Milankovitch Cycles

The Earth's orbit around the sun is slightly elliptical. Over time the gravitational pull of the moon and other planets causes the Earth's orbit to change following a predictable pattern of natural rhythms, known as Milankovitch cycles. Over a ~100,000 year cycle the Earth migrates from an orbit with near-zero eccentricity (a perfect circle) to one with approximately 6 percent eccentricity (a slight ellipse). In addition, the tilt of the Earth axis, known as its obliquity, varies from 21.5 to 24.5 degrees with a 41,000 year rhythm. And lastly, the orientation of the Earth's axis rotates with a ~20,000-year cycle relative to the orientation of the Earth's orbit. This cycle, known as "precession', affects the intensity of the seasons.

The figure shows the pattern of changes in each of the three modes of orbital variability: eccentricity, obliquity, and precession. These changes in the Earth's orbit lead to a complex series of changes in the amount of sunlight that a given location on Earth can expect to receive during a given season. An example is shown for summer sunlight near the Arctic circle. Sunlight at this location is believed to influence the growth and decay of ice sheets during ice ages. The last line shows measured changes in climate during the last million years with warm interglacials highlighted in gray bands. As can be seen, such interglacials appear to preferentially occur near maxima in eccentricity and slightly following times of maximum summer sunlight.

Note: Page numbers in boldface refer to volume numbers and major topics. Article titles are in boldface.

AA (atmospheric aerosols), 1:64-65 AAG (Association of American Geographers), 2:438 ABL. See atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) Abraham, Spencer, 1:149 abrupt climate changes, 1:1-4 cause, 1:2 debate, 1:3 history, 1:2-3 man-made causes, 1:3 numbers of, 1:1 studies, 1:1, 1:3 ACC. See Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) ACEEE. See American Council for an Energy Efficient

Economy (ACEEE) ACE-UK. See Atmosphere, Climate and Environment

Information Programme UK (ACE-UK) ACIA (Arctic Climate Impact Assessment), 1:22 acid rain, 2:579

Activities Implemented Jointly (AIJ), 1:362 adaptation, 1:4-8

adaptive capacity, 1:4 adaptive management, 1:6 assessment, 1:6-7 defined, 1:4 lessons learned, 1:7

planned, 1:4 spontaneous, 1:4 strategic/technical options, 1:4 in Sudan, 3:934 as technical "fix," 1:4 types, 1:4-5 in Zambia, 3:1119 Ad Hoc Group on the Berlin Mandate (AGBM), 1:119 Adkins, Dennis, 2:758 aeolian sediments, 1:238 AEP. See American Electric Power (AEP) aerosols, 1:8-9, 1:98 AA, 1:64-65 albedo effect, 1:9

as attribution of global warming, 1:98 cloud lifetime effect and, 1:9 colloidial suspension and, 1:192 defined, 1:8

drizzle suppression and, 1:9 global dimming and, 1:8 impact, 1:8-9

Northern Hemisphere vs. Southern Hemisphere, 1:9 particle size, 1:8 primary, 1:8

radiative forcing and, 1:8 secondary, 1:8

semi-direct effect, 1:9 thunderstorms and, 3:968 AES. See Applied Energy Services, Inc. (AES) AF. See anthropogenic forcing (AF)

AFCEE (Air Force Center for Environmental Excellence), 1:18

afforestation, 1:9-10

Azerbaijan, 1:109 challenges to, 1:10 defined, 1:9

desertification and, 1:10 as global warming solution, 1:10 Israel, 1:10

as land devastation, 1:10 overgrazing, 1:10 planting programs, 1:9 to replace biomass, 1:127 Afghanistan, 1:10-11

environmental problems, 1:10 forests, 1:11 fossil fuels, 1:11 hydroelectric plants, 1:11 Kyoto Protocol, 1:11 low agricultural production, 1:10-11 refugees, 1:11 UNFCCC, 1:11 AGA. See American Gas Association (AGA) Agarwal, Anil, 1:182

AGBM (Ad Hoc Group on the Berlin Mandate), 1:119

AG&E (American Gas and Electric), 1:45 agriculture, 1:11-15 Afghanistan, 1:10-11 Alabama, 1:19 Arizona, 1:75 Bulgaria, 1:144 civic, 1:15

climate change solutions, 1:11-15 contributions to climate change, 1:13-14 crop rotation, 1:14 in developing countries, 1:319-20 environmental movements, 2:675-76 erosion and, 1:15 Germany, 2:446 GHG and, 1:14

impacts of climate change, 1:11-13

Indonesia, 2:538

Iowa, 2:556

IRI and, 2:551-52

large-scale, 1:15

local foods, 1:15

Louisiana, 2:607 organic, 1:15 Pennsylvania, 3:782 productivity gains, 1:13 research, 1:14 slash and burn, 1:13 soil dynamics, 1:13 soil erosion, 1:15 South Dakota, 3:915 Sweden, 3:944 swidden, 1:13

temperature increases and, 1:12

Thailand, 3:960

Turkey, 3:987

Turkmenistan, 3:987

Uganda, 3:994

United States, 1:13

USDA and, 1:11

Virginia, 3:1066

Wisconsin, 3:1095

Yemen, 3:117

See also farming; land use; movements, environmental AGU. See American Geophysical Union (AGU) Agulhas Current, 1:15-17

Agulhas Return Current, 1:16 completing anti-cyclonic gyre, 1:15 flow characteristics, 1:15-16 location, 1:15 Natal Pulses, 1:17 presence of, 1:16 rings, 1:16-17 significance, 1:16 variations, 1:16 volume flux, 1:15 AIJ (Activities Implemented Jointly), 1:362 Air Force, U.S., 1:18-19 AFCEE, 1:18

environmental planning/engineering, 1:18 flight simulators, 1:18 green energy purchaser, 1:18 See also aviation Air Force Center for Environmental Excellence (AFCEE), 1:18

Alabama, 1:19-20

agriculture, 1:19 CO2 emissions, 1:19 fossil fuels, 1:19 GHG, 1:20 health risks, 1:19 precipitation, 1:19

temperature increases, 1:19 topography, 1:19 Alamsi, P., 1:1 Alaska ACIA, 1:22

Alaska Environmental Resources Hub Online, 1:22 Alaska Village Indoor Air Quality Program, 1:22 alternative fuels, 1:21

Center for Climate Assessment and Policy, 1:22

CO2 emissions, 1:21

energy production, 1:21

environmental programs, 1:21

erosion, 1:20

floods, 1:20

forest fires, 1:20

General Assistance Program, 1:22 GHG, 1:21

grassroots environmental groups, 1:22 Joint Alaska Climate Impact Assessment Commission, 1:22

permafrost, 1:20 renewable energies, 1:22 rising sea levels, 1:20 temperature increases, 1:20 thermokarst slumping, 1:20 topography, 1:20 See also University of Alaska Alaska Climate Research Center, 1:22-23 establishment, 1:22 funding, 1:22 in national spotlight, 1:22 permafrost melt report, 1:23 role, 1:22 Albania, 1:23-24 CO2 emissions, 1:23 dams, 1:23

environmental problems, 1:23 Kyoto Protocol, 1:24 population, 1:23 UNFCCC, 1:24 albedo, 1:24-25 aerosols, 1:9 in astronomy, 1:24

atmospheric absorption of solar radiation,

1:85-86 climate feedback, 1:217 in climatology, 1:24 cloud feedback, 1:254 drift ice, 1:330 dynamical feedback, 1:335 effect, 1:9

ESA, 1:64 feedback, 1:217 origination, 1:24 reflectivity values, 1:24-25 urbanization and, 1:25 See also ice albedo feedback Algeria, 1:25-26 arable land, 1:26 CO2 emissions, 1:26 environmental problems, 1:26 insurgency in, 1:26 Kyoto Protocol, 1:26 UNFCCC, 1:26 Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS), 1:126-28, 2:426

awareness-raising activities, 1:127 binding agreements pursued by, 1:127 climate-change negotiations, 1:127 inception, 1:127 Maldives, 2:616 member states, 1:127 Micronesia, 2:647 Vanuatu, 3:1057 Alliance to Save Energy (ASE), 1:28-30, 1:175 energy-saving industry and, 1:29 history, 1:28-29

Leading By Example: Improving Energy Productivity in

Federal Government Facilities, 1:29 organizations, 1:29 raising public awareness, 1:29 ALPEX (Alpine Experiment), 1:245 Alpine Experiment (ALPEX), 1:245 alternative energy, ethanol, 1:14, 1:30-32 auto enhancement from, 1:32 benefits/drawbacks, 1:31-32 cellulosic ethanol, 1:76 gasohol, 1:30

sources/production process, 1:30 substitution of, 1:31 uses/effects, 1:30-31 viability of, 1:32 worldwide use, 1:31-32 alternative energy, overview, 1:32-37 alternatives to fossil fuels, 1:33 cost of, 1:36-37 defined, 1:33-34 hydroelectricity, 1:35 hydrogen/biomass, 1:36 as renewable energy, 1:33 solar power, 1:36 as sustainable energy, 1:34

uses, 1:34-35 wind power, 1:35-36 alternative energy, solar, 1:37-40 active, 1:37-38 advocates, 1:38 California "power tower," 1:39 concentrating PVs, 1:39 development, 1:38-39 economic barriers, 1:38-39 impacts, 1:39-40 industry growth, 1:39-40 limits of, 1:40 passive, 1:38 as practical, 1:40 roof-mounted systems, 1:39 solar dishes, 1:39 alternative energy, wind, 1:40-43 in action, 1:43

