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Several health challenges can be linked to global climate change. According to IPCC scientists, a climate-induced warmer world could lead to a number of health problems. These health challenges include increased global distribution of tropical diseases, such as malaria and dengue, heat stress, hunger-related ailments, and injuries and drowning associated with increased storm frequency and intensity.

Africa, for example, is expected to be at risk from increased incidence of vectorborne diseases. A warmer Africa has the potential of opening up new areas for malaria, and altered temperature and rainfall patterns in the continent could lead to increased incidence of yellow fever, dengue fever, onchocercia-sis, and trypanosomiasis. In the Middle East and Asia, heat stress, which will affect human comfort levels, and the possible spread of vectorborne diseases will likely result from climate-induced changes. In general, decreases in freshwater availability would lead to indirect impacts on human health.

See ALSO: Climate; Climate Models; Diseases; Floods; Health; Hurricanes and Typhoons; Salinity; Sea Level, Rising; Weather.

BIBLIOGRApHY. D.M. Allen, D.C. Mackie, and M. Wei, "Groundwater and Climate Change: A Sensitivity Analysis for the Grand Forks Aquifer, Southern British Columbia, Canada," Hydrogeology Journal (v.12/2, 2004); N.S. Christensen et al., "Effects of Climate Change on the Hydrology and Water Resources of the Colorado River Basin," Climatic Change (v.62/1-3, 2004); K.D. Frederick and P.H. Gleick,

Water and Global Climate Change: Potential Impacts on U.S. Water Resources (Pew Center on Global Change, 1999); J.T. Houghton, et al., eds., Climate Change, Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge University Press, 2001); Irin News, www.irinnews. org (cited July 2007); R.K. Mall et al., "Water Resources and Climate Change: An Indian Perspective," Current Science (v.90/12, 2006); K.L. Martinez and D.R. Maidment, Assessing the Impacts of Climate Change on Water Resources for the Edwards Aquifer (Center for Research in Water Resources, 1998); M.M.Q. Mirza, R.A. Warrick, and N.J. Ericksen, "The Implications of Climate Change on Floods of the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna Rivers in Bangladesh," Climate Change (v.57/3, 2003).

Nsikak Benson Covenant University

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Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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