the center FOR International Climate and Environment Research (CICERO) is a nonprofit, independent research institution established in association with the University of Oslo by the Norwegian government in 1990. CICERO conducts experiments and performs research regarding issues, such as climate change and greenhouse gas emissions. Additionally, it offers recommendations to alleviate the detrimental effects of climate change. CICERO has published an array of articles and continues to undertake research projects that serve to deter the process of global warming. CICERO has three objectives: to recommend policies that reduce greenhouse gas emissions, to encourage global participation in adopting climate and environmental policies, and to propose policies that accomplish long- and short-term goals. CICERO's work influences a wide range of audiences, including national and international organizations, government agencies, and academics.
CICERO's research branch has three main programs, focusing on scientific basis and international agreements; mitigation and costs; and the impacts, vulnerability, and adaptation of climate policies. The primary purpose of the scientific basis division is to perform scientific analysis and to incorporate its findings into practical policies and recommendations. In the scientific basis program, the center's researchers explore the effects that greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), and perfluo-
rocarbons (PFCs) have on climate. The researchers monitor the effects climate policies have on the global climate system. Many of the published studies discuss how the distribution of greenhouse gases is affecting atmospheric composition. Aside from scientific research, scholars in this division also take part in policy development. Researchers work on creating ways to track the emission of greenhouse pollutants, while others are involved in climate policy negotiations.
The second program looks into the socioeconomic costs and benefits of greenhouse gas emissions and climate policies. This division's objective is to diminish the detrimental effects brought on by climate change. It also applies economic models in order to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of policies. Scientists examine the impacts greenhouse gases have on energy stability. Besides focusing on how climate fluctuation affects regional populations, climate experts also focus on how it affects the agriculture industry. More specifically, researchers examine the effects pollution and the thinning ozone have on crop growth and yield. The relationship between climate change and the environment is also studied; some of the research topics include acidification, deforestation, and soil erosion. Moreover, scientists examine the connection between climate change and natural disasters such as floods, water shortages, and forest fires.
The third research division identifies the problems caused by climate fluctuations, to discover the attributes that increase regions' susceptibility to climate fluctuations. Additionally, experts take on multidis-ciplinary research efforts to study how variables such as trade and globalization impact the climate and the environment. Scientists in many different disciplines, such as economics, political science, anthropology, and resource development, work together to construct theoretical and empirical models to assess countries' vulnerabilities to climate change. The team of experts provides solutions to allow a region to accommodate the changes in climate, while minimizing their damaging effects, and measuring the efficacy of these strategies.
CICERO has trained many scholars involved in climate study. It also disseminates research data and policy recommendations. Cicerone2, a magazine published by the center, presents recent research findings on climate and environment issues. It also discusses climate policies and regulations. Cicerone2 also com ments on international climate change conferences. CICERO also holds forums to encourage scholars, policymakers, and government officials to discuss the latest developments on climate and its related policies. Its experts attend conferences and international meetings such as the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to present data and commentary.
CICERO is involved in several projects. Some of these include examining what effects energy regulations have on energy sources that are not sensitive to changes in price. Others aim to develop a model to translate the damage caused by environmental pollution into numeric value. The team of scientists at CICERO also collaborate with Chinese experts and policymakers on identifying how different population cohorts are affected by climate policies. The organization also devotes attention and resources to climate issues in Norway. A notable upcoming project focuses on how different communities in Noway cope with global warming.
SEE ALSO: Greenhouse Gases; Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs); Norway; World Climate Research Program.
BIBLIOGRApHY. Kristin Aunan et al., "Co-benefits of Climate Policy—Lessons Learned From a Study in Shanxi, China," Energy Policy (v.32, 2004); Center for International Climate and Environment Research, www.cicero.uio.no (cited July 2007); Linda Sygna, J.S. Fuglestvedt, and H.A. Aaheim, "The Adequacy of GWPs as Indicators of Damage Costs Incurred by Global Warming," Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change (v.7/4, 2002); Asbj0rn Torvanger, "Uncertain Climate Change in an Intergenerational Planning Model," Environmental and Resource Economics (v.9/4, 1997).
Charlene Wu Johns Hopkins University
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Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.