Bosnia and Herzegovina

ONE OF THE former constituent states of Yugoslavia, the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina has a land area of 19,767 sq. mi. (51,197 sq. km.), with a population of 3,925,000 (2007 est.), and a population density of 230 people per sq. mi. (76 people per sq. km.). Fourteen percent of the country is arable land, 20 percent is used for meadows and pasture, and 39 percent of the land is forested with mainly pine, beech, and oak trees.

One of the least developed countries in Europe, Bosnia-Herzegovina has one of the lowest rates of carbon dioxide emissions: only 1.2 metric tons per capita in 1992. However, in 1997 the per capita rate rose dramatically to 3.6 metric tons, and then 4.6 metric tons by 1998. Most of these emissions come from electricity production (63 percent), as 37.6 percent of the country's electricity production is generated from fossil fuels. The remainder comes from hydropower. Transportation accounts for 33 percent of carbon dioxide emissions. These figures are reflected in the fact that the use of solid fuels, primarily wood and coal, account for 47 percent of carbon dioxide emissions. Liquid fuels account for 38 percent. The manufacture of cement also has a role in the country's carbon emissions.

Despite the Bosnian War, the government was eager to join international forums, and took part in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change signed in Rio de Janeiro in May 1992, and ratified the Vienna Convention in the same year. On April 16, 2007, the Bosnian government accepted the Kyoto Protocol to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, becoming the 168th country in the world to do so.

SEE ALSO: Carbon Emissions; Coal; Serbia and Montenegro.

BIBLIOGRAPHY. "Bosnia and Herzegovina—Climate and Atmosphere," www.earthtrends.wri.org (cited October 2007); Noel Malcolm, Bosnia: A Short History (MacMillan, 1994).

JUSTIN CORFIELD Geelong Grammar School, Australia

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