DOE Wind Powering America initiative, 1:43 economic worth, 1:42 EWEA, 1:43 impacts, 1:42-43 limitations/boundaries, 1:43 mechanics, 1:41-42 noise emission, 1:42 results, 1:43 ambient catastrophism, 1:357

American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ACEEE), 1:44-45, 1:278 improving transportation, 1:44 in industry, 1:44 in international arena, 1:44-45 policies, 1:44 projects, 1:44 savings with, 1:44 American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man, 1:178

American Electric Power (AEP), 1:45-46

clean technologies, 1:46 coal-fired plants, 1:46 expansion, 1:45-46 founding of, 1:45 generating units, 1:45 nuclear generation, 1:45 American Gas and Electric (AG&E), 1:45 American Gas Association (AGA), 1:46-47 Climate Change Principles, 1:47 Climate Change Talking Points, 1:47 directors, 1:47 headquarters, 1:46 membership, 1:46

newsletters, 1:47 privileges, 1:47 slogan, 1:47 vision statement, 1:46 website, 1:47 American Gas Magazine, 1:47 American Geophysical Union (AGU), 1:48-49 annual meeting, 1:48

atmospheric and ocean sciences area, 1:48 establishment, 1:48 Executive Committee, 1:48 hydrologic sciences area, 1:48 membership, 1:48 mission, 1:48 official statement, 1:48 solid-Earth sciences area, 1:48 space sciences area, 1:48 American Meteorological Society (AMS), 1:49-50 educational sector, 1:49-50 founding, 1:49 goals, 1:50 members, 1:49 progress, 1:49 publications, 1:49 American monsoons, 2:669

American Society for Environmental History (ASEH), 1:377

AMGRF (Antarctic Marine Geology Research Facility), 2:416

Amnesty International, 2:725-26

AMOC. See Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC)

AMRC. See Antarctic Meteorology Research Center (AMRC)

AMS. See American Meteorological Society (AMS) Andorra, 1:50-51

inactive global climate change policy, 1:50 Kyoto Protocol, 1:50 population, 1:50 ski industry, 1:50 UNFCCC, 1:50 weather service, 1:50 ANDRILL (Antarctic Geological Drilling), 2:416 Angel Falls, 3:1058 Angola, 1:51

CO2 emissions, 1:51

Kyoto Protocol, 1:51

Land God Made in Anger, 1:117

petroleum in, 1:51

population, 1:51 UNFCCC, 1:51 animals, 1:51-57

baleen whales/climate change, 1:55-56 beyond polar bears/penguins, 1:56 bird reproduction/global warming, 1:54-55 erosion and, 1:53

human-induced mass extinctions of, 1:53-54 iconification, 1:51-52

See also marine mammals; specific animals An Inconvenient Truth, 1:52, 1:57-59, 1:142, 1:152, 1:268, 3:808, 3:1013 critics, 1:59 reputation, 1:58-59 reviews, 1:59

An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of

Nations (Smith), 1:160 Annales de chimie et de physique (Fourier), 2:428 Annales d'historie économique et sociale, 1:380 Annales School, 1:380-81

Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), 1:60-61

effect on climate, 1:60 flow of, 1:60

mixer of deep oceans, 1:60-61 shifts in, 1:61 size of, 1:60

West Wind Drift, 1:60-61 Antarctic Geological Drilling (ANDRILL), 2:416 Antarctic ice sheets, 1:61-62, 2:447-48 cryosphere component, 1:61 defined, 1:61

freshwater to oceans, 1:62 melting, 1:61-62 total area, 1:61

See also Greenland ice sheet; sea ice

Antarctic Marine Geology Research Facility (AMGRF), 2:416

Antarctic Meteorology Research Center (AMRC), 1:62-64

data collection, 1:63-64 establishment, 1:62 Anthony, Kenny, 3:878

anthropogenic forcing (AF), 1:64-65, 2:602-3 as change in Earth's energy balance, 1:64 constructing accurate, 1:65 estimation, 1:65

as "human-induced" forcing, 1:64 regional/temporal strength, 1:64-65 anticyclones, 1:65-66 descending air, 1:66

development, 1:66 high, 1:65 ridges, 1:65 Antigua and Barbuda, 1:66-67

CO2 emissions, 1:66 environmental problems, 1:66 hurricanes, 1:66 Kyoto Protocol, 1:67 tourist industry, 1:66-67 UNFCCC, 1:67 antiprotron, 3:1020

ANWR (Arctic National Wildlife Refuge), 1:149 AOSIS. See Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS)

APP. See Asia Pacific Partnership (APP) Applied Energy Services, Inc. (AES), 1:67-68

divisions, 1:68 executive office, 1:68 expansion, 1:67 founding, 1:67 slogan, 1:67 tree planting, 1:67-68 Aptidon, Hassan Gouled, 1:325 Arakawa, Akio, 1:68-69 equations, 1:68-69 GCMs work, 1:68-69 Aral Sea, 3:1052 Arbor Day Foundation, 2:704 Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA), 1:22

Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR), 1:149 Arctic Ocean, 1:69-73

Arctic record problems, 1:72-73 Arctic water column, 1:70 freshwater, 1:70 IRD, 1:71-72 marine life, 1:70-71 physical properties, 1:69-70 sea ice, 1:71-72 Arctic Oscillation, 1:216 Arevalo, Marco Vinicio Cerezo, 2:481 Argentina, 1:73-74 cattle industry, 1:73 CO2 emissions, 1:73 electricity consumption, 1:73 GHG, 1:73-74 heavy rains, 1:74 Kyoto Protocol, 1:74 methane, 1:73 population, 1:73 UNFCCC, 1:74

ARIC. See Atmospheric Research and Information Centre (ARIC); Atmospheric Research and Information Centre (ARIC) Aristotle, 1:122, 1:131, 2:507 Arizona, 1:74-75 agriculture, 1:75

Climate Change Advisory Group, 1:75

climate hardship, 1:75

CO2 emissions, 1:75

elevation, 1:74

floods, 1:74-75

water allotment, 1:75

wildfires, 1:75

See also University of Arizona Arkansas, 1:76-77

cellulosic ethanol, 1:76 CO2 emissions, 1:76 GHG, 1:76 IPCC, 1:76

ivory-billed woodpecker sighted, 1:76 Mayors Climate Protection Agreement, 1:76 recycling, 1:76 ARM. See Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM)

Armenia, 1:77 forests, 1:77 genocide, 1:77 oldest civilization, 1:77 Armstrong, Neil, 2:685 Arrhenius greenhouse law, 1:78-79 Arrhenius, Svante August (1859-1927), 1:77-79, 1:191 Arrhenius greenhouse law, 1:78-79 climate change science father, 1:77-79 physical chemistry founder, 1:77-79 Arthur, Owen, 1:114 Asahi Glass Foundation, 1:129 ASE. See Alliance to Save Energy (ASE) ASEH (American Society for Environmental History),

1:377 Ashby, Jim, 3:1090 El-Ashry, M., 1:358 Asian Hornet, 2:432

Asia Pacific Partnership (APP), 1:101, 1:309 al-Assad, Bashar, 3:946 al-Assad, Hafez, 3:946 Assmann, Richard, 3:933

Association of American Geographers (AAG), 2:438 Assoumani, Azali, 1:268

Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), 1:81-82, 2:639

Atlantic Ocean, 1:79-83

AMOC, 1:81-82 Atlantic Pack Ice, 1:3 CO2 flux, 1:79-81

coastal communities threats, 1:82-83 GHG and, 1:79 hurricanes, 1:83 NAO, 1:79-80 pH, 1:80 salinity, 1:81 sea level rise, 1:82 stratification, 1:80 temperature, 1:82 Atmosphere, Climate and Environment Information Programme UK (ACE-UK), 1:83-85 campaigns, 1:83-84 contributions, 1:84

Encyclopedia of Sustainable Development, 1:84 Encyclopedia of the Atmospheric Environment, 1:84 shift in support, 1:84-85 atmospheric absorption of solar radiation, 1:85-86 albedo, 1:85-86 reflected back to space, 1:85 atmospheric aerosols (AA), 1:64-65 atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), 1:86-87 CBL, 1:86

cumulus convection, 1:87 diurnal cycle, 1:87 fluctuations, 1:86 SBL, 1:86-87 SL, 1:86

temperature, 1:86 atmospheric component of models, 1:88-89

advanced modifications, 1:89 improvements, 1:88-89 atmospheric composition, 1:89-90 biosphere, 1:89 change processes, 1:90 mesosphere, 1:89 stratosphere, 1:89 troposphere, 1:89 atmospheric emission of infrared radiation, 1:90-91 climate forcing agents, 1:91 climatologic research, 1:91 global temperature records, 1:90-91 atmospheric general circulation models, 1:91-93 computer-driven mathematical models, 1:91 future developments, 1:93 improvements, 1:91-92 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM), 1:254

