Milankovitch Cycles

THE MILANKOVITCH CYCLES are recurring variations in the Earth-Sun orbital geometry. They collectively account for deviations in the amount and intensity of solar radiation received by the Earth. The cycles are named after Serbian astrophysicist Milutin Milankovitch (1879-1958), who developed the modern mathematical theory and formulas upon which these orbital perturbations are based. The central assertion of the Milankovitch theory is that the Earth's orbital relationship with the Sun is not...

Seasonal cycle

THERE ARE SEVERAL versions of seasons. The classical concept of season is of the four seasons that divide the year spring, summer, fall, and winter. Some regions of the globe have weather-based seasons, such as rainy or dry seasons. Certain natural occurrences are more frequent during particular times of year therefore, we have hurricane season as well as tornado season. Seasonal cycles for weather patterns occur because of the atmosphere. Although the atmosphere is hundreds of miles thick,...

Sea Level Rising

SEA LEVEL RISE is caused by thermal expansion of the oceans, melting of glaciers and ice caps, melting of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets, and changes in terrestrial storage. Changes in sea level will be felt through increases in the intensity and frequency of storm surges and coastal flooding increased salinity of rivers, bays, and coastal aquifers resulting from saline intrusion increased coastal erosion loss of important mangroves and other wetlands (the exact response will depend on...

The HYDRoloGic Cycle

The hydrologic cycle is part of this heat energy imbalance process. This feedback process complicates the global warming phenomena and involves water vapor, clouds, and aerosol particles. Evaporation is the basis of this important process. Water is evaporated by Sun, incorporated into clouds as water vapor, falls to the land and water bodies as rain, and enters water bodies to complete the cycle. Conversely, to make matters worse, water vapor acts as a prominent greenhouse gas as it is involved...

Environmental History

ENVIRONMENTAL HISTORY IS the study of the interactions between human cultures and nature through time and space, examining how the natural environment has influenced the historical processes and, conversely, how people have recognized and transformed their environment using technology. This bilateral approach was designated by Christopher Smout. The goal is to place the natural world as an actor of history, an approach that social history has neglected. The object of study is ecological, where...

Recent Climate Change

China is experiencing a well-documented, widespread warming. The glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau are retreating rapidly, and permafrost is melting. This rate has accelerated in the early 21st century under the impact of an intensified South Asia Monsoon, which is likely a consequence of global warming. Yao Tandong and others trace the glacial retreat in China to the termination of the Little Ice Age, around the beginning of the 20th century. Since then, the glacial retreat can be divided into...

Dominican Republic

Located IN the Caribbean, the Dominican Republic occupies the eastern part of the island of Hispaniola, the other part the Republic of Haiti. It has a land area of 18,810 sq. mi. (48,442 sq. km.), with a population of 9,183,984 (2007 est.), and a population density of 474 people per sq. mi. (182 people per sq. km.). The In the Dominican Republic, sugar cane crops a re being repurposed to make ethanol to blend with gasoline. In the Dominican Republic, sugar cane crops a re being repurposed to...

Clouds Stratus

Stratus clouds are those clouds that resemble a sheet across the atmosphere. These clouds typically rest at a low altitude, found below 6,000 ft. (2,000 m.). Their color can vary between white to dark gray. A stratus cloud that rests at ground level is known more commonly as fog. Stratus clouds a bit higher than fog block the sun from view and cause a cloudy day' The name stratus is the Latin word to spread out. The formation of stratus clouds occurs when a sheet of cool air passes under a...

Hydrofluorocarbons

Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) ARE a group of organic compounds that contain carbon, fluorine, and hydrogen. They are by-products of industrial manufacturing and were introduced as a replacements for chlorofluorocarbons and other ozone-depleting substances. However, though HFCs have zero ozone depletion potential (ODP), they have intrinsic and significant global warming potential (GWP), typically in the range of 1,000 to 3,000 times that of CO2. Thus, they are among the six key greenhouse gases...

Seawater Composition of

SEAWATER IS A solution of salts of nearly constant composition, dissolved in variable amounts of water. It is denser than fresh water. It is risky to drink sea-water because of its high salt content. More water is required to eliminate the salt through excretion than the amount of water that is gained from drinking the seawater. Seawater can be turned into potable water by desalination processes or by diluting it with freshwater. The origin of sea salt is traced to Sir Edmond Halley, who in...

