the sultanate OF Oman, located on the Arabian Peninsula, has a land area of 119,498 sq. mi. (309,500 sq. km.), with a population of 2,595,000 (2006 est.), and a population density of 21.5 people per sq. mi. (8.3 people per sq. km.). The country is largely covered by arid desert. However, there is heavy subsistence farming throughout the country. Oman's economy is dominated by the petroleum industry, although the government has sought to diversity the economy to remove its dependence on oil for its power industry. In spite of its small population, Oman contributes to global warming, with the per capita emission of carbon dioxide at 5.6 metric tons in 1990, rising to 6.1 metric tons in 1992, 7.3 metric tons in 1995, 8.7 metric tons in 1999, and 12.5 metric tons in 1993.

The generation of electricity in Oman comes entirely from fossil fuels, with the production of electricity making up 30 percent of the country's carbon dioxide emissions. An increase in the electricity network was implemented in the first and second Five Year Plans undertaken by the Omani government in 1976-80 and 1981-85, respectively. In addition, 28 percent of emissions came from manufacturing and construction, 17 percent from non-electricity energy industries, and 12 percent from transportation. Some 58 percent of Oman's carbon dioxide emissions come from gaseous fluids, with 28 percent from liquid fuels, and 11 percent from gas flaring. Coral reefs off the coast of Oman, located in both the Gulf of Oman and the Indian Ocean, have experienced serious bleaching as a result of a rise in water temperature.

The Oman government took part in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change signed in Rio de Janeiro in May 1992. They accepted the Kyoto Protocol to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change on January 19, 2005, which took effect on April 19, 2005.

sEE ALsO: Deserts; Oil, Consumption of; Oil, Production of.

bibliography. P.R. Range, "Oman," National Geographic (v.187/5, 1995); World Resources Institute, "Oman—Climate and Atmosphere," (cited October 2007).

JUSTIN CORFIELD Geelong Grammar School, Australia

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