Atmospheric Research and Information Centre (ARIC), 1:83, 1:93-94 Noise and Community Impacts, 1:94 research branches, 1:94 role, 1:93

atmospheric temperature profile feedback. See lapse rate feedback atmospheric vertical structure, 1:94-95

altitude, 1:94 density, 1:94 normal lapse rate, 1:95 stratospheric warming, 1:95 attribution of global warming, 1:95-99 aerosols, 1:98

counterarguments, 1:97-98 effects, 1:98

feedback processes, 1:97 flying, 1:98

greenhouse effect, 1:95 human-induced climate change, 1:96-97 hurricanes and typhoons, 1:98 Kyoto Protocol, 1:98-99 aurora, 1:99-100 aurora australis, 1:95, 1:99 aurora borealis, 1:95, 1:99 defined, 1:99 frequency, 1:100 light displays, 1:99 polar, 1:99 research, 1:100 aurora australis, 1:95, 1:99 aurora borealis, 1:95, 1:99 Australia, 1:100-102 APP, 1:101, 1:309 climate, 1:208 climate change, 1:101 CO2 emissions, 1:101 GHG, 1:102

indigenous peoples, 1:100-101 Kyoto Protocol, 1:101 population, 1:100

stationary energy/power stations, 1:101 sustainability, 3:940 UNFCCC, 1:101

U.S.-Australia Climate Action Partnership, 1:101 Austria, 1:102-3

CO2 emissions, 1:102 glaciers, retreating, 1:102 GW7, 1:102 Kyoto Protocol, 1:102 population, 1:102

prosperity, 1:102 sola power, 1:103 UNFCCC, 1:102 authtrophs, 1:162 automata theory, 3:1068 Automatic Weather Station (AWS), 1:63 automobiles, 1:103-6 California, 1:151 coal gasification, 1:105 Cuba, 1:292 fuel-efficiency, 1:103 hybrid/electric vehicles, 1:104-5 hydrogen-powered vehicles, 1:105-6 ICE, 1:103

investment/choices, 1:106 PHEVs, 1:103 Avery, Dennis, 1:1 aviation, 1:106-9 environmental impact, 1:107 increased air travel, 1:107 new technology, 1:107-8 reducing impacts, 1:108-9 See also Air Force, U.S. AWS. See Automatic Weather Station (AWS) Azerbaijan, 1:109 afforestation, 1:109 desert conditions, 1:109 GHG, 1:109 Kyoto Protocol, 1:109 natural resources, 1:109 rising Caspian Sea, 1:109 soil damage, 1:109 UNFCCC, 1:109 Azocar, Patricio Aylwin, 1:193

BADC. See British Atmospheric Data Centre (BADC) Bahamas, 1:111-12 CO2 emissions, 1:111 hurricanes, 1:111 Kyoto Protocol, 1:111 rising temperatures, 1:111 UNFCCC, 1:111 Bahrain, 1:112 bus system, 1:112 CO2 emissions, 1:112 Kyoto Protocol, 1:112 population, 1:112 temperatures, 1:112 UNFCCC, 1:112 wealth from petroleum, 1:112

Baillie, Mike, 1:2-3 Balaguer, Joaquín, 1:327 baleen whales, 1:55-56 Balladares, Ernesto Pérez, 3:778 Bangladesh, 1:112-14

Bangladesh Wetlands Network, 1:113 climate change, 1:113 forests, 1:112

International Dialogue on Water and Climate, 1:113 Kyoto Protocol, 1:113 natural gas, 1:113 population, 1:11 rainfall, 1:113 sea level rise, 1:113 Barbados, 1:114 CO2 emissions, 1:114

Global Conference on the Sustainable Development of

Small Island Developing States, 1:114 Kyoto Protocol, 1:114 population, 1:114 SIDS member, 1:114 UNFCCC, 1:114 Barker, Edmund William, 3:898 Bates, Marston, 1:377 Beaufort, Francis, 2:508 Beebe, Mike, 1:76 Behera, Swadhin, 3:1046 Belarus, 1:114-15 CO2 emissions, 1:114-15 Kyoto Protocol, 1:115 pollution, 1:114 population, 1:114 public transportation, 1:115 UNFCCC, 1:115 Belgium, 1:115-16 CO2 emissions, 1:115 electricity production, 1:115 Green movements, 1:115 Kyoto Protocol, 1:115 population, 1:115 UNFCCC, 1:115 Belize, 1:116 Barrier Reef, 1:116 cyclones, 1:116 forests, 1:116 GHG, 1:116 population, 1:116 rising sea levels, 1:116 Benguela Current, 1:116-18, 3:913-14 cold, 1:117 El Niño, 1:117

location, 1:116-17 marine ecosystem, 1:117 problems, 1:117 Benin, 1:118 climate change, 1:118 CO2 emissions, 1:118 environmental issues, 1:118 Kyoto Protocol, 1:118 Berlin Mandate, 1:118-19 AGBM, 1:119 negotiating sessions, 1:119 reaching of, 1:118-19 Bhutan, 1:119-21 forests, 1:120 Kyoto Protocol, 1:120 low car use, 1:120 population, 1:119, 1:120 UNFCCC, 1:120 bicycles, 1:287 Big Coal (Goodell), 2:753 biodiversity

Brazil, 1:136-37 deserts, 1:316

reduction in Nicaragua, 2:719 biogeochemical feedbacks, 1:121-22, 1:217

in biosphere-pedosphere-hydrosphere-atmosphere system, 1:121 DMS, 1:121-22 manifesting, 1:122 positive, 1:121 study, 1:121 biogeography, 3:921-22 biological oceanography, 2:741 biology, 1:122-26

climate change tragedy, 1:124-25 conservation, 1:124-25 evolutionary, 1:123 evolution/extinction, 1:125-26 first among Greeks, 1:122 in Middle Ages, 1:122 taxonomy, 1:122 biomass, 1:36, 1:126-27 burning, 1:162 carbon neutral, 1:126 decay process, 1:126 from grass species, 1:126 plantation/afforestation to replace, 1:127 biomass to liquids (BTL), 3:872 Bird, Lester, 1:67 Bird, Vere, 1:67 bird reproduction, 1:54-55

Biya, Paul, 1:154

Bjerknes, Wilhelm, 2:506, 2:508, 3:789 Black Sea, 3:995 Blair, Tony, 1:85, 3:999 Blasco, D. A., 1:74 blizzards, 1:127-28 during clear skies, 1:127 deaths from, 1:127-28 defined, 1:127 frequency, 1:128

inter- and intra-annual variations, 1:128 massive snowdrifts, 1:128 physical/meteorological factors, 1:128 production of, 1:127 in warm climates, 1:128 Bloch, Marc, 1:380 Blum, Mike, 2:610 Blytt, Axel, 3:791 Bodman, Samuel, 1:149 Bolin, Bert (1925- ), 1:129, 3:789 Blue Planet Prize winner, 1:129 IPCC leader, 1:129 Tellus editor, 1:129 Bolivia, 1:129-30 climate change, 1:130 Kyoto Protocol, 1:130 population, 1:129 UNFCCC, 1:130 Vienna Convention, 1:130 Bonani, G., 1:1 Bond, G., 1:1 Bongo, Omar, 2:435 Bookchin, Murray, 3:905-6 Borgstrom, Georg, 1:343 Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1:130 Bosnian War, 1:130 CO2 emissions, 1:130 hydropower, 1:130 Kyoto Protocol, 1:130 population, 1:130 Vienna Convention, 1:130 botany, 1:130-34

cherry trees studies, 1:133-34 climate zone changes, 1:132-33 cytology, 1:131-32 economic, 1:131-32 genetics, 1:131-32 global warming evidence, 1:133-34 greenhouse effect, 1:131 histology, 1:131-32 morphology, 1:131-32

pathology, 1:131-32 plant ecology, 1:131-32 plant physiology, 1:131-32 taxonomy, 1:131-32 Botswana, 1:134 CO2 emissions, 1:134 crocodile populations, 1:134 Kyoto Protocol, 1:134 population, 1:134 rainfall, 1:134 Boucher's Sulfate Burden, 1:240 Bouteflika, Abdelaziz, 1:26 Boxer, Barbara, 3:807 Boxing Day Tsunami Indonesia, 2:539 Myanmar, 2:680 Thailand, 3:960 Boyd, David R., 1:302 BP, 1:135-36 BP Solar, 1:135 criticism, 1:136 GHG and, 1:135 hydrogen projects, 1:135-36 mergers, 1:135

renewable energy sources, 1:135 Bradbury, Ray, 1:186-87 Braithwaite, Nicholas, 2:478 Brandes, H. W., 2:508 Braudel, Fernand, 1:381 Brazil, 1:136-38 Avoided Deforestation, 1:136-37 biodiversity, 1:136-37 climate change, 1:136 CO2 emissions, 1:136 deforestation, 1:303 GHG, 1:137

Kyoto Protocol, 1:136-37 "savanization," 1:136-37 Brimblecombe, Peter, 1:377 British Atmospheric Data Centre (BADC), 1:219 Brockingon, Dan, 1:56 Broeckner, Walter, 1:268 Broeker, Wallace (1931- ), 1:138-39 GEOSECS leader, 1:138 "iconoclastic guru of the climate debate," 1:138 oceanic cycles study, 1:139 Brooks, Charles Franklin, 1:49 Browne, John, 1:135 Brundtland Report, 3:1064 Brunei Darussalam, 1:139 forests, 1:139

fossil fuels, 1:139 Kyoto Protocol, 1:139 population, 1:139 Bryan, Kirk (1921- ), 1:139-41, 2:442, 2:619, 2:662 Bryan-Cox Code, 1:140 Maurice Ewing Medal winner, 1:140 Bryan-Cox Code, 1:140 Bryden, Harry, 2:484 Bryson, Reid (1920- ), 1:141-42, 2:506 climatology approaches, 1:141-42 global warming and humans theory, 1:141-42 BTL (biomass to liquids), 3:872 Bubnov, Vitaly, 1:391

