In addition to recognizing distinguished accomplishments by electing members to its own ranks, the NAS recognizes the work of other accomplished scientists by bestowing annual awards, currently 30 in number, in nine fields: Astronomy/Astrophysics, Behavioral/Social Sciences, Biology and Medicine, Chemistry, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Engineering and Applied Sciences, Mathematics and Computer Sciences, Physics, and a General category. Awards include the John J. Carty Award for the Advancement of Science, with an emphasis in ecology; the Arthur L. Day Prize and Lectureship, focusing on the physics of the Earth; the Public Welfare Medal, and the NAS Award for Scientific Reviewing, in the fields of social and political sciences; and the Public Welfare Medal. The Public Welfare Medal is awarded in honor of distinguished service in the application of science to the public good. Noted recipients include Gilbert White, in 2000, for educating members of the academic community and government institutions on water resource management, hazard mitigation, and environmental assessment; Carl Sagan, in 1994 for his ability to describe complex scientific theories in graspable language; and Herbert Hoover, in 1920

for the utilization of science in food conservation and distribution.

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