU states to spend more of their development assistance on helping developed nations cope with climate change.
See ALSO: China; Diseases; Economics, Cost of Affecting Climate Change; Economics, Impact From Climate Change; Environmental Development Action in the Third World; Framework Convention on Climate Change; Global Warming; India; Kyoto Protocol; United States.
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John H. Barnhill Independent Scholar
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