Budyko, Mikhail (1920-2001), 1:142-44, 3:904 achievements, 1:143 IMO prize winner, 1:143 Lenin National Prize winner, 1:143 physical climatology coined by, 1:142 research, 1:143

snowball earth/nuclear winter studies, 1:143-44 Building Codes Assistance Project, 1:29 Bulgaria, 1:144-45 agriculture, 1:144 droughts, 1:144 GHG, 1:144 SCCGC, 1:144 tourism, 1:144 water rationing, 1:144 "bundled" green power, 1:158 Burkina Faso, 1:145 floods, 1:145 Kyoto Protocol, 1:145 population, 1:145 Burundi, 1:145-46 climate change, 1:145-46 CO2 emissions, 1:146 Kyoto Protocol, 1:146 overgrazing, 1:145 population, 1:145 Bush, George H. W., 3:1009 Bush, George W., 1:85, 1:311, 2:509, 3:909, 3:1008 Bush, Jeb, 2:414

Bush (George H. W.) administration, 1:146-47

cautious global warming position, 1:146 disappointment to environmentalists, 1:147 Earth Summit and, 1:147 Kyoto Protocol and, 1:147 Bush (George W.) administration, 1:147-49 global warming denial, 1:148 Kyoto Protocol rejected by, 1:148-49, 1:268 U.S. policy and, 2:806-7

Business Council for Sustainable Energy, 1:29

Buttel, Frederick, 1:383

"butterfly effect," 1:186

Byrd Polar Research Center, 2:750

Byrne, John, 1:305

Caldicott, Helen, 1:58 California, 1:151-52

automobiles, 1:151 climate change, 1:151 CO2 emissions, 1:151 earthquakes, 1:151 firestorms, 1:151 GHG, 1:151

Santa Ana Winds, 1:151 smog, 1:151

See also University of California

California Air Resources Board (CARB), 1:152 California Institute of Technology, 1:152-53 Callejas, Rafael Leonardo, 2:512 Cambodia, 1:153 CO2 emissions, 1:153 Kyoto Protocol, 1:153 population, 1:153 rising water levels, 1:153 undeveloped country, 1:153 UNFCCC, 1:153 Vienna Convention, 1:153 Cameroon, 1:153-54 CO2 emissions, 1:154 Kyoto Protocol, 1:154 population, 1:153 UNFCCC, 1:154 Vienna Convention, 1:154 CAN. See Climate Action Network (CAN) Canada, 1:154-58

Canadian Association for Renewable Energies, 1:158

GeoExchange ownership, 1:158 Green Heat Partnership, 1:158 "Green Power Certificate," 1:158 projects, 1:158 Canadian Geophysical Union, 1:48 Cantor Fitzgerald EBS (CFEBS), 1:159-60 brokerage services, 1:159 in crude oil market, 1:159 "cap and trade," 1:364-65 Cape Verde, 1:160 CO emissions, 1:160

electricity production, 1:160 Kyoto Protocol, 1:160 population, 1:160 Vienna Convention, 1:160 capitalism, 1:160-61 democracy and, 1:161 expansion, 1:161 pollution and, 1:161 public involvement, 1:161 social welfare, 1:161 socioeconomic system, 1:160 trade, 1:160-61 workers, 1:161 CARB (California Air Resources Board), 1:152 carbon capture and storage (CCS), 1:170, 1:261 carbon credits, 2:566 carbon cycle, 1:162-63 biomass burning, 1:162-63 carbon sinks, 1:162-63 feedback, 1:217 Global Carbon Cycle, 3:1049 human climate system, 1:162 impact, 1:162 oceans, 1:163

organic matter building block, 1:162 carbon dioxide (CO2), 1:64, 1:163-64

GHG and, 2:472-73 global warming and, 2:456 Keeling Curve, 1:163-64 natural gas and, 2:698-99 naturally occurring, 1:163 plant absorption, 3:792 plant storage, 1:163 sunlight wavelengths, 1:163 See also CO2 emissions carbon footprint, 1:166-67 carbon tax, 1:167 role, 1:166-67 Carboniferous Period, 3:792, 3:794 carbon permits, 1:167-69 carbon taxes vs., 1:168-69 ETS, 1:168 carbon sequestration, 1:169-70 accomplishing, 1:169-70 advanced capture techniques, 1:170 oxyfuel combustion, 1:170 post-combustion, 1:170 pre-combustion, 1:170 soil and, 1:169 Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum (CSLF), 1:308-9

carbon cycle and, 1:162-63 defined, 1:170 forests as, 1:171 fossil fuels and, 1:170 oceans as, 1:171 carbon tax, 1:167

carbon permits vs., 1:168-69 Denmark, 1:306 carbon trading, 3:798

Caribbean Community (CARICOM), 1:485, 2:116 CARICOM. See Caribbean Community (CARICOM) Carson, Rachel, 2:551 Carter, Jimmy, 1:28

Catastrophe: A Quest for the Origins of the Modern World (Keys), 1:2

CATE (Centre for Air Transport and the Environment),

1:93-94 Catton, William, 1:343, 1:382 CBL (convective boundary layer), 1:86 CBM (Certified Broadcast Meteorologist), 1:49 CCAP. See Center for Clean Air Policy (CCAP) CCC. See Colorado Climate Center (CCC) CCCSTI (Committee on Climate Change Science and

Technology Integration), 1:308 CCKN. See Climate Change Knowledge Network (CCKN)

CCM (Certified Consulting Meteorologist programs), 1:49

CCM (Community Climate Model), 1:224 CCN. See cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) CCS. See carbon capture and storage (CCS) CCSM. See Community Climate System Model (CCSM) CCTP. See U.S. Climate Change Technology Program (CCTP)

CCX (Chicago Climate Exchange), 1:46

CDMP (Climate Database Modernization Program), 2:648

CDMs. See Clean Development Mechanisms (CDMs)

CEITs (Countries with Economics in Transition), 1:442

cellulose, 1:14

cellulosic ethanol, 1:76

Celsius, Anders, 2:508

CENEf. See Center for Energy Efficiency (CENEf) Cenozoic Era, 1:171-73, 2:520-22

Early Eocene Climatic Optimum, 1:171-72

global cooling, 1:172

Holocene Epoch, 1:173

hothouse to icehouse, 1:172-73

Initial Eocene Thermal Maximum, 1:171

Miocene Climate Optimum, 1:172

Pliocene Epoch, 1:172-73

Center for Clean Air Policy (CCAP), 1:173-74

collaborations, 1:173-74 goals, 1:174

international initiatives, 1:174 mission statement, 1:173 role, 1:174 successes, 1:174 Center for Energy Efficiency (CENEf), 1:174-76 contacts, 1:175 founding, 1:175 policy involvement, 1:175-76 Center for Environment, 1:286

Center for Environmental Science and Policy (CESP), 3:929 Center for Global Change (CGC), 1:284 Center for Integrative Environmental Research (CIER), 3:1032

Center for International Climate and Environment Research (CICERO), 1:176-77

climate policies program, 1:176 collaborations, 1:177 energy regulations research, 1:177 establishment, 1:176 scholars, 1:176-77 scientific basis program, 1:176 socioeconomic costs/benefits program, 1:176 Center for International Environmental Law (CIEL), 1:177-79 advisory role, 1:177-78 Arctic/Subarctic issues, 1:177-79 Climate Change Program, 1:178-79 Center for Ocean-Atmospheric Prediction Studies (COAPS), 1:179-82, 2:416 air/sea interaction research, 1:179 Earth's climate, 1:180 freeze forecast, 1:181 FSU In-Situ Fluxes, 1:179-80 Gulf of Mexico research, 1:181 ocean modeling, 1:180-81 risk assessment, 1:181-82 role, 1:179

satellite studies, 1:182 weather/crop reports, 1:179 Center for Science and Environment (India), 1:182-83

citizens' reports, 1:182-83

Dying Wisdom: Rise, Fall and Potential of Water

Harvesting Systems, 1:183 founder of, 1:182

State of India's Environment, 1:182-83 State of India's Environment: Floodplains and

Environmental Myths, 1:183 summit, 1:183

Center for Science in the Earth System (CSES), 2:568 Central African Republic, 1:184

CO2 emissions, 1:184 forests, 1:184 Kyoto Protocol, 1:184 population, 1:184 UNFCCC, 1:184 water shortages, 1:184 Centre for Air Transport and the Environment (CATE), 1:93-94

CERs. See Certified Emissions Reductions (CERs) Certified Broadcast Meteorologist (CBM), 1:49 Certified Consulting Meteorologist programs (CCM), 1:49

Certified Emissions Reductions (CERs), 1:137, 2:587 CESP (Center for Environmental Science and Policy),