Arakawa Akio 1927

AKIO ARAKAWA HAS been a leader in the field of atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) development from its beginning. AGCMs are essential tools for studies of global warming and projecting the consequences of anthropogenic climate change. Arakawa's inventiveness and extraordinary insight on atmospheric processes have resulted in fundamental contributions to the design of AGCMs in several areas, primarily 1) numerical schemes suitable for the long model integrations required by climate...

Texas

IN A POST-WORLD War II climate of mass consumption, urban disinvestment, and the emerging dominance of the automobile as the preferred mode of transportation, Texas and its economy grew dramatically. Fleeing postindustrial urban decay and the loss of manufacturing economies, millions of Americans and immigrants flocked to the wide-open and nonunionized spaces of the southwest United States. Home to almost 25 million residents, the State of Texas ranks second only to California in population and...

Radiation short Wave

Radiation traveling IN waves shorter than one micrometer ( im) is characterized as short wave, and includes gamma rays, x-rays, ultraviolet light, and visible light. Climatologically, short wave radiation commonly refers to the incoming radiation from the sun. There is an inverse relationship between the temperature of an object and the wavelengths at which it primarily emits. Because the sun is a hot object (approximately 5800 K), it emits radiation at short wavelengths. Since shorter...

Foraminifera

Foraminifera ARE MARINE eukaryotic unicellular organisms that construct a shell or test. They use chemicals from their surroundings to construct calcareous or siliceous crystals, or particulate grains to form an agglutinated test. They are heterotrophic protoctists with granular reticulopods (pseudopo-dial networks) exhibiting two-way streaming. Fora-minifers are Linnean classified by their chemistry, mineralogy, structure of the test walls, cytology, and DNA of protoplasm. Foraminifers can be...

University of Utah

THE UNivERsiTY OF Utah, founded in 1850, is a public, coeducational institution located in Salt Lake City. The university confers bachelor's, master's, doctoral, and professional degrees in a variety of academic and professional disciplines. The university offers a focus on environmental science, and the university's College of Mines and Earth Sciences is home to the Departments of Meteorology and Geology and Geophysics. The Department of Meteorology focuses on offering a background for...

Carbon Dioxide

CARBON DIOxIDE IS a naturally occurring gas. Chemically, it is stated as CO2, which means that each carbon dioxide molecule has two oxygen atoms bonded to a single carbon atom. CO2 has many practical applications. CO2 measurements are now being used as a way to test the cardiovascular system. This new tool has the promise of not being as invasive as other diagnostic methods. CO2 can be frozen into dry ice, and has numerous chemical uses. It is often a byproduct from chemical reactions. It has a...

Costa Rica

THIS Central American Republic, which has coastlines on the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, has a land area of 19,725 sq. mi. (51,100 sq. km.), with a population of 4,238,000 (2005 est.), and a population density of 220 people per sq. mi. (85 people per sq. km.). Only 6 percent of the country is arable, the smallest percentage of any of the Central American countries 46 percent is meadow and pasture, much of it used for raising cattle, which, in turn, contribute to an increase in methane....

Fluvial And Fossil Sediments

Waterborne or fluvial sediments include fine materials resembling aeolian deposits, but also larger particles such as gravel, pebbles, cobbles, and organic debris too dense or massive to be entrained by winds. Materials drop out of the water column in order of density the denser the object, the more quickly it is deposited. As one result, the densest fluvial sediments accumulate closest to the point where the river or stream that carries them enters a lake, producing horizontal sorting patterns...

Chile

Located ALONG the Pacific seaboard of South America, the Republic of Chile has a land area of 292,183 sq. mi. (756,950 sq. km.), with a population of 16,598,074 (2007 est.), and a population density of 57 people per sq. mi. (22 people per sq. km.). With 5 percent of the land arable, 21 percent of Chile is forested, with 1.15 million hectares of plantation forests, most of which is pine. In spite of a heavy reliance on mining, Chile has a relatively low level of carbon dioxide emissions 2.7...

