Apart from the direct effects of global warming on the global climate, there is the issue of the indirect effects of it on the sociological, political, and economic climate of nations. It is reported that the social, economic, and physical infrastructural indices of a geographical region has evolved from the adaptation of all that region's society to the prevailing climate and to the hydrological conditions brought about by that climate over a finite time period. In cases, therefore, when the frequency of occurrence and magnitudes of phenomenon such as typhoons, floods, and droughts have altered the habitability of that region and affected the social and economic activities of its dwellers, there is bound to be the development of unwanted and unexpected stresses.
Due to these direct effects on the global climate, nations worst hit by some or few of the elements of global warming effects are most likely to suffer from increasing under population, as gradually, people begin to move away from areas of incessant flooding, drought, and erosion, to areas of calmness and freedom from such environmentally dictated occurrence. This would invariably lead to the overpopulation of neighboring towns, cities, and countries, creating attending situations associated with such phenomenon. Issues of over population have over the years been linked to over-use of available natural and developed resources. As the average population of a place begins to grow, higher demand would begin to be placed on living factors such as energy, water, space, food, good health facilities, shelter, and security. The result is that more waste would be produced due to increased human presence and activities.
There would also be the challenge of higher demand placed on available water resources, and serious deforestation as a result of people felling trees and clearing grounds for shelter and other human related activities. Forest reserves would be taken over by people, and wildlife would be seriously endangered. This could lead to the problem of erosion and water pollution, as particles of erosion could be washed into fresh water resources, creating an additional need for governments to clean up the water and make it safe for domestic use. In effect, this would bring about a depletion of available resources, carrying with it some environmental issues of degradation and mismanagement.
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The problem of the environment would be further aggravated, creating a recycling of environmental disturbances and furthering the effects of global warming. In Africa and some other developing countries, over population has resulted in serious famine and poverty; there have also been cases of close to zero health care, with people suffering from serious curable and incurable diseases. More so, as people migrate from areas hit by global warming impacts to other places, there could be a greater instance of disease transfer. Diseases such as polio and malaria, which the world has been trying to curb, could upsurge. Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is another human vectored disease that could increase due to huge migration of people. There could also be greater territorial wars, international disputes, and disrespect for boundary policy if the impacts of global warming are not addressed globally. Thus, global warming does not only affect the climate of nations; it also affects the sociological, political, and economic standards of nations.
SEE ALSo: Carbon Dioxide; Climate Change, Effects; Greenhouse Effect; Greenhouse Gases; Policy, International.
BIBLIogRAPHY. D.E. Abrahamson, ed., The Challenge of Global Warming (Island Press, 1989); R.A. Bailey, et al., Chemistry of the Environment, (Academic Press, 2002); Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Climate Change 1994, Radiative Forcing of Climate Change, (Cambridge University Press, 1995); IPCC, Climate Change 1995, The Science of Climate Change (Cambridge University Press, 1996); R.L. Jain, et al., Environmental Assessment (McGraw-Hill, 2002); Gerard Kiely, Environmental Engineering (McGraw-Hill, 1996); G.M. Masters, Introduction to Environmental Engineering and Science (Prentice-Hall, 1990); M. Myhre, et al., "New Estimates of Radiative Forcing Due to Well Mixed Greenhouse Gases," Geophysical Research Letters (v.25/14, 1998); G.W. Petty, A First Course in Atmospheric Radiation (Sundog Publishing, 2004); C.N. Sawyer, P.L. McCarty, and G.F. Parkin, Chemistry for Environmental Engineering and Science (McGraw-Hill, 2003).
Nsikak Benson Covenant University, Ota, Nigeria
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