located around THE city of Monte Carlo, the Principality of Monaco has a land area of 0.75 sq. mi. (1.9 sq. km.). With a population of 33,000 (2006 est.), and a population density of 47,358 people per sq. mi. (18,285 people per sq. km.), it is the most densely populated country in the world.

With a very high standard of living, carbon dioxide emissions from the principality are high, although its statistics are usually included in those of France, which encompasses the land borders of the country. This is because France supplies all electricity used in Monaco, and the country is serviced by Nice Airport, also in France. Monaco has an effective urban bus transport system operated by the Compagnie des Autobus de Monaco, going some way to alleviate the use of cars, although the Grand Prix there each year helps encourage the fascination with Formula 1 cars, adding to carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide emissions.

The Monégasque government took part in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change signed in Rio de Janeiro in May 1992, and signed the Kyoto Protocol to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change on April 29, 1998, ratifying it on February 27, 2006, with it taking effect on May 28, 2006.

sEE ALsO: Automobiles; France; Transportation.

BIBLIOGRAPHY. Richarde Conniff, "Monaco," National Geographic (v.189/5, 1996); René Jacques Freu, Robert Jean-Baptiste and Jean Pastorelli, Histoire de Monaco (Ministry of State, 1986).

Robin S. Corfield Independent Scholar

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