located IN eastern Europe, Romania has a land area of 92,043 sq. mi. (238,392 sq. km.), with a population of 21,438,000 (2006 est.), and a population density of 236 people per sq. mi. (93 people per sq. km.). Some 41 percent of the land of Romania is arable, with a further 21 percent used for meadows and pasture, and 28 percent is forested. For the generation of electricity in the country, 53 percent comes from fossil fuels, with 37 percent from hydropower, and 10 percent from nuclear power, with a small amount of electricity exported, and an even smaller part imported. The heavy use of hydropower has resulted in Romania having one of the lowest per capita rates of carbon dioxide emissions: 6.7 metric tons per person in 1990, falling to 3.8 metric tons per person in 1999, and rising slowly to 4.16 metric tons in 2004.

The generation of electricity contributed to 49 percent of the country's carbon dioxide emissions, with

Bucura Lake in the Retezat mountains in Romania. Global warming has increased the risk of flooding.

24 percent from manufacturing and construction, 11 percent from transportation, 8 percent from residential uses, and the remaining 8 percent from nonelec-tricity energy industries. The source of the emissions comes from gaseous fuels (33 percent), liquid fuels (32 percent), and solid fuels (31 percent), with 4 percent from cement manufacturing.

Global warming has caused increased risks of flooding in parts of the country. It is also thought to be the major reason for the heat wave in the summer of 2007, which resulted in shortages of water in some parts of the country, and the deaths of some people, especially in Bucharest and other urban centers. The highest temperature ever recorded in Romania was, however, in the 1950s, when 45 degrees C was registered at the city of Calafat in the far south of the country. The hot summer of 2007 followed an extremely warm winter, especially in January and February 2007, during which the Romanian Soccer Federation even announced that if the trend of warm winters continued, they would change their calendar, which brought the problem to national attention.

The Romanian government of Ion Iliescu took part in the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change signed in Rio de Janeiro in May 1992. They signed the Kyoto Protocol to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change on January 5, 1999, and ratified it on March 19, 2001, with it entering into force on February 16, 2005; the government committing itself to a reduction of emissions by 1.2 percent as a stage toward ratification, and by another 8 percent by 2012. The Romanian government has long signaled its interest in emissions trading.

sEE ALso: Drought; Emissions, Trading; Floods.

BIBLioGRAPHY. N.P. Peritore, Third World Environmen-talism: Case Studies from the Global South (University of Florida Press, 1999); "Romania—Climate and Atmosphere," (cited October 2007); Farhana Yamin, ed., Climate Change and Carbon Markets: A Handbook of Emissions Reduction Mechanisms (Earths-can, 2005).

ROBIN S. CORFIELD Independent Scholar

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