Applied Energy services

APPLIED energy services, iNC. (AES) is a global power company providing energy to five continents (all but Australia and Antarctica). Since its founding in 1981, AES has expanded globally with a purpose of bringing safe electric power to people, including those who have never before had access to it. To this end, the company uses the slogan The Power of Being Global. The first AES power plant was built in Texas in 1985 the AES power plant cadre subsequently increased to four U.S. plants by...

Uruguay

URUGUAY is located in southern South America, making a small wedge between Argentina and Brazil. Most of the country is covered by rolling grasslands, though it is crossed by several river systems and has a coastline on the Atlantic Ocean. Uruguay has no mountain ranges to buffer it from weather systems, making it susceptible to rapid weather changes. Droughts and periodic flooding are common. Climate change is expected to have some initial benefits for the livestock industry, but its long-term...

Idaho state climate services

THE national OLIMATIO Data Center, the National Weather Service, and the University of Idaho founded the Idaho State Climate Services in May 1978 to provide climate services that had formerly been supplied by a National Weather Service program. Professor Myron Molnau was instrumental in establishing the center. The State Climate Services program is housed in the Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department and is headed by the state climatolo-gist for Idaho. The Idaho Agricultural...

Clouds Cirrus

Cirrus clouds ARE the thin and wisp-like clouds seen at high altitudes (higher than 20,000 to 26,000 ft., or 6,000 to 8,000 m.). The name cirrus comes from the Latin word for curl. They are composed predominantly of tiny ice crystals, because they form in the cold region of the troposphere. If cirrus clouds drop their ice crystals, these crystals evaporate before they arrive at the ground. Cirrus clouds can take on a variety of formations, including a more tuft-like characteristic called...

Saudi Arabia

COVERING MOST OF the Arabian Peninsula, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has a land area of 829,996 sq. mi. (2,149,690 sq. km.), with a population of 24,735,000 (2006 est.) and a population density of 29 people per sq. mi. (11 people per sq. km.). Riyadh, the capital and the largest city, has a population of 4,193,000 and has a population density of 3,891 per sq. mi. (1,500 per sq. km.). Some 2 percent of Saudi Arabia is arable land, with a further 56 percent used for meadows and pasture. With a...

Waves rossby

NAsa researchers at the Goddard Institute for Space Studies describe Rossby Waves as slow-moving waves in the ocean or atmosphere, driven from west to east by the force of Earth spinning. These are naturally occurring phenomena first recognized in 1939 by a Swedish-American meteorologist named Carl-Gustav Rossby. These waves, which are found in both the atmosphere and the oceans, are important mechanisms for the redistribution of energy around the globe. In three sections, this essay describes...

Internal Climate Variability

INTERNAL OR NATURAL climate variability refers to variations over time in one or more measures of climate, resulting from natural causes. The distinction between climate variability and weather variability is not a matter of different timescales rather, it is based on the fundamental distinction between climate and weather weather refers to meteorological conditions at a specific time and location, whereas climate refers to any statistical characterizations (such as a long-term mean) of weather...

Antarctic Circumpolar Current

THE ANTARCTIC CIRCuMPoLAR CuRRENT (ACC), also known as the West Wind Drift, is the only current that flows completely around the globe, unimpeded by continents. Famous explorers have often referenced the ACC in their navigational logs, including Edmond Halley (the first to note the ACC in a 1699-1700 voyage), James Cook, James Clark Ross, Sir Francis Drake, James Weddell. The ACC is notably the roughest sea crossing for navigators, particularly the 497 mi. (800 km.) wide Drake Passage extending...

Pliocene era

The pliocene epoch is the uppermost subdivision of the Tertiary period (65.5 to 2.588 million years ago), and represents a geological stage from about 1.806 to 5.332 million years ago. Although the Pliocene was generally warmer than the present, this epoch is characterized by pronounced climatic oscillations that ultimately led to the characteristic cooling of the late Quaternary glacial-interglacial cycles. Pliocene climate data are inferred from oxygen isotope, dust, microfossil, and in some...

International union of Geodesy and geophysics IuGG

THE international union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG) was established in 1919 as a nongovernmental organization. Original members were Australia, Belgium, Canada, France, Japan, Portugal, the United Kingdom, and the United States. It is based at the University of Colorado in Boulder, Colorado, and is also known by its French name, Union G od sique et G ophysique Internationale. Geodesy and geophysics refer to the study of the sciences of the Earth and its position in space. Individual fields...

