California Institute of Technology

the CALIFORNIA INSTITuTE of Technology, also known as CalTech, or simply Tech, is a private university and research institute located in Pasadena, California. Established in 1891, it offers graduate and undergraduate instruction, and research, in pure and applied science and engineering. CalTech maintains a strong emphasis on the natural sciences and engineer ing. CalTech also operates and manages the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), an autonomous spaceflight complex that oversees the design and operation of most of NASA's space probes. Staffed by a faculty of some 1,000 distinguished and creative scientists, CalTech is considered one of the world's premier scientific research centers.

The Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences offers a number of undergraduate and graduate programs in geophysics, planetary science, and environmental science and engineering. They also offer research programs that focus on global issues such as climate change, environmental problems, glacier movement, evolution of atmospheres, and global change. The Environmental Science and Engineering (ESE) Program offers a coherent program of education and research spanning global climate studies, engineering solutions, and environmental problems, such as toxic waste remediation. Scientists from the Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Division of Engineering and Applied Sciences, and Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences collaborate on many topics involving the environment, atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and lithosphere.

Professor of Planetary Science Yuk L. Yung has authored two books and more than 100 scientific papers. His research focuses on atmospheric chemistry and global change. Dr. Yung and his team have developed a two-dimensional model description of chemistry interacting with global-scale dynamical fields for studying the terrestrial atmosphere and other planetary atmospheres. Such a model is necessary for analysis of global data sets. They are also developing a three-dimensional chemical tracer model.

An effort has been initiated between CalTech and JPL to utilize global data sets for the study of global environmental change. John Seinfeld, the Louis E. Nohl Professor and professor of Chemical Engineering, has performed extensive research in atmospheric chemistry, physics, and aerosols. Professor Seinfeld's research has made a major effort in atmospheric modeling aimed at urban and regional air pollution and global climate.

CalTech also offers a series of seminars known as Caltech Public Events. They offer an event sponsored by the Engineering and Applied Science Division called Global Warming: Science and Solutions.

This free event is a one-hour school day performance offered to children grades 3-12 to improve their understanding of global warming.

SEE ALSO: California; Global Warming; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

BIBLIOGRApHY. California Institute of Technology, www (cited October 2007); Michael A. Toman and Brent Sohngen, Climate Change (Ashgate, 2004).

Fernando Herrera University of California, San Diego

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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