Macedonia FYROM

THE FORMER Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM) has a land area of 9,779 sq. mi. (25,333 sq. km.), a population of 2,038,000 (2006 est.), and a population density of 205 people per sq. mi. (79 people per sq. km.). With a strong agricultural base, 24 percent of the country is classified as arable, with a further 25 percent used as meadows and pasture, and 39 percent is forested. Much of the pasture is for raising sheep, with large flocks reared on the Bistra Mountains.

In terms of carbon dioxide emissions, the per capita rate for Macedonia has been relatively stable, at 5.5 metric tons per person in 1992, falling slowly to 5.2 metric tons by 2003. As for the country's electricity production, 82.3 percent comes from fossil fuels, with 17.7 percent from hydropower. The result has been that 76 percent of emissions by source come from solid fuels, 22 percent from liquid fuels, and the remaining 2 percent from the manufacture of cement. By sector, electricity generation and heat production account for 71 percent of all carbon dioxide emissions, with 11 percent from transportation. The country has a relatively poor system of public transport, with a small railway network, only a third of which is electrified. Climate change and global warming are likely to have a severe effects on Lake

Doiran, where fishermen from Macedonia source much of their fish stock.

The Macedonian government took part in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in May 1992, which they ratified in 1998. Macedonia also ratified in the Vienna Convention in 1994.

see ALsO: Agriculture; European Union; Transportation.

bibliography. Priit Vesiland, "Macedonia," National Geographic (v.189/3, 1996); World Resources Institute, "Macedonia—Climate and Atmosphere," www.earthtrends.wri. org (cited October 2007).

JUSTIN CORFIELD

Geelong Grammar School, Australia

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