Climatic Data proxy Records

CLIMATE SCIENTISTS would prefer to have all climate change information recorded by weather instruments, but suitable instrumentation was practically nonexistent before the 19th century. As a result, investigators of longer-term (paleoclimatic) climate changes rely on datable noninstrumental information. Climate scientists refer to noninstrumental records as proxy records, because they are substitutes for direct measurements taken by instruments. There are four principle proxy record sources...

History Of Oil Consumption

American and British engineers led the way in searching for new deposits of oil around the world, a process that rapidly accelerated around 1900. By then it had become obvious, to engineers at least, that oil was a safer (on average), cleaner, and smoother form of energy than that produced by coal. Big Coal remained dominant at the start of the 20th century, and most Americans continued to heat their homes with coal well into the 1930s, but those who switched over to oil found it cheaper,...

Troposphere

On THE BAsis of thermal characteristics, the atmosphere is normally subdivided into four major vertical layers the troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere. The troposphere makes up the lowest of these layers, extending from the surface to a global average height of 7.5 mi. (12 km.). Coined in 1908 by French scientist Leon Philippe Teisserenc de Bort, the name troposphere is derived from the Greek word tropos, meaning to turn, mix, or change. The term aptly describes the...

List of Contributors

Akter, Farhana King's College, London Allmon, Warren D. Paleontological Research Institute Andronova, Natasha University of Michigan U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Backe, Andrew S. National Science Foundation Ballabrera, Joaquim Institut de Ciencies del Mar Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cient ficas Bardecki, Michal J. Ryerson University Berhe, Asmeret Asefaw University of California, Berkeley Bevington, Douglas Loyd University of California, Santa Cruz Boersma, P. Dee...

Equatorial Countercurrent

Equatorial countercurrents are major surface flows that carry water eastward in the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans. They are located near the equator and are sandwiched between two westward-flowing currents, the North Equatorial Current and the South Equatorial Current. Equatorial counter-currents are unique, in that they flow in the opposite direction of the surface winds. The other major surface currents in the tropics flow in the same direction as the prevailing winds. The equatorial...

San Marino

THE LAND-LocKED REPuBLic, entirely surrounded by Italy, has a land area of 23.5 sq. mi. (61 sq. km.), with a population of 31,000 (2006 est.) and a population density of 1,198 people per sq. mi. (461 people per sq. km.), the 20th highest density in the world. It is a very prosperous country, with gross domestic product per capita being US 34,600. As a result, it makes heavy use of electricity air conditioning in the hot summers and heating for the winter, as well as regular domestic and...

Carbon Footprint

A CARBON FOOTpRINT is defined as the total amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases such as methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydro-fluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) emitted directly and indirectly to support human activities such as the burning of fossil fuels, deforestation, livestock raising, and agricultural production. Calculating a carbon footprint is a tool for understanding the amount of global warming gases everyday...

Convection

Currents moving in fluids are convection. More specifically, fluids liquids, gases, and rheids undergo movements as convection currents. Convection plays a major role in heat transfers. In fluids, both movement of mass in the fluid, and the heat it contains, occurs in a random way, if Brownian motion occurs. However, in the process of advection, large motions develop in the fluid, which move not only its mass, but also the energy it contains. Convection means the transfer of mass and heat by...

Central African Republic

A former French colony in central Africa, the Central African Republic is entirely landlocked and has an area of 240,534 sq. mi. (622,984 sq. km.), with a population of 4,216,666 (2007 est.), and a population density of 17.5 people per sq. mi. (6.8 people per sq. km.). The country is poor, with 3 percent of the land arable, and a further 5 percent used for meadows and pasture. In spite of this, many of the desperately poor people in the country survive through subsistence farming. Some 64...

Colorado Climate Center

The COLORADO Climate Center (CCC) is part of the Department of Atmospheric Science in the College of Engineering at Colorado State University. The aim of the center is to assist the state of Colorado in monitoring climate change over time, ranging from weeks to years. The CCC provides climate-related services to business, government, industry, researchers, educators, and the general public. The center tries to understand the complex interactions between the atmosphere, oceans, continental...