3:929 cetaceans, 2:620 Cevallos, Rodrigo Borja, 1:352 CF. See climate feedback (CF) CFCs. See chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) CFEBS. See Cantor Fitzgerald EBS (CFEBS) CFP (climate feedback parameter), 1:217 CGC (Center for Global Change), 1:284 Chad, 1:184 climate change, 1:184 CO2 emissions, 1:184 Kyoto Protocol, 1:184 population, 1:184 UNFCCC, 1:184 Vienna Convention, 1:184 Chamberlain, Thomas C. (1843-1928), 1:185-86 Journal of Geology founder, 1:185 methodology, 1:186 planetesimal hypothesis, 1:185-86 Chamberlin, Rollin, 1:185 "Champions of the World" award, 1:307 Changma front, 2:583 chaos theory, 1:186-88, 2:606-7 beginnings, 1:186-87 "butterfly effect," 1:186 defined, 1:186 emergence, 1:187 features, 1:187 post-Newtonian idea, 1:186 uses, 1:187 Charles, Eugenia, 1:327

Charney, Jule Gregory (1917-81), 1:188-89, 3:789, 3:902

dynamics of atmospheres/oceans research, 1:188 GARP and, 1:188, 2:451

"long waves" influence, 1:188 Meisinger Award winner, 1:189 Rossby Medal winner, 1:189 Chauvin, Yves, 1:193 chemical oceanography, 2:741 chemistry, 1:189-93 as academic discipline, 1:189 atmospheric conditions and, 1:191 atoms, 1:189

of climate change, 1:190-91 Fourier transform techniques, 1:190 GHG and, 1:192 of global warming, 1:190-92 green, 1:192-93 of greenhouse effect, 1:190-92 inorganic, 1:190 isotopes, 1:190 molecules, 1:190 Nobel Prize, 1:193 organic, 1:190 periodic table, 1:189 physical, 1:190 reactivity, 1:189-90 Cheney, Dick, 3:1012 Chernobyl nuclear accident, 1:29 Chesby, M., 1:1

Chicago Climate Exchange (CCX), 1:46 Chile, 1:193-94 CO2 emissions, 1:193 El Nino effect, 1:193 Kyoto Protocol, 1:193 ozone hole, 1:193 population, 1:193 UNFCCC, 1:193 Vienna Convention, 1:193 China, 1:194-98 climate change, 1:195-96 climate change policy, 1:197 CO2 emissions, 1:197 deforestation, 1:303 Green Lights Program, 1:44 Guliy Ice Cap, 1:195 lake expansion, 1:196 Little Ice Age, 1:195 monsoons, 1:196

Motor Systems Energy Conservation Program, 1:44

paleoclimate records, 1:194-95

permafrost, 1:196

reforestation, 1:196

Renewable Energy Law, 1:197

Tibetan Plateau impact, 1:194

water shortages, 1:194 westerlies, 1:196 chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), 1:64-65, 2:473, 3:1008 Christopher, Warren Minor, 1:253, 1:310-11 chromatography, 1:191 Church, Frank, 2:525 Churchill, Winston, 1:58

CICERO. See Center for International Climate and Environment Research (CICERO)

Cicerone2, 1:176-77

CIEL. See Center for International Environmental Law (CIEL)

CIER (Center for Integrative Environmental Research), 3:1032

CIFAR. See Cooperative Institute for Arctic Research (CIFAR)

civic agriculture, 1:15 Clapham, Roy, 1:350

Clean Air Act of 1963 - U.S. (CAA), 1:148, 1:168, 1:198-99

amendments, 1:198 passage, 1:198

Clean Development Mechanisms (CDMs), 1:137, 1:168, 1:174, 1:199-201, 1:215, 2:587 controversy, 1:200 current modalities, 1:199 establishment, 1:199 project comment period, 1:200 project cycle, 1:199 project validation, 1:200 structures overseeing projects, 1:199 Clean Energy Initiative, 1:309 Clear Skies Act, 1:148 Cleveland, Grover, 2:525 CLIMAP Project, 1:201

mapping oceanic conditions, 1:201 SSTs, 1:201 climate, 1:202-8 ACC affecting, 1:60 Africa, 1:204-5 Americas, 1:207-8 "angry beast" theory, 1:138-39 Antarctica, 1:208 Arizona, 1:75 Asia, 1:205-6 Australia, 1:208 cold, 1:204

Earth's orbit and, 1:203 Earth's tilt and, 1:202 Europe, 1:206-7 greenhouse effect and, 1:202-4

Michigan, 2:646 Missouri, 2:656

modeling of ocean circulation, 2:661 Nebraska, 2:703 New Hampshire, 2:710 New Mexico, 2:713-14 New Zealand, 1:208 North Carolina, 2:729 Ogallala Aquifer and, 2:703 Pakistan, 3:773 plants and, 3:791 rain, 1:203 Rhode Island, 3:863 rising, 1:202 salinity and, 3:881 sea ice role, 3:888 Serbia and Montenegro, 3:895 South Carolina, 3:913-14 South Dakota, 3:915 species extinction and, 3:921-22 tourism and, 3:972-73 tropical rainforests, 1:227 tropical savanna, 1:227 tundra, 1:227 Uganda, 3:993-94 warm, blizzards in, 1:128 water vapor and, 1:203 weather vs., 3:1083 wind, 1:203 See also paleoclimates Climate Action Network (CAN), 1:208-10 establishment, 1:209 Kyoto three-track system, 1:209 programs, 1:209 Climate and Time (Croll), 1:291 climate change, effects, 1:210-14 agricultural contributions, 1:13-14 agricultural impacts, 1:11-13 agriculture solutions, 1:11-15 Andorra, 1:50

anthropogenic activities, 1:210

Australia, 1:101

baleen whales and, 1:55-56

Bangladesh, 1:113

Benin, 1:118

Bolivia, 1:130

Brazil, 1:136

Burundi, 1:145-46

California, 1:151

Chad, 1:184

changing ecosystems, 1:213-14

chemistry, 1:190-91 China, 1:195-96 climate variability, 1:210 conservation and, 1:282 Cuba, 1:292

David Suzuki Foundation, 1:301-2 desertification, 1:314 diseases, 1:324-25 food production and, 2:420-21 freshwater supply, 1:212-13 GHG, 1:210

glaciers, retreating, 1:211 health, 1:214

history of meteorology, 2:509

human-induced, 1:96-97, 1:210

IPCC defining, 2:544

maximum sustainable yield, 2:630

Nebraska, 2:703

New Hampshire, 2:711

New Jersey, 2:712-13

New Mexico, 2:714

New York, 2:716-17

North Carolina, 2:729-30

Ohio, 2:749

Oklahoma, 2:757-58

Oregon, 2:763

plants and, 3:792-94

radiative forcing, 1:210

Rhode Island, 3:863-64

sea level rise, 1:212

skeptics, 1:1

SO2 and, 3:935-36

solutions, 1:14-15

species extinction and, 3:923-24

technology for abating, 3:951-53

Texas, 3:958-59

tragedy in biology, 1:124-25

water resources/temperature rise, 1:211-12 weather, 1:213-14

See also abrupt climate changes; detection of climate changes

Climate Change Knowledge Network (CCKN), 1:21415

aims, 1:214-15 CDMs, 1:215 establishment, 1:214 headquarters, 1:215 joint projects, 1:215 negotiator training, 1:215

climate cycles, 1:215-16

Archaic or Pre-Cambria eras, 1:215

Arctic Oscillation, 1:216

causes, 1:216

discovery, 1:216

ENSO, 1:216

Hale cycle, 1:216

ice age, 1:216

NAO, 1:216

Pacific decadal Oscillation, 1:216 shorter, 1:216

Climate Database Modernization Program (CDMP), 2:648 climate feedback (CF), 1:217-18

biogeochemical cycles feedback, 1:217

carbon cycle feedback, 1:217

cloud feedbacks, 1:217

defined, 1:217

dynamical feedback, 1:217

fast negative, 1:217

ice/snow albedo feedback, 1:217

lapse rate feedback, 1:217

measure of, 1:217-18

models, 1:217-18

ocean circulation/marine life feedbacks, 1:217 RF vs., 1:217 strength of, 1:217 water vapor feedback, 1:217 climate feedback parameter (CFP), 1:217 climate forcing, 1:218-19 atmosphere, 1:218 convection, 1:218-19 energy flows, 1:218 GHG, 1:218

glaciers, retreating, 1:219 global energy balance, 1:219 mechanisms, 1:218 plants, 1:219 climate impacts LINK project (LINK), 1:219-20 analytical models, 1:220 establishment, 1:219 funding, 1:219-20 reducing GHG, 1:220 climate models, 1:220-23 advanced, 1:222 computational power, 1:221-22 controversy, 1:220 data, 1:222-23

mathematical formulae, 1:220 Moore's Law, 1:221-22 scientific basis, 1:221 scientific method, 1:220

See also historical development of climate models; validation of climate models

Climate Monitor, 1:252

Climate Process Teams (CPT), 1:224

climate sensitivity (CS), 1:217

climate sensitivity and feedbacks, 1:223-24

computer models, 1:223 controversy/improvements, 1:223-24 CS, 1:217 defined, 1:223

steady temperature rise, 1:223-24 Climates of Hunger (Bryson), 1:141 Climate System Model (CSM), 1:224 climate thresholds, 1:225 methane, 1:225

