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The U.S. Climate Change Technology Program (CCTP) mission is: "to stimulate and strengthen the scientific and technological enterprise of the United States, through improved coordination of multi-agency federal climate change technology programs and investments and, in partnership with others, provide global leadership to accelerate the development of new and advanced technologies that would attain its vision." It was established by President George W. Bush.

In September 2007, the secretary of the Department of Energy appointed a new position for a director of a new Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs. This new office and director were given the responsibility of assisting Native Americans in learning about, establishing, and maintaining efficient energy sources.

Along these lines, the office was set to manage a $2 million grant for promoting renewable energy sources that would be used by 15 pre-selected Native American nations, including Alaskan villages. Of these 15 groups, nine will begin to establish renewable energy sources, while the other six will research the feasibility of such a project on their lands.

The Department of Energy's Solar Energy Technology Program recognizes that burning of fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming. This program, part of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, therefore, works to make clean solar energy available to regions that previously relied on fossil fuels.

Specifically, the program champions photovoltaic (PV) energy converters that transform solar energy into electricity via superconductors. The program also investigates the themes of concentrating solar power to run turbines that would generate electricity, solar heating whereby solar energy is used to heat water or building spaces, and solar lighting which integrates directed natural sunlight into building lighting schemes.

A major initiative of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy is the Solar America Initiative, which aims to bring photovoltaic energy technology up to par with current fossil fuel technologies, so that it will be cost-competitive by the year 2015.

SEE ALSO: Australia; Bush (George W.) Administration; Canada; Carbon Dioxide; Carbon Emissions; Carbon Sequestration; Carbon Sinks; China; Department of Defense, U.S.; Department of State, U.S.; Energy; Energy, Renewable; Energy Efficiency; Framework Convention on Climate Change; Greenhouse Gases; India; Japan; Korea, South; Mexico; United Nations.

bibliography. Judith Antell, Shepard Krech, Michael E. Harkin, David Rich Lewis, and Brian Hosmer, Native Americans and the Environment: Perspectives on the Ecological Indian (University of Nebraska Press, 2007); Charles R. Menzies, ed., Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Natural Resource Management (University of Nebraska Press, 2006); National Research Council (U.S.) and the Board on Radioactive Waste Management, Research Needs in Subsurface Science: U.S. Department of Energy's Environmental

Management Science Program (National Academy Press, 2000).

Claudia Winograd University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

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