Somalia

Located in northeast Africa the Horn of Africa Somalia has a land area of 246,201 sq. mi. (637,657 sq. km.), with a population of 8,699,000 (2006 est.) and a population density of 34 people per sq. mi. (13 people per sq. km.). About 80 percent of the population is dependent on agriculture, though only 2 percent of the land is arable, with a further 69 percent used for meadows or pasture, mainly low-intensity grazing of cattle, goats, and pigs. Some 14 percent of the land is forested. Because...

Atmosphere Climate and environment Information Programme uk

IN Response To rising concerns about climate change and global warming at the end of the 20th century, the government of the United Kingdom created the Atmosphere, Climate, and Environmental Information Programme (ACE) as the academic arm of the Atmospheric Research and Information Centre (ARIC). Operating under the auspices of the Department for Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) and supported by the Department of the Environment, Transport, and Regions (DETR), ACE was established in...

Department of State uS

THE AREAS OF responsibility of the Department of State are the United States' foreign policy. Also, how foreign policy may impact U.S. security. Therefore, its interests in global warming and climate change are only to the degree that these phenomena may affect international policy or national security. According to a June 2007 Report to Congress, called The Senator Paul Simon Water for the Poor Act 2005 (P. L. 109-121), Climate variability is a measure of the degree to which rainfall and...

Jurassic

THE JURASSIC PERIOD extended from about 199 million years ago to 145 million years ago. This geological time period constitutes the middle of the Mesozoic era, also known as the Age of Dinosaurs. The start of the period is marked by the major Triassic-Jurassic extinction event. This period was named by Alexandre Brogniart for the extensive marine limestone exposures of the Jura Mountains, in the region where Germany, France and Switzerland meet. During the early Jurassic, the supercontinent...

Nongovernmental Organizations NGOs

NONGOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS (NGOS), while a comparatively modern phenomenon, have existed in the form of charitable organizations or political associations since the 18th century. During the 18th and 19th centuries, many people formed specific, community-based organizations, designed to meet specific community needs, or to advance particular policies. The issues targeted by these groups were broad in scope and included women's rights, the status of the poor, local government reform issues,...

Perfluorocarbons

The perfluorocarbons are a group of chemically related greenhouse gases covered by the Kyoto Protocol. Although emissions of perfluorocarbons are low compared to many other pollutants, they are of great concern because the perfluorocarbons are extremely powerful greenhouse gases with very long atmospheric lifetimes. Furthermore, the release of man-made perfluorocarbons is on the rise, due to increasing aluminum and semiconductor chip manufacture. Annual releases of PFM, the most abundant...

Chamberlin Thomas C 18431928

CHAMBERLIN was an American glacial geologist and educator who, at the turn of the 20th century, challenged the generally accepted Laplacian theory that the Earth was formed by hot gases and was gradually becoming cooler. He suggested the plan-etesimal hypothesis, arguing that the planets were formed after a star passed near the Sun, pulling away material from both bodies that later condensed into the planets. Chamberlin was one of the first scientists to emphasize the role of carbon...

Radiant Energy And Ocean Current

Radiant energy from the Sun is not uniformly distributed across the globe, because the Earth is spherical. Specifically, more energy per a given surface area arrives at the tropics, where the Sun is more directly overhead, than arrives at the poles where sunlight strikes the Earth at a greater angle. This has a number of effects. Evaporation is higher in these tropical waters, thereby affecting the concentration of ions in the water. This concentration of ions, in turn, increases tropical...

Somali current

The SOMALi current can be found on the surface of the northern Indian Ocean, serving as a western boundary of this ocean. It is a movement of waters around the Indian Ocean, dispersing heat. Atmospheric circulation and ocean circulation together are the major mechanisms for global heat distribution. As atmospheric circulation defines large-scale air movements around the globe, ocean circulation refers to the patterned movement of particular waters. In summer, a southwest monsoon blows upward...

Romanticism And Conservation

Researchers and other intellectuals, including artists, began to recognize the local impacts of environmental degradation around the turn of the 19th century in the United States and Europe. For scientists, powers of observation were based on empiricism and the scientific method that were honed during the Enlightenment. Artists and intellectuals observed natural beauty and captured it in the painting, music, and literature of the Romantic period. Romanticism emerged along with the Industrial...

