Institute of Energy Economics Argentina

THE INSTITUTO DE Economía Energética asociado a la Fundación Bariloche (IDEE/FB), or the Institute of Energy Economics associated with the Fundación Bariloche (Bariloche Foundation) is an institute in Argentina that works to promote environmental awareness and education of environmental economics. It is independent, although strongly allied with the Bariloche Foundation.

The Bariloche Foundation is a nonprofit, private institution, allied with the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and other international organizations. Scientists and busi-nesspersons at a conference in the city of San Carlos De Bariloche, Argentina founded it on March 28, 1963. The goal of the Bariloche Foundation is to facilitate and foster research, innovation, training, technical assistance, and the dissemination of information and knowledge. Its purpose is "to promote teaching and research in all branches of science, based on a solid, humanist culture and in accordance with the democratic principles contained in the Argentine Constitution." The Bariloche Foundation headquarters are located in San Carlos de Bariloche, with a business office in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The IDEE/FB is based in San Carlos de Bariloche.

The Bariloche Foundation has four major programs: Energy, Environment, Philosophy, and Quality of Life. The Energy program evolved in 1978 from the Bariloche Foundation's previous Department of Natural Resources and Energy, founded in 1967. This program employs agronomists, computer specialists, economists, diverse engineers, mathematicians, and statisticians, and is chiefly in charge of the IDEE/FB. The Environment program studies climate change, energy and the environment, natural resources accounting and other environmental issues, and rational energy use.

The Philosophy program fosters international collaboration and conflict analysis and resolution. Researchers study gender research, history of philosophical ideas, metaphilosophy, philosophy and history of science, philosophy of social sciences, practical and theoretical aspects of conflict analysis and resolution, and rationality. The Quality of Life program began as a project in 1989, and matured into a complete program five years later in 1994. This program monitors social equity and environmental sustainability in the San Carlos de Bariloche region as well as greater Argentina; and also the qualities of life experienced by residents of these regions as globalization continues.

The Bariloche Foundation's Energy program focuses on Argentina and Latin America, as well as in the global economic marketplace and international energy. Research, consulting, economic assistance, and other IDEE/FB services are focused on energy production and use, and how they relate to the economy, the environment, economical and environmental policy-making, and economic and environmental planning.

A major educational initiative of the IDEE/FB is the Latin American Postgraduate Course on Energy and Environment Economics and Policies. This course is a four-month long immersion course that has been conducted annually since 1969, and has trained more than 600 Latin American professionals. People who enroll in the course represent all sectors: energy companies publicly or privately funded, universities, and governmental or nongovernmental organizations from around Latin America, for example.

Additionally, the IDEE/FB offers the MEPEA, a Master's Program in Energy and Environment Economics and Policies. This program lasts for two years and meets every Friday and Saturday. It is assisted by the University of Comahue's Faculty of Economics and Administration, and is held in Argentina's city of Neuquen. The MEPEA has been in operation since 1999.

The major research foci of the IDEE/FB are: Energy Policies in the sense of institutional and managerial strategies, prices and tariffs, rational use of energy, regional integration, regulation, the sector's institutional structure, and technological progress; Energy and Environment in terms of emissions mitigation, and impact caused by each level of the energy chain, including sustainable development; Development of Methodology and Models for studies of energy in the fields of supply, demand, financing, and sources; Integrated Energy Studies for Different Geographical Areas; Economic, Technical, and Environmental Studies for various natural resources; and Sectorial Energy Studies for various energy-demanding sectors.

sEE ALso: Argentina; Economics, Cost of Affecting Climate Change; Economics, Impact From Climate Change.

BIBLIoGRAPHY. G.G. Casaburi, Dynamic Agroindustrial Clusters: The Political Economy of Competitive Sectors in Argentina and Chile (Palgrave Macmillan, 1999); Rhys Jenkins, Industry and Environment in Latin America (Rout-ledge, 2001); R.J.T. Klein, Saleemul Huq, and J.B. Smith, Climate Change, Adaptive Capacity and Development (Imperial College Press, 2003).

Claudia Winograd University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Intergovernmental Panel on climate change (IPcc)

THE FIRsT WoRLD Climate Conference organized by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) expressed concern about significant extended regional and even global changes of climate due to human's activities on Earth. The conference appealed to nations of the world to foresee and prevent potential human-made changes in climate that might have adverse effects on human race. A joint UNEP/WMO/ ICSU conference convened in Villach, Austria on the "Assessment of the Role of Carbon Dioxide and of Other Greenhouse Gases in Climate Variations and Associated Impacts." The conference concluded that a rise of global mean temperature could occur due to the increasing greenhouse gases and warming of the globe could result in sea level rises. This warming and probable rate and degree of warming are closely linked with other major environmental issues which will/could be profoundly affected by policies on emissions of greenhouse gases, just like the emissions of chlorofluoro- compounds under the Montreal Protocol and their effect on ozone depletion.

