Marshall Islands 621

The Institute has compiled a list of commonly asked questions and answers regarding global warming and climate change. These have been posted on the institute website to further educate the public and direct policy. GMI works on a range of issues, including civic environmentalism, climate change, national defense, bioterrorism, and missile defense. GMI publishes papers and holds roundtables. Many of these roundtables have featured climate change skeptics such as Roger Bate, Willie Soon, Margo Thorning, and GMI's own Sallie Baliunas.

In 1989, GMI released a report arguing that "cyclical variations in the intensity of the sun would offset any climate change associated with elevated greenhouse gases." Although it was refuted by the IPCC, the report was used by the George H.W. Bush Administration to argue for a more lenient climate change policy. GMI has since published numerous reports and articles attacking the Kyoto protocol and undermining climate science. GMI is a former member of the Cooler Heads Coalition.

Between 1985 and 2001, the institute received $5.5 million in funding from five foundations, including the Earhart Foundation, Sarah Scaife Foundation, and Lynde and Harry Bradley Foundation. In 2003, GMI's climate-change program received $95,000 from the Exxon Education Foundation, and $60,000 from the American Petroleum Institute. GMI's CEO, William O'Keefe, formerly an executive at the American Petroleum Institute and chairman of the Global Climate Coalition, is a registered lobbyist for ExxonMobil. The GMI was described in a 2007 report by the Union of Concerned Scientists as an ExxonMobil-funded "clearinghouse for global warming contrarians". ExxonMobil still continues to provide funds to the Marshall Institute.

see also: Bush (George H.W.) Administration; Global Warming; Greenhouse Gases; Kyoto Protocol.

BIBLIOGRAPHY. George C. Marshall Institute, www.mar-shall.org (cited November 2007); Union of Concerned Scientists, www.ucsusa.org (cited November 2007); U.S. Climate Change Science Program, www.climatescience.gov (cited November 2007).

Fernando Herrera University of California, San Diego

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