Glaciers retreating

There are glaciers in all areas of the globe. Most glaciers are found in the polar regions, but many of the Earth's tallest mountains also have glaciers. Glaciers go through life cycles. They have growing years, moving years, and retreating years. For glaciers to form, very specific climatic conditions are necessary. They are usually found where there is enough snowfall for a snow pack to permanently accumulate, where summers are not warm enough for all of the snow to melt. In some regions,...

Bahamas

LOCATED IN THE Caribbean, the Bahamas consists of an archipelago of more than 700 islands that cover about 100,000 sq. mi. (160,934 sq. km. ) of ocean, and a land area of only 5,378 sq. mi. (13,878 sq. km.). It has a population of 323,000 (2003 est.), with a population density of 60 people per sq. mi. (23.27 per sq. km.), although on the island of New Providence in the capital of Nassau, there are 4,402 people per sq. mi. (1,693 per sq. km.). Much of the economy of the nation comes from...

International solar Energy society IsEs

THE INTERNATIoNAL soLAR Energy Society is an international nonprofit, nongovernmental organization with a focus on the development and diffusion of renewable energy technologies. The society has 30,000 members globally from industry, research, and government there are national sections in 54 countries. The following goals are stated in the society's mandate to encourage the use and acceptance of renewable energy technologies to realize a global community of industry, individuals, and...

International Geophysical Year IGY

THE INTERNATIONAL GEOPHYSICAL Year (IGY), in French, Ann e G ophysique Internationale, took place between July 1, 1957 and December 31, 1958. The International Council for Science (ICSU) began designing it in 1952. The ICSU addresses global issues through international initiatives aimed to support scientists. A successful example of these initiatives, besides the International Geophysical Year, is the International Biological Program, which took place 1964-74. The International Geophysical Year...

Volcanism

MEMBERs of The scientific community by and large concur that the Earth is undergoing a change in climate and that global warming is occurring at an increasing rate. In fact, scientific modeling suggests that Earth will experience an increase in temperature during the next 100 years at a pace up to four times greater than that in the previous 100 years. To a large extent this acceleration in the late 20th century is attributed to carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions generated by human activity. Carbon...

Mississippi state university

Mississippi state university offers several educational options in the areas of meteorology and climatology. The Department of Geosciences offers on-campus undergraduate and graduate degrees in Geosciences, with optional emphases in broadcast meteorology, professional meteorology, climatology, geology, geography, and geographic information systems (GIS). The department also offers a distance-learning graduate degree specifically for Kindergarten-12 teachers and distance-learning certificate...

Honduras

The republic of Honduras lies in Central America, and has coastlines with the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean. Honduras has a land area of 43,278 sq. mi. (112,492 sq. km.), with a population of 7,326,496 (2006 est.), and a population density of 166 people U.S. aid workers rush food, shelter, water and medical aid to Hondurans made homeless by Hurricane Mitch in 1998. U.S. aid workers rush food, shelter, water and medical aid to Hondurans made homeless by Hurricane Mitch in 1998. the most...

Thermodynamics

THE SCIENCE OF thermodynamics, a branch of physics, aims to describe transformations in energy. Thermodynamics comprises three laws. The first holds that energy can neither be created nor destroyed. Energy in various forms may be transformed into heat (thermal energy) and heat may be transformed into another form of energy so long as the total energy in the system remains constant. The second law states that entropy, a measure of the amount of energy dissipated as heat, increases over time in a...

Arctic And SuBarctic IssuES

To strengthen the global response, CIEL's Climate Change Program focuses on impacts to people and ecosystems of the Arctic and subarctic. The program works to protect the Earth's climate system through promotion of human rights, forest conservation, and biodiversity protection. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the destructive effects of climate change will not only affect the environment, but also Arctic peoples. Average annual temperatures in the Arctic have...

Advocacy and operational ngos

The World Bank differentiates between operational and advocacy NGOs, where an operational NGO focuses on the design and implementation of development-related projects, such as service delivery, and an advocacy NGO defends or promotes a specific cause. A good example of an operational NGO is that of the work of the International Medicine Corps (IMC) in Afghanistan. In this case, the IMC instituted a vaccination campaign against measles, a disease that was identified by the World Health...

