Center for Clean Air Policy

established in 1985, the Center for Clean Air Policy (CCAP) is an independent, nonprofit entity headquartered in Washington, D.C. It adopts market-based approaches to environmental problems as the best way to reach common ground. The CCAP's current domestic and international initiatives promote stakeholder dialogues, education and outreach, qualitative and quantitative research, technical analyses of emission mitigation options, and policy recommendation development. The CCAP attempts to combine active, on-the-ground policy and research, and to advance cost-effective and pragmatic policies. CCAP deals with climate policy issues not only in the United States, but also in Europe, Asia, Central America, and South America.

The CCAP's mission statement is "to significantly advance cost-effective and pragmatic air quality and climate policy through analysis, dialogue and education to reach a broad range of policymakers and stakeholders worldwide." The work of the center, both in the United States and abroad, focuses on four major areas related to climate change: greenhouse gas emission mitigation and economics; emerging technologies and technology investment; transportation and land use; and adaptation. Within the United States, CCAP has four programs that try to involve different subjects in a profitable discussion about the environment.

The Climate Policy Initiative collaborates with leading companies; federal, state, and local governments; and environmental organizations to discuss and advance national climate policy solutions. The scheme intends to function as a forum to educate chief industry and government officials on the extent of the climate problem, and develop a set of pragmatic long-term mitigation and adaptation solutions for climate change in the United States. The Urban Leaders Initiative is a partnership with six large counties and cities to prevent climate change impacts through smart land use and infrastructure planning. The Advancing Climate Action in California assists the state in designing climate solutions through analysis and assessing mitigation options. CCAP's independent analysis of greenhouse gas mitigation options for California concluded that Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger's goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions to 2000 levels by 2010 could be met at no net cost to California consumers.

The successes in California led CCAP to launch a comprehensive program to develop and implement climate change plans in key states, and pave the way for a strong federal approach. Through a combination of technical analysis and facilitation, CCAP is working with key states at different stages of climate change action to further climate change programs. This initiative deals with greenhouse gas emissions from all sectors of the economy, including transportation and land use, electricity generation, industry, buildings, agriculture, and forestry, and examines the full range of measures. The Transportation and Smart Growth Program focuses on transportation and land-use policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve air quality. This program also stresses the importance of transportation and planning efforts internationally.

CCAP has three major international initiatives in Europe, Asia, Central America, and South America. The Dialogue on Future International Actions to Address Global Climate Change combines in-depth analysis and development of policy options. A parallel program to the domestic Climate Policy Initiative, the European Climate and Energy Dialogue aims at developing medium- to long-term climate change, energy, and finance policy for the European Union. Finally, the Developing Countries Project entails collaboration with research teams in China, India, Brazil, and Mexico to identify technologies and approaches to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

Through its projects, the CCAP claims to have reached important goals and to have played a major role in shaping climate change policies. In particular, the CCAP lists as its major successes the landmark sulfur dioxide trading program in the Clean Air Act, the original design for the European Union's CO2 trading system, the development of the NOx reduction and trading program in the eastern United States, and the comprehensive climate policy strategy for New York state, which directly led to the successful creation of

Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI). In addition, the CCAP worked with three U.S. utilities to finance the first carbon reduction project, the retrofit of a coal-fired heating plant in the Czech Republic. It has also devised, with stakeholders, the original design rules for the Clean Development Mechanism adopted as the Marrakech Accords.

CCAP has also been actively involved in the development of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) under the Kyoto Protocol. The center helped to design the rules for the CDM through work with developing countries. The Canadian Government hired CCAP to facilitate an informal workshop on streamlining the CDM in preparation for the United Nations Convention on Climate Change in Montreal, where CDM strengthening was a key issue. CCAP gathered negotiators from 30 developed and developing countries to discuss technical and legal issues surrounding development and implementation of the CDM. CCAP continues to develop the debate between developed and developing countries on the CDM.

SEE ALSO: California; Carbon Permits; Clean Air Act, U.S.; Clean Development Mechanism; Kyoto Protocol.

BIBLIOGRApHY. Center for Clean Air Policy, www.ccap. org (cited September 2007): Michael A. Toman and Brent Sohngen, Climate Change (Ashgate Publishing, 2004).

Luca Prono University of Nottingham

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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