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in the European Union, the UN-based negotiations that produced the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol, and the U.S. proposal for a technology transfer agreement. RFF scholars also examine the related topics of climate stabilization and air pollution control in rapidly developing countries such as China and India.

RFF's Climate and Technology Program analyzes and critiques options for U.S. policy and the role of technology development and deployment in combating carbon emissions. In 2007, RFF scholars authored a series of background reports related to the design of federal climate policy. They provide stakeholders and policymakers with an understanding of policy options, from which effective mandatory federal policy might be crafted. Researchers have estimated the costs of emissions abatement, calculated the benefits of mitigating climate change impacts, assessed the effect of the choice of discount rate for long-term policies, and characterized uncertainty in such analyses.

RFF is certified as a U.S. General Services Administration (GSA) Management, Organizational and Business Improvement Services (MOBIS) contractor for consulting, survey, and facilitation services. MOBIS contractors assist the federal government to respond to new mandates and evolving practices. RFF researchers are also analyzing proposed actions and evaluating current efforts of state and local governments as well as the business sector.

RFF provides ongoing support to many state and nongovernmental organizations, including the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. For decades, the RFF Seminar Series has provided the Washington community with a weekly forum in which scholars, journalists, advocates, and policymakers interact. RFF internships and doctoral and postdoctoral fellowships train and support future leaders and scientists.

see also: Policy, International; Policy, U.S.; Sustainability.

bibliography. Ray Kopp and Billy Pizer, Assessing U.S. Climate Policy Options: A Report Summarizing Work at RFF as part of the Inter-Industry U.S. Climate Policy Forum,; Resources for the Future, www.rff. org (cited June 2007).

Mary Finley-Brook University of Richmond

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