Conservation And Climate Change

Knowledge about climate change has come slowly alongside the emergence of the conservation and, later, environmental movements. Differing approaches to conservation moved toward a more holistic understanding of human impact on dynamic environmental processes. For example, in an 1867 report to the Wisconsin Legislature, I.A. Lapham showed the relation of forests to stream flow. His suggestion about the need to plant more trees to protect watersheds foreshadowed the conservation movement. At...

Orbital parameters Obliquity

The earth's ORBIT and orientation around the Sun affects how solar energy is received. Obliquity is the degree of the Earth's tilt as it completes its daily rotation and yearly revolution around the Sun. It is the angle an imaginary rotational axis would make with the plane of the Earth's orbit. The axial tilt, which varies over time from 21.5 to 24.5 degrees and back again, is the reason for the seasons. A complete tilt cycle takes 41,000 years to complete. In concert with the eccentricity of...

The Keeling Curve

Charles David Keeling of California developed a device for measuring the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere in parts per million. During the Geophysical Year 1957-58, he took many readings at different locations on the surface of the Earth. These included the top of Hawaiian volcanoes that were (at the time) far from industries. He also took readings in all manner of other places and used these to construct the Keeling Curve. The Keeling Curve shows that the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere has...

The Climates Of Africa

The climate is not uniform, but rather varies by locale. From this, it follows that the continents have a multiplicity of climates. Africa, the cradle of humanity, has a Mediterranean climate in its coastland along the Mediterranean Sea. The sea imparts its heat to North Africa. But, the sea breeze does not penetrate far into Africa, making only a thin strip of coastline Mediterranean in climate. The sea absorbs heat in summer and retains this heat into autumn, radiating it to Mediterranean...

Precambrian era

The precambrian era, or Supereon, refers to the geological time comprising the eons that came before the Phanerozoic eon. This time spans from the formation of Earth around 4.5 billion years ago to the evolution of abundant macroscopic hard-shelled animals, which marked the beginning of the Cambrian era, the first period of the first era of the Phanerozoic eon. The Precambrian era encompasses 86 percent of the Earth's history, however very little is known about this time period. In fact, the...

Greenhouse effect

Human activities can disrupt the balance of the natural system that regulates the temperature on Most of Earth's heat is re-radiated toward space, but some is trapped by greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. This is a natural effect that keeps Earth's temperature at a level necessary to support life. Human activity particularly burning fossil fuels (coal, oil, and natural gas) and land clearing is generating more greenhouse gases. Scientists are convinced that this will trap more heat and raise...

Chronology

The Earth, newly formed, had the hottest climate in the planet's long history. Temperatures were hot enough to liquefy rock. Radioactive elements in Earth's core generated heat and pressure as they decayed, pushing molten rock toward Earth's surface. Volcanoes also brought molten rock to the surface, liberating heat. Volcanoes spewed carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, causing the Greenhouse Effect. As the mass of radioactive elements in Earth's core diminished, the climate cooled and the first...

Oregon State university

Oregon state university (OSU) is a four-year research and degree-granting public university, located in Corvallis, Oregon in the United States. Total student enrollment (undergraduate and graduate) is more than 19,000. Eighty-one percent of students are Oregon residents. OSU offers more than 200 academic degree programs and is most noted for engineering, environmental sciences, forestry, oceanography, and pharmacy. The university has more majors, minors, and special programs than any other...

Lebanon

Problems regarding archiving, accessibility, and documentation of the group's results, and relating to the integrity and reproducibility of the group's modeling experiments. Typically, the published data of modelers consists of figures, processed data, and tables of area averaged, depth-integrated, time-smoothed data. Due primarily to size constraints, the computer output is not available for further analysis. In addition, the source code for the models themselves is not easily reproduced. Even...

Colorado State university

COLORADO State uNIVERSITY is a premier system of public higher education committed to excellence, setting the standard in teaching, research, and service. The board of governors presides over Colorado State University (CSU), which is composed of Colorado State University (located in Fort Collins, Colorado) and CSU-Pueblo. At Colorado State, research and outreach from the sciences to the humanities are advancing on multiple fronts to explore climate-change phenomena and find solutions. The...