Permian-Triassic Extinction, 1:225 runaway greenhouse effects, 1:225 climate variability, 1:210 Climate VISION, 1:309 climate zones, 1:225-28 continental steppe, 1:227 desert/highland, 1:227 deserts, 1:315 dry, 1:227

global warming effects, 1:227-28 hardiness, 1:227 high latitude, 1:227 humid continental, 1:227 humid subtropical, 1:227 Kôppen climate classification system, 1:226-27 low latitude, 1:227 marine west coast, 1:227 Mediterranean, 1:227 middle latitude, 1:227 polar ice, 1:227 sub-arctic, 1:227 tropical rainforests, 1:227 tropical savanna, 1:227 tundra, 1:227 climatic data, atmospheric observations, 1:228-30 air temperature, 1:228 composition, 1:228 contemporary methods, 1:229-30 history, 1:229 humidity, 1:228 instruments, 1:228 pressure, 1:228 radiation, 1:228 reanalysis projects, 1:229 uncertainties, 1:229

weather prediction, 1:228 wind speed/direction, 1:228 climatic data, cave records, 1:230-31 animal remains, 1:230 isotopic shifts, 1:231 plant remains, 1:230 speleothems, 1:230-31 climatic data, historical records, 1:231-33 accurate reconstruction, 1:232 archeological remains, 1:233 climate stations, 1:232-33 meeting criteria, 1:232-33 tree rings, 1:233 climatic data, ice observations, 1:233-36 direct ice observations, 1:235 glaciers, retreating, 1:235-36 global air temperatures, 1:234 global ice masses, 1:234 global ice/snow cover decrease, 1:233-34 ice observations of Alpine glaciers, 1:235-36 indirect ice observations, 1:234-35 modern ice observations, 1:235 polar regions, 1:233 climatic data, instrumental records, 1:236-37 global data, 1:237 satellite data, 1:237 weather balloon data, 1:237 climatic data, lake records, 1:238-39 aeolian sediments, 1:238 chemical proxies, 1:239 fluvial/fossil sediments, 1:238-39 climatic data, nature of the data, 1:239-41 Boucher's Sulfate Burden, 1:240 proxy variables, 1:240-41 radiation, 1:240 variables, 1:240 climatic data, oceanic observations, 1:241-42 COADS, 1:241

deep-sea hydrographic, 1:241-42 long-term buoy arrays, 1:242 OWS, 1:241

RAPID mooring array, 1:242 climatic data, proxy records, 1:242-43

glaciological proxy, 1:243 human proxy, 1:242 natural proxy, 1:243 time spans of records, 1:243 climatic data, reanalysis, 1:243-45 global scales, 1:244-45 regional scales, 1:244-45

climatic data, sea floor records chemical/biological studies, 1:246 DSDP, 1:245-46 OAEs, 1:247 time-scale, 1:246 climatic data, sediment records, 1:247-49 biogenic components, 1:247 interpreting, 1:249 magnetic components, 1:247 past climate conditions, 1:247-48 radiochemical components, 1:247 climatic data, tree ring records, 1:249-51 cell-enlargement, 1:250 conifers vs. deciduous species, 1:250 cross-matching patterns, 1:250 diameter tree growth, 1:249 growing seasons, 1:249 long-term growth, 1:250 Climatic Research Unit (CRU), 1:236, 1:251-52 Climate Monitor, 1:252 founding, 1:251 scientific staff, 1:251 Cline, William R., 1:319 Clinton, William, 1:252-53, 1:310,

3:1009, 3:1010 Clinton administration, 1:252-53 environmental racism and, 1:252 Forest Plan for a Sustainable Economy and a

Sustainable Environment, 1:252 Three Gorges Project, 1:253 Undersecretary for Global Affairs, 1:253 cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), 1:8-9, 1:258 cloud feedback, 1:217, 1:253-54 cloud albedo, 1:254 cloud cover, 1:254 cloud emissivity, 1:254 cloud height, 1:254 cloud lifetime effect, 1:9 clouds, cirrus, 1:254-56 cirro-stratus, 1:254-55 cirrus aviaticus, 1:255 cirrus castellanus, 1:255 cirrus fibratus, 1:255 cirrus floccus, 1:255 cirrus intortus, 1:255 cirrus Kelvin-Helmholtz, 1:255 cirrus radiatus, 1:255 cirrus spissatus, 1:255 cirrus uncinus, 1:255 cirrus vertebratus, 1:255

cirrus with mammatus, 1:255 composition, 1:254 in fair weather, 1:255 formations, 1:254-55 high altitude, 1:255 in troposphere, 1:255 clouds, cumulus, 1:256-57 base, 1:256

convective circulation, 1:256-57 defined boundaries, 1:256 global warming increasing, 1:257 towers, 1:256 virtual temperature, 1:256 clouds, stratus, 1:257-58 altostratus, 1:257 cirrostratus, 1:258 fog, 1:257 formation, 1:257 at low altitude, 1:257 stratocumulus, 1:257 stratocumulus cumuliformis, 1:257 stratocumulus undulatus, 1:257 in troposphere, 1:258 CO2. See carbon dioxide (CO2) CO2 emissions, 1:165-66 controlling, 1:166 current volume, 1:165-66 fossil fuels and, 1:166 livestock and, 1:166 natural sources, 1:165 transportation and, 3:979

See also carbon dioxide (CO2); greenhouse gases (GHG)

CO2 emissions (U.S.) Alabama, 1:19 Alaska, 1:21 Arizona, 1:75 Arkansas, 1:76 California, 1:151 Colorado, 1:263 Connecticut, 1:278 Delaware, 1:304 Florida, 2:413 Georgia, 2:443-44 Idaho, 2:526 Illinois, 2:528 Indiana, 2:535 Iowa, 2:556-57 Kansas, 2:573 Kentucky, 2:579 Louisiana, 2:607

Maine, 2:612 Maryland, 2:622 Massachusetts, 2:624 Minnesota, 2:651 Mississippi, 2:654 Missouri, 2:656 Montana, 2:670-71 Nebraska, 2:704 Nevada, 2:709 New Jersey, 2:713 New Mexico, 2:714 New York, 2:716 North Carolina, 2:730 North Dakota, 2:731 Oklahoma, 2:758 Oregon, 2:763 Rhode Island, 3:863 Tennessee, 3:956 Utah, 3:1049-50 Vermont, 3:1059 Virginia, 3:1065 Washington, 3:1075 West Virginia, 3:1090 Wisconsin, 3:1095 Wyoming, 3:1115 CO2 emissions (world countries) Albania, 1:23 Algeria, 1:26 Angola, 1:51

Antigua and Barbuda, 1:66 Argentina, 1:73 Australia, 1:101 Austria, 1:102 Bahamas, 1:111 Bahrain, 1:112 Barbados, 1:114 Belarus, 1:114-15 Belgium, 1:115 Benin, 1:118

Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1:130

Botswana, 1:134

Brazil, 1:136

Burundi, 1:146

Cambodia, 1:153

Cameroon, 1:154

Cape Verde, 1:160

Central African Republic, 1:184

Chad, 1:184

Chile, 1:193

China, 1:197

Congo, Democratic Republic, 1:276

Costa Rica, 1:287

Malawi, 2:614-15

Cote d'loire, 1:288

Malaysia, 2:615

Croatia, 1:290

Mali, 2:617

Cuba, 1:292

Malta, 2:617

Cyprus, 1:299

Mauritania, 2:627

Czech Republic, 1:299

Mauritius, 2:627

Denmark, 1:305

Mexico, 2:645

Dominica, 1:326-27

Moldova, 2:665

Dominican Republic, 1:327

Monaco, 2:665-66

Ecuador, 1:352

Morocco, 2:673

Egypt, 1:358

Mozambique, 2:677

El Salvador, 1:361

Myanmar, 2:680

Equatorial Guinea, 1:390

Namibia, 2:681

Eritrea, 1:392

Nauru, 2:701

Estonia, 1:393

Niger, 2:719

Ethiopia, 1:395

Nigeria, 2:720

Fiji, 2:408

Norway, 2:731

France, 2:433

Ohio, 2:749

Gabon, 2:435

Oman, 2:758

Gambia, 2:437

Palau, 3:775

Georgia, 2:442

Panama, 3:778

Germany, 2:446

Papua New Guinea, 3:779

Ghana, 2:447

Paraguay, 3:779

Greece, 2:463

Philippines, 3:788

Grenada, 2:478

Poland, 3:797-98

Guatemala, 2:481

Qatar, 3:833

Guinea-Bissau, 2:482

Romania, 3:868

Haiti, 2:489

Royal Dutch/Shell Group and, 3:872-73

Hawaii, 2:494

Russia, 3:874-75

Honduras, 2:511

Rwanda, 3:876

Hungary, 2:513

Saint Kitts and Nevis, 3:877

Indonesia, 2:538

Saint Lucia, 3:878

Iran, 2:558

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, 3:878

Iraq, 2:559

Samoa, 3:881

Ireland, 2:560

San Marino, 3:882

Israel, 2:560-61

Säo Tomé and Principe, 3:883

Italy, 2:561-62

Saudi Arabia, 3:884

Japan, 2:564

Senegal, 3:894

Jordan, 2:569

Seychelles, 3:895

Kazakhstan, 2:576

Sierra Leone, 3:896

Kuwait, 2:584

Singapore, 3:897

Kyrgyzstan, 2:591

Slovakia, 3:900-901

Laos, 2:596

Slovenia, 3:901

Latvia, 2:596

Solomon Islands, 3:910-11

Lesotho, 2:599

Somalia, 3:911

Liberia, 2:600

South Africa, 3:913

Liechtenstein, 2:600

South Carolina, 3:914

Lithuania, 2:604

Sri Lanka, 3:927

Luxembourg, 2:610

Sudan, 3:934

Macedonia, 2:611

Suriname, 3:939

Madagascar, 2:612

Swaziland, 3:943

Sweden, 3:943 Syria, 3:945-46 Tajikistan, 3:947 Thailand, 3:960 Togo, 3:969 Tonga, 3:969

