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land is considered suitable for horticulture. Other Kenyan exports include cement, petroleum products, and fish. The expanding industrial sector of Nairobi is home to a number of multinational corporations. Emissions standards are variably enforced.

Periods of drought and flooding have been typical across millennia in East Africa. Still, scientists note that human-induced climate change has led to erratic rainfall and land transformations that, since Kenya's independence in 1963, have been record-setting in terms of the severity of their impacts. Since 1963, Kenya's population has doubled twice, and the concomitant pressures on land, flora, and fauna are exacerbated by drought and flooding. Thus, climate change, along with population growth and a reduction in farmland and grazing land, is closely connected to armed conflicts. Efforts by 2004 Nobel Laureate Wangari Maathai and the Greenbelt Movement emphasize the link between environmental issues and peaceful governance.

From Kenya's agricultural base to national parks and reserves, there are likely to be substantial shifts in species diversity and community composition. The first sub-Saharan African country to do so, Kenya hosted the 2006 United Nations ministerial conference on climate change, comprised of the 12th Conference of the 189 Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, and the 2nd Meeting of the 166 Parties to the Convention's Kyoto Protocol.

SEE ALSo: Drought; Floods; Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC); Kyoto Protocol; Population; Tourism.

BIBLIoGRAPHY. Government of Kenya's National Environmental Management Authority, www.nema.go.ke (cited October 2007); K. Holmgren and H. Oberg, "Climate Change in Southern and Eeastern Africa During the Past Millennium and its Implications for Societal Development," Environment, Development and Sustainability (v.8, 2006); Andrew Simms, Africa—Up In Smoke?: The Second Report from the Working Group on Climate Change and Development (New Economics Foundation, 2005); Wilfried Thuiller, et al., "Vulnerability of African Mammals to Anthropogenic Climate Change Under Conservative Land Transformation Assumptions," Global Change Biology (v.12/3, 2006).

Jennifer Ellen Coffman James Madison University

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