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dioxide emissions were 0.1 metric tons in 1990, falling to 0.07 metric tons by 2003, far lower than most other countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Eighty-two percent of the total carbon dioxide emissions in the country are from liquid fuels, 6 percent from solid fuels, and 12 percent from the manufacture of cement.

By 1995, the population had reached the limit at which it could be sustained on the existing arable land of the country, and from then on, parts of the country experienced occasional shortages of firewood. The effects of global warming and climate change are expected to impact heavily on Malawi, which has already experienced periods of drought throughout its history, leading to migrations around Lake Nyasa. However, there are extensive underground water resources in the country, and these have been tapped since the 1950s, providing a water source that could help Malawi through a short period of drought.

The Malawi government ratified the Vienna Convention in 1991 and took part in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change signed in Rio de Janeiro in May 1992, which they ratified in 1994. It accepted the Kyoto Protocol to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change on October 26, 2001, which took effect on February 16, 2005.

sEE ALsO: Deforestation; Desertification; Drought; Framework Convention on Climate Change.

BIBLioGRAPHY. Swanzie Agnew, The Waters of Malawi: Developments since Independence (Chancellor College Geography and Earth Sciences Development, 1976); A.E. Archibald, "Hydro-Electric Power Development on the Shire River," Society of Malawi Journal (v.31/2, 1978); A.D.C. Kombe, "The Role of Protected Areas in Catchment Conservation in Malawi," National Parks Conservation and Development (Smithsonian Institution Press, 1984); "Malawi," in Electricity in Rural Development (Southern African Development Conference, 1987); Richard Scobey, "Malawi," Energy and Development in Southern Africa (Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, 1984); J.B. Webster, "Drought, Migration and Chronology in the Lake Malawi Littoral," Transafrican Journal of History (v.9/1, 1980).

JUSTIN CORFIELD Geelong Grammar School, Australia

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