Trinidad and Tobago, 3:981 Tunisia, 3:986 Turkey, 3:987 Turkmenistan, 3:987 United Arab Emirates, 3:997 United Kingdom, 3:997 United States, 1:13, 3:1112-13 Uruguay, 3:1047 Uzbekistan, 3:1052 Yemen, 3:117 Zimbabwe, 3:1120 COADS. See Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data

Sets (COADS) coal, 1:258-61 AEP and, 1:46 anthracitic, 1:259 bituminous, 1:259 effects, 1:260

gasification for automobiles, 1:105 global climate change, 1:260-61 Indiana consumption, 2:535 Kansas consumption, 2:573 lignite, 1:258 location, 1:259 mining, 1:259

Mississippi consumption, 2:654 mitigation of coal-based pollution, 1:261 pollution, 1:259, 1:261 pollution controls, 1:259 pre-mining conditions, 1:259-60 Russia mining, 3:875 South Africa, 3:913 subbituminous, 1:258-59 Turkey, 3:987 types, 1:258-59 United Kingdom, 3:997 COAPS. See Center for Ocean-Atmospheric Prediction

Studies (COAPS) CoCoRaHS (Community Collaboration Rain, Hail and

Snow network), 1:265 Cody, Dan, 1:76 Cohen, Bernard, 1:369 Cohen, William S., 1:307 Coleman, J. M., 2:610 Collier, Chris, 3:874

Colombia, 1:262-63

paleoecological data, 1:262 vegetation, 1:262 Colorado, 1:263-64 CO2 emissions, 1:263 GHG, 1:263 RPS, 1:264 snowmelt, 1:263 wind power, 1:263-64 See also University of Colorado Colorado Climate, 1:265 Colorado Climate Center (CCC), 1:264-65 aims, 1:264 services, 1:264-65 snow measurement, 1:265 three-fold programs, 1:265 Colorado River, 1:12 Colorado State University, 1:265-66 Columbia University, 1:266-68 contemporary scholarship, 1:267-68 Earth Institute, 1:267-68 hot summers, 1:267

Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, 1:266-67 Committee on Climate Change Science and Technology

Integration (CCCSTI), 1:308 Community Climate Model (CCM), 1:224 Community Climate System Model (CCSM), 1:180

Community Collaboration Rain, Hail and Snow network

(CoCoRaHS), 1:265 Comoros, 1:268-69 Kyoto Protocol, 1:268-69 as undeveloped, 1:268 UNFCCC, 1:268 Vienna Convention, 1:268 complementarity, 3:906 compliance, 1:269-71 consequences, 1:270 defined, 1:269 health, 1:270-71 Kyoto Protocol, 1:269-70 machines/technology, 1:271 Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Sets (COADS),

1:241, 1:245 Compton, John, 3:878 computer models, 1:271-75 climate prediction, 1:272 climate simulation, 1:272 defined, 1:271 Earth system, 1:272-73 EBMs, 1:272

EMIC, 1:273 ESM, 1:272-73 feedback, 1:273 first developed, 1:271-72 formulations, 1:274 GCM, 1:272-73 grids, 1:273-74 hierarchy, 1:272 model grid box, 1:274 strategies, 1:274-75 sub-grid parameterization, 1:274 uncertainties, 1:274 concentrating solar power (CSP), 1:367 condensation, 1:275-76

in climate processes, 1:275-76 defined, 1:275 molecules, 1:275 occurrence, 1:276 role in nature, 1:275 temperatures, 1:276 thermodynamic equilibrium, 1:275 See also cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) conduction, 1:366

conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD), 1:242 Conference of the Parties (COP), 1:101, 1:119-20, 1:362, 2:430

Congo, Democratic Republic, 1:277

CO2 emissions, 1:277 forests, 1:277 Kyoto Protocol, 1:277 population, 1:277 UNFCCC, 1:277 Vienna Convention, 1:277 Connecticut, 1:277-79 CO2 emissions, 1:278 deforestation, 1:278 GHG, 1:277-78 Knell's Island, 1:278 RGGI, 1:278 RPS, 1:278 temperatures, 1:277 tourist retreat, 1:277 conservation, 1:279-82 approaches, 1:279-80 biology, 1:124-25 climate change and, 1:282 Conservation Reserve Program, 1:14 environmental thought, 1:279 Florida, 2:413-14 land preservation, 1:279 of polar bears, 3:800

Romanticism and, 1:281-82 roots of, 1:280-81 Conservation Biology, 1:123 conservation of angular momentum, 1:285

See also Coriolis force continental glaciers, 2:447-48 continental steppe climates, 1:227 convection, 1:282-84 buoyancy, 1:283 climate forcing, 1:218-19 disequilibrium, 1:283 Earth's surface, 1:283 energy, 1:366 fluids, 1:282-83 free, 1:283 localized, 1:283 oceans, 1:283 solar energy, 1:283 convective boundary layer (CBL), 1:86

Cook, James, 1:60 Cooney, Phil, 1:148

Cooperative Institute for Arctic Research (CIFAR), 1:284-85

creation, 1:284 partnerships, 1:284 projects, 1:285 publications, 1:284-85 role, 1:284 COP. See Conference of the Parties (COP) Coriolis force, 1:285, 3:1080 cause, 1:285

conservation of angular momentum, 1:285 current, 1:295

Hurricane Katrina and, 1:285 Coriolis, Gaspard Gustave, 1:285, 2:489 Cornell University, 1:286-87 Center for Environment, 1:286 Duke Doris Charitable Foundation Climate Change

Initiative, 1:286 NRCC, 1:286 Sustainability Hum, 1:287 Costa Rica, 1:287-88 bicycles, 1:287 CO2 emissions, 1:287 ecological controls, 1:287 ecotourism, 1:287 Kyoto Protocol, 1:287 population, 1:287 public transportation, 1:287 UNFCCC, 1:287

Cote d'loire, 1:288

CO2 emissions, 1:288 electricity production, 1:288 Kyoto Protocol, 1:288 population, 1:288 UNFCCC, 1:288 Vienna Convention, 1:288 Countries with Economics in Transition (CEITs), 1:442 CPT (Climate Process Teams), 1:224 Cretaceous Era, 1:288-89 climate, 1:288-89 dinosaurs, 1:288 meteor, 1:280 plants, 1:280 rainfall, 1:280 Crichton, Michael, 1:32, 3:807 Crist, Charlie, 2:414 Cristiani, Alfredo, 1:361 Croatia, 1:290

CO2 emissions, 1:290 electricity production, 1:290 independence, 1:290 Kyoto Protocol, 1:290 UNFCC, 1:290 Vienna Convention, 1:290 Croll, James (1821-90), 1:290-91 climate change theory, 1:290-91 Earth's orbit and, 1:290-91 Royal Society fellow, 1:291 Cronon, William, 1:377 crop rotation, 1:14 Crosby, Alfred, 1:377 Crowley, T. J., 2:665 crown-of-thorns starfish, 3:779 CRU. See Climatic Research Unit (CRU) Crutzen, Paul, 1:192 cryosphere, 1:61 CS (climate sensitivity), 1:217

CSE. See Center for Science and Environment (India)

CSES (Center for Science in the Earth System), 2:568 CSLF (Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum), 1:308-9 CSM. See Climate System Model (CSM) CSP (concentrating solar power), 1:367 CTD (conductivity-temperature-depth), 1:242 Cuba, 1:292 automobiles, 1:292 Caribbean water temperatures, 1:292 climate change, effects, 1:292 CO2 emissions, 1:292 Kyo2to Protocol, 1:292 population, 1:292

UNFCCC, 1:292 Vienna Convention, 1:292 Cullen, H., 1:1 culture, 1:293-95, 2:453 current, 1:295-96, 3:931 Coriolis force, 1:295 geostrophic flow, 1:295 global, 1:295

horizontal pressure, 1:295 measuring, 1:296 ocean, 3:1118 oceanic changes, 2:739 Pacific Ocean, 3:772 Peruvian, 3:786 regional, 1:295 sediment cores, 1:297 thermohaline, 1:296 tropical, 2:488 wind-driven, 1:295

See also Agulhas Current; Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC); Benguela Current; equatorial countercurrent; equatorial undercurrent (EU); Kuroshio Current; Somali Current; western boundary currents Currents of the Atlantic Ocean (Rennell), 1:117 Cuvier, Georges, 1:122 cyclones, 1:296-98 Belize, 1:116 defined, 1:296 extratropical, 1:297 formation, 1:298 increase in, 1:296