Recognizing the problem of potential global climate change, the WMO and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) established the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in November 1988 and was open to all members of the United Nations and WMO, with the aim of assessing in a comprehensive, objective, open, and transparent manner the scientific, technical, and socioeconomic information relevant to understanding the scientific basis of risk of human-induced climate change, its potential impacts, and options for adaptation and mitigation. Although the WMO and UNEP were the two main organizations involved in the creation of the IPCC, there were other intergovernmental organizations as well as nongovernmental organizations that were involved in establishing the IPCC. Also, the UN General Assembly, recognizing the need for international cooperation on climate change, joined the call through its resolution on "Protection of the Global Climate for Present and Future Generations of Mankind" during their 43rd session, held in 1988. The IPCC does not carry out any research on its own, nor does it monitor climate-related data or other relevant parameters. On the contrary, IPCC bases its assessment mainly on peer reviewed and published scientific/technical literature.

A small bureau of 15 was created to oversee the work of the panel and three working groups were also formed: Working Group I addresses topics including greenhouse gases and aerosols, processes and modeling, observed climate variations, and change. The experts of Working Group I have concluded that emissions from human activities are substantially increasing the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases and this will result in warming of the Earth's surface. Working Group II assesses the climate change impact on agriculture and forestry, natural terrestrial ecosystems, hydrology and water resources, human settlements, oceans and coastal zones, and seasonal snow cover, ice, and permafrost. Working Group III has further established subgroups to define mitigative and adaptive response options in energy, industry, agriculture, forestry, and other human activities, including coastal zone management. Each working group has two co-chairs, one from a developed country and another from a developing country, and a technical support unit. IPCC activities, including travel costs for experts from developing countries and countries with economies in transition, are financed through voluntary contributions from governments.

The IPCC has an official definition for climate change: climate change refers to a statistically significant variation in either the mean state of the climate, or in its variability, persisting for an extended period (typically decades or longer). Climate change may be due to natural internal processes or external forces, or due to persistent anthropogenic changes leading to change in the composition of the atmosphere or in land use.

The IPCC, in its two decades of existence, has produced many reports; four assessment reports have been produced at the behest of the UN General Assembly. On receipt of the First IPCC Assessment Report 1990, the UN General Assembly decided to establish an Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee (INC) in 1990 to initiate negotiations of an effective framework convention on climate change, to be completed prior to the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Eventually, at the completion of negotiations, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change was created in 1994.

The Second IPCC Assessment Report 1995 prepared a comprehensive report on climate change and was recognized as the most authoritative assessment of climate change, its impacts, and response options. It indicated that the continued rise of greenhouse gases in the environment would have serious socioeconomic and environmental impacts, especially for developing countries. This second IPCC report, provided input to the negotiations for the Convention's Kyoto Protocol.

The Third IPCC Assessment Report2001, also known as TAR, set out to meet new requirements. Some of the facts according to IPCC, Executive summary, January 2001 are: warming during the past 50 years can be attributed to humans, global surface temperature is expected to increase by degrees 2.5-10.4 F (1.4-5.8 degrees C) by 2100, and warming on this scale has not occurred during the previous 10,000 years.

The Fourth IPCC Assessment Report 2007 was prepared with an aim to emphasize new findings, therefore, the structure and mandates of the Working Groups were kept unchanged. The report was presented to the United Nations General Assembly in 2007. Some of the observed impacts are detailed in the report: 11 of the previous 12 years ranked among the 12 hottest on record since 1850, Global sea-level rise had accelerated, mountain glaciers and snow cover have declined, and more intense and longer droughts have been observed over wider areas since the 1970s. The report also established direct links to human health and other issues and has raised international concern over climate change and need to act quickly to prevent the catastrophic impacts of climate change. The IPCC shared the 2007 Noble Peace Prize with Al

Internal Climate Variability 545

Gore for its efforts in bringing climate change to the forefront.

SEE ALSO: Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs); United Nations; United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP); World Meteorological Organization (WMO).

BIBLIOGRAPHY. Greenpeace, (cited October 2007); Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, (cited October 2007).

Velma I. Grover Natural Resource Consultant

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