show its changing seasonal patterns. His interest in the carbon cycle also led him to conduct detailed studies of the processes that determine the rate of, and levels of CO2 that can be absorbed in seawater, while also hypothesizing about the role of plants in the removal of excess CO2 from the atmosphere. In an address to a symposium on atmospheric pollution in 1969, Keeling reflected on the likely implications of global warming for human populations, while also highlighting the ongoing dangers associated with traffic pollution and urban smog. His combined interest in CO2, atmospheric geochemistry, and the carbon cycle are expressed throughout his numerous publications.

Charles David Keeling's role as a pioneer of science and an advocate of environmental care and protection resulted in him receiving a number of awards and honorary positions. During his career, Professor Keeling was Guggenheim Fellow at the Meteorological Institute, University of Stockholm and scientific director of the World Meteorological Organization's Central CO2 Calibration Laboratory. In 2002, he received the U.S. National Medal of Science, and in April 2005, he was awarded the Tyler Prize for Environmental Achievement. Charles David Keeling died on June 20, 2005 in Hamilton, Montana.

SEE ALSO: Carbon Dioxide; Climatic Data, Instrumental Records; Revelle, Roger; Scripps Institution of Oceanography; Seasonal Cycle; World Meteorological Organization.

BIBLIOGRAPHY. C.D. Keeling, "Is Carbon Dioxide from Fossil Fuels Changing Man's Environment?" Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society (v.114/1, 1970); Michael McCarthy, "Charles David Keeling—Climate Scientist Who First Charted the Rise of Greenhouse Gases," Independent (June 27, 2005).

Mark Whitehead University of Wales, Aberystwyth

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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