International Workshop on Tropical Cyclones,

1:287 mesoscale, 1:298 mid-latitude, 1:297 polar, 1:298

trade winds, 1:116, 3:967 tropical, 1:296

See also hurricanes and typhoons cyclotron, 3:1020 Cyprus, 1:298-99

groundwater contamination, 1:298 pollution control, 1:299 refugees, 1:298 tourism, 1:299 Czech Republic, 1:299 CO2 emissions, 1:299 Kyoto Protocol, 1:299 population, 1:299 UNFCCC, 1:299

Danube River, 3:994-95 Darby, Henry Clifford, 1:381

DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency), 1:307

Darwin, Charles, 1:4, 1:131, 1:337 Darwinism, 1:337 Dasqupta, Partha, 1:85 David Suzuki Foundation, 1:301-2

climate change, 1:301-2 education programs, 1:301-2 events, 1:302 headquarters, 1:301 Nature Challenge, 1:302 Davies, Trevor, 1:251 da Vinci, Leonardo, 1:341 Davis, Gray, 3:1013 The Day After Tomorrow, 1:59, 3:1013 DDC. See Doris Duke Charitable Foundation (DDC) The Death of Gaia (Lovelock), 2:437 The Death of Nature (Merchant), 1:376 de Bort, Teisserence, 2:509, 3:933 Deby, Idriss, 1:184 decarbonisation, 1:209

Deep Sea Drilling Program (DSDP), 1:245-46 Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), 1:307

deforestation, 1:302-3

Azerbaijan, 1:109 Brazil, 1:136-37, 1:303 China, 1:303 Connecticut, 1:278 consequences, 1:303 defined, 1:302 Georgia (Nation), 2:442 Indochina, 1:303 Iran, 2:558 Ireland, 2:559 Madagascar, 2:612 Mali, 2:617 Niger, 2:719 Pakistan, 3:773 Philippines, 3:788 Solomon Islands, 3:911 Sri Lanka, 3:928 Tonga, 3:969 tropical, 1:303 Zambia, 3:1119 DEFRA. See UK Department for Environment, Food, and

Rural Affairs (DEFRA) de Klerk, Frederik W., 3:913

Delaware, 1:303-5

CO2 emissions, 1:304 coast/wetlands, 1:304 GHG, 1:304

government action, 1:304-5 RGGI, 1:304 RPS, 1:305

Sustainable Energy Utility, 1:305 toxic substances, 1:304 de Menocal, P., 1:1 dendrochronology, 1:318 dengue, 1:214 Denmark, 1:305-6 carbon tax, 1:306 CO2 emissions, 1:305 GHG, 1:305 Kyoto Protocol, 1:306 population, 1:305 seawater temperatures, 1:306 Department of Defense, U.S., 1:306-8 agenda points, 1:307-8 "Champions of the World" award, 1:307 environment protections, 1:306-7 history, 1:308 Department of Energy, U.S., 1:308-10 CCTP, 1:309-10 Clean Energy Initiative, 1:309 Climate VISION, 1:309 CSLF, 1:308-9 mission, 1:308

Solar Energy Technology Program, 1:310 watchdog office, 1:308-9 World Summit, 1:309 Department of State, U.S., 1:310-11 establishment, 1:311 headquarters, 1:311 reduced emissions, 1:311 responsibilities, 1:310 dependency theory, 3:1110-11 desalination, 3:986 de Saussure, Horace, 2:508 Descartes, Rene, 2:507 desertification, 1:312-13 afforestation and, 1:10 climate change, effects, 1:312 defined, 1:312 impacts, 1:312 mapping, 1:312 models, 1:312 Niger, 2:719 Pakistan, 3:773

population, 3:818 Saudi Arabia, 3:884 soil degradation, 1:312 Swaziland, 3:943 Desert Research Institute (DRI), 1:313-14 academics/entrepreneurialism, 1:314 curriculum development, 1:314 divisions, 1:314 deserts, 1:314-17 aridity, 1:315 Azerbaijan, 1:109 biodiversity, 1:316 climate zones, 1:227, 1:315 erosion, 1:315-16 Turkmenistan, 3:987 detection of climate changes, 1:317-18 dendrochronology, 1:318 proxy data, 1:317

sea floor sediments/ice cores, 1:318 tree rings/pollen, 1:317-18 "Deterministic Nonperiodic Flow," 2:606 developing countries, 1:114, 1:319-23 agriculture, 1:319-20 developed world responses, 1:321-22 equity, 1:320

global warming contribution, 1:320 UNFCCC, 1:321-22 world solutions, 1:320-21 dimethyl sulfide (DMS), 1:121-22 Disaster Resistant University (DRU), 2:415 Discussions on Climate and Cosmology (Croll), 1:291 diseases, 1:323-25 chronic, 1:323

climate change, effects, 1:324-25 complex process, 1:323 global warming, 1:324-25 homeostasis, 1:323 nutrition, 1:324 public health problems, 1:324 spread of, 1:323 See also health Dittmar, William, 3:879 Djibouti, 1:325 electricity, 1:325 Kyoto Protocol, 1:325 population, 1:325 UNFCCC, 1:325 Vienna Convention, 1:325 DMS (dimethyl sulfide), 1:121-22 Dobriansky, Paula, 3:1012 DOE. See U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)

DOE Wind Powering America initiative, 1:43

Dogan, Mattei, 1:379

Doherty, Thomas, 1:266

doldrums, 1:325-26

global warming and, 1:326 position of, 1:325 tropical storms and, 1:326 See also intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) dolphins, 2:620 Dominica, 1:326-27 CO2 emissions, 1:326-27 hurricanes, 1:326 Kyoto Protocol, 1:327 population, 1:326 rising sea levels, 1:327 UNFCCC, 1:327 Dominican Republic, 1:327-28 CO2 emissions, 1:327 coral reefs, 1:328 electricity, 1:327 Kyoto Protocol, 1:327 population, 1:327-28 UNFCCC, 1:327 Vienna Convention, 1:327 "Don't Blow It America," 1:28 Doris Duke Charitable Foundation (DDC), 1:286, 1:328-29 activities, 1:328 Climate Change project, 1:329 grants, 1:328 mission, 1:328 strategies, 1:329 Douglas, Denzil, 3:877 Douglass, Andrew E., 1:250 The Draining of the Fens (Darby), 1:381 Drake, Francis, 1:60

DRI. See Desert Research Institute (DRI) drift ice, 1:329-31

Arctic ice ranges, 1:330 Earth's albedo, 1:330 ecosystem habitats, 1:329-30 human/animal livelihood, 1:330-31 seasonal, 1:330 for subsistence hunting, 1:331 thickness, 1:330 thinning, 1:331 drizzle suppression, 1:9 drought, 1:331-35 Bulgaria, 1:144 causes, 1:332

effects, 1:332

historical examples, 1:332-33 Illinois, 2:528 Kenya, 2:581 Mali, 2:617 Niger, 2:719 occurrence, 1:331 population, 3:818 recent, 1:333-34 Serbia and Montenegro, 3:895 temperature increases and, 1:332 drowning, 1:214

DRU (Disaster Resistant University), 2:415 dry climates, 1:227

DSDP (Deep Sea Drilling Program), 1:245-46 Dudek, Daniel, 1:372 dugongs, 2:620 Duke, Doris, 1:328

See also Doris Duke Charitable Foundation (DDC) Dunlap, Riley, 1:382 Dvoryaninov, Gennady, 2:481 Dying Wisdom: Rise, Fall and Potential of Water

Harvesting Systems, 1:183 dynamical feedback, 1:217, 1:335-36 carbon cycle, 1:335 defined, 1:335 evaporative, 1:335-36 ice-albedo, 1:335 identifying, 1:335 "Dynamics of Long Waves in a Baroclinic Westerly Current," 1:188

Early Eocene Climatic Optimum, 1:171-72 Earth Day, 3:1009 Earth hypothesis, 3:904 Earth Institute, 1:267-68 Earth's climate history, 1:337-41 early, 1:337-38

early human response, 1:340-41 earth cooled, 1:338-40 earth warmed, 1:338 Earthshine, 1:341-42 cloud cover, 1:341 global warming tool, 1:342 measurements, 1:341 Earth's system's albedo (ESA), 1:64 Earth Summit, 1:147, 3:805 Earth System Models (ESM), 1:272-73 Earth System Models of Intermediate Complexity (EMIC), 1:273

East Timor, 1:342

oil, 1:342 population, 1:342 EBMs. See Energy Balance Models (EBMs) EBT (expandable bathythermograph), 1:242 EC. See European Commission (EC) Eckert, J. Presper, Jr., 3:1069 ECMWF. See European Centre for Medium-Range

Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ecological footprint (EF), 1:342-44 boundary definition, 1:343 critiques, 1:343 "energy land," 1:343 "ghost acres," 1:343 high, 1:343

impact metaphor, 1:342 national scale, 1:343 "overshoot," 1:343 "phantom land," 1:343 sustainability measurement, 1:344 The Ecology of Freedom (Bookchin), 3:906 economics, cost of affecting climate change, 1:344-46 assumptions of current models, 1:345-46 current models, 1:345 modeling difficulties, 1:344-45 PAGE, 1:345 WIAGEM, 1:345-46 economics, impact from climate change, 1:346-50 direct effects, 1:348 indirect effects, 1:348-49 mitigation policies, 1:350 modeling, 1:347-48 monetary, 1:349-50 economies in transition (EIT), 1:362 ecosystems, 1:350-52

biomes as groups, 1:351-52 climate chan

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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