the landlocked grand Duchy of Luxembourg, which has land borders with Belgium, Germany and France, has a land area of 999 sq. mi. (2,586 sq. km.), with a population of 467,000 (2006 est.), and a population density of 469 people per sq. mi. (171 people per sq. km.). Approximately 58 percent of the elec tricity used in Luxembourg comes from fossil fuels, with 25.6 percent from hydropower. With a very high standard of living, Luxembourg has the sixth highest per capita levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the world, the highest rating for a country that is not reliant on petroleum for its economy. This was calculated at 26.3 metric tons per person in 1990, rising to a peak of 30.5 metric tons per person in 1992 (the second highest in the world in that year, after Qatar), falling to 17.4 metric tons by 1998, and rising again to 22 metric tons in 2003. Sixty-seven percent of the CO2 emissions coming from liquid fuels, 19 percent from gaseous fuels, 10 percent from solid fuels, and 4 percent from the manufacture of cement. The high level of liquid fuels is because 50 percent of the emissions, by sector, come from transportation. In spite of excellent public transport in the country, there is still heavy use of privately owned automobiles. Manufacturing and construction make up 19 percent of CO2 emissions, with 18 percent from residential use. These figures exclude the CO2 generated by electricity and heat production.

Since the 1990s, green parties have been elected. The Luxembourg government ratified the Vienna Convention in 1988, and took part in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change signed in Rio de Janeiro in May 1992. It signed the Kyoto Protocol to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change on April 29, 1998, which was ratified by the Luxembourg Chamber of Deputies on May 31, 2002, on the same day as the other member states of the European Union; it took effect on February 16, 2005.

sEE ALso: Belgium; France; Germany.

BIBLioGRAPHY. John McCormick, Environmental Policy in the European Union (Palgrave, 2001); Tim O'Riordan and Jill Jäger, eds., Politics of Climate Change: A European Perspective (Routledge, 1996); Marcel Wissenburg, European Discourses on Environmental Policy (Ashgate, 1999); World Resources Institute, "Luxembourg—Climate and Atmosphere," (cited October 2007).

JUSTIN CORFIELD Geelong Grammar School, Australia

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