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Unfortunately, the developed nations persist in seeing climate change and sustainable development as separate issues. The developed nations think globally: a ton of CO2 is a ton of CO2 regardless of where it comes from. The developing nations are adapting on a local level, and, sometimes, their local development needs create unwanted CO2. Also, negative global impacts come from sources other than climate change. Flood and drought occur independently of global warming, although, climate change exacerbates the arbitrariness of weather. The developing nations need development plans that are climate-proof, and the best way to get results is to fight the two problems simultaneously.

Under the UNFCCC, developing nations began creating National Adaptation Programs of Action (NAPA) by 2006, and eight had finished by that time. The plans include such things as Malawi's reforestation as a means of reducing floods, and Benin's project to make people in the rural northwest more capable of adjusting to water scarcity, a high risk in that area. Implementation of the plans, naturally, will require large sums of money. The World Bank estimates an annual cost of $10-$40 billion. The UNFCCC has established a Special Climate Change Fund (SCCF) and a Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF.) Both the SCCF and LDCF are funded by voluntary contributions from the developed countries. The Kyoto Protocol calls for a third source, an Adaptation Fund, that funds tangible adaptation projects in developing countries. Financing is through a tax on the trade on emission certificates. By the end of 2012, the fund should have $270-$600 million to spend. Disagree ment arose at Nairobi over who would manage the fund, with developed country representatives wanting an agency with a global agenda.

The European Commission (EC) proposed a global alliance between the European Union (EU) and developing nations. The solutions include incorporation of new technology and improved communication with the Least Developed Countries (LDC) and the Small Island Developing States (SIDS.) The EU's Spring Council 2007 offered proposals for the next climate change agreement in 2012, when the Kyoto Protocol expires. This council also committed the EU to major cuts in emissions. The Global Climate Change Alliance (GCCA) offers assistance in reducing deforestation-generated emissions, getting developing countries more involved in the global carbon market, helping in preparation for natural disasters, and making climate change part of poverty reduction and development plans. The GCCA acknowledges that development has to be climate proof. The GCCA has funding of £50 million for 2008-10. The EC also appealed to EU states to spend more of their development assistance on helping developed nations cope with climate change.

See ALSO: China; Diseases; Economics, Cost of Affecting Climate Change; Economics, Impact From Climate Change; Environmental Development Action in the Third World; Framework Convention on Climate Change; Global Warming; India; Kyoto Protocol; United States.

bibliography. John Carey and Sarah R. Shapiro, "Global Warming," Businessweek Online (August 16, 2004), www. businessweek.com (cited November 2007); William R. Cline, "Global Warming and Agriculture Impact Estimates by Country," Peterson Institute for International Economics, www.petersoninstitute.org (cited November 2007); European Union, "Commission Proposes a Global Alliance To Help Developing Countries Most Affected By Climate Change," europa.eu (cited November 2007); Sven Harmeling and Krystel Dossou, "Coping with Global Warming," www.inwent.org (cited November 2007); Bjorn Lomborg. The Skeptical Environmentalist (Cambridge University Press, 2001); John Rowley, "Global Warming Will Hit Developing Country Agriculture," People & the Planet, www.peopleandplanet.net (cited October 2007); Thomas Schelling, "Developing Countries Will Suffer Most from Global Warming," Resources for the Future, www.rff. org (cited November 2007); Anup Shah, "Climate Justice and Equity," www.globalissues.org (cited November 2007); Anup Shah, "Global Warming," www.americans-world.org (cited November 2007); Anup Shah, "Global Warming and Population," www.globalissues.org (cited November 2007); Michael Tennesen, Complete Idiot's Guide to Global Warming (Alpha Books, 2004); United Nations, "Health Effects of Global Warming: Developing Countries Are The Most Vulnerable," www.thefreelibrary.com (cited November 2007).

John H. Barnhill Independent Scholar

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