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to predict weather beyond two or three weeks with a reasonable degree of accuracy. For this conclusion, Lorenz is often a starting point for global warming critics. They point out that Lorenz's "butterfly effect" leads to predictions that may depart significantly over time from what happens in the real world, if the input conditions cannot be specified to arbitrary accuracy.

During leaves of absence from MIT, Lorenz has held visiting research or teaching positions at the Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona, the Department of Meteorology at the University of California at Los Angeles, the Det Norske Meteorologiske Insitutt in Oslo, Norway, and the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Colorado. He was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1975, and his groundbreaking research has won numerous awards, honors and honorary degrees. In 1983, he and former MIT Professor Henry M. Stom-mel were jointly-awarded the $50,000 Crafoord Prize by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, a prize established to recognize fields not eligible for Nobel Prizes. His other honors include the Elliott Cresson Medal from the Franklin Institute in 1989, the Rossby Research Medal of the American Meteorological Society in 1969, and the Society's Meisinger Award in 1963. In 1991, he was awarded the Kyoto Prize in earth and planetary sciences.

SEE ALSO: Chaos Theory; Computer Models; Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

BIBLIOGRAPHY. Edward Lorenz, "Deterministic Nonpe-riodic Flow," Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences (v.20/2, 1960); Edward Lorenz, The Essence of Chaos (University of Washington Press, 1993); Tim Palmer, "Global Warming in a Non-Linear Climate. Can We Be Sure?" Europhysics News (March/April 2005).

LuCA PRONO University of Nottingham

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