Energy Balance Models

ENERGY Balance Models represent the First Law of Thermodynamics applied to a system. In climatology, energy balance models are used for the Earth-atmosphere system. This is a closed thermo-dynamic system because it does not exchange matter with the surrounding environment, or space. Energy balance models can be applied to the Earth-atmosphere systems for different timescales such as a year, day, or hour. Depending on the timescale, the models would produce an annual, daily, or hourly...

Renewable Energy Potential

Although renewable energy technologies are unreliable for the world's present energy demand, the market is growing for many forms of renewable energy. Approximately 74,223 MW of power is generated from windmills worldwide. Several European countries and the United States produce the largest percentage of wind energy. Denmark is the world leader in this technology. The present worldwide manufacturing output of the photovol-taics (PV) industry is more than 2,000 MW per year. Japan, Germany, and...

Doldrums

DOLDRUMS ARE TECHNICALLY known as the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), the intertropical front, the monsoon trough, or the equatorial convergence zone, the doldrums are a belt of low pressure surrounding the earth at the equator. It is formed by the vertical ascent of warm, moist air from the latitudes above and below the equator. The air is drawn into the ITCZ by the action of the Hadley cell, a macroscale atmospheric feature that is part of the Earth's heat and moisture distribution...

American Meteorological Society

THE AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL Society (AMS) supports the growth and diffusion of information and education on the atmospheric and related oceanic and hydrologic sciences and the development of their professional applications. Founded in 1919, AMS has a membership of more than 11,000 professionals, professors, students, and weather enthusiasts. AMS publishes nine atmospheric and related oceanic and hydrologic journals, both in print and online and sponsors more than 12 conferences annually. It...

Peruvian current

ORIGINATING IN THE frigid waters offthe coast of Antarctica, the Peruvian Current moves north along the western coast of South America. When in reaches the continental shelf along South America, the current rises, carrying cold water with it to the surface of the Pacific Ocean. The prevailing winds of the South Pacific and Earth's rotation cause the Peruvian Current to rotate the Coriolis Force causes the current to rotate clockwise. The Peruvian Current extends 125 mi. (201 km.) west from the...

Alternatives To Fossil Fuels

The phrase Alternative energy implies that these energy sources are alternatives to nuclear and traditional fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum, or natural gas. Alternative energy, therefore, is a catchall category of energy sources that proponents argue can replace traditional fossil fuels in daily life, while causing less harm to the environment. Alternative energy is increasingly important for at least three reasons. First, fossil fuels are nonrenewable eventually, they will be exhausted....

Solar Energy Industries Association SEIA

The solar energy Industry Association (SEIA) is an American trade association for the solar industry, working to expand markets, strengthen and develop research, and improve education for the employment of solar energy. SEIA is affiliated with the PVNow coalition of photovoltaic companies, which aims to expand the North American-distributed, grid-connected photovoltaic market opportunities and eliminate market barriers. They are pursuing this goal through lobbying key state legislatures,...

The Early Eocene Climatic Optimum

The Early Eocene Climatic Optimum lasted for over 2 million years, and was characterized by warm and equable (meaning the climate was relatively similar everywhere) conditions. Deciduous, temperate forests covered Antarctica, and palm trees marched north across Wyoming and into Arctic Canada. Summer temperatures in the Arctic Ocean were approximately 59 degrees F (33 degrees C), almost 30 degrees F (17 degrees C) warmer than today, while ocean surface temperatures in the tropics were hardly...

Waves Kelvin

Kelvin waves AFFECTING weather and climate occur in both the oceans and the atmosphere. These low-frequency, gravity-driven waves propagate vertically and parallel to boundaries (e.g., equator, coastline, air masses, and topography). Kelvin waves are nondispersive and carry energy from one point to another. The height or amplitude of a Kelvin wave is highest near the boundary where it propagates the wave height decreases as the wave moves farther away from the boundary. In the Northern...

Atmospheric Composition

ALL LIFE on Earth exists within a thin film of air, water, and soil about 9.3 mi. (15 km.) deep. This spherical shell of life is known as the biosphere. The biosphere can be divided into three layers the atmosphere (air), the hydrosphere (water), and the lithosphere (rock and soil). The unique attributes of the Earth's atmosphere create a habitable place for humans, animals, and plants. It reaches over 348 mi. (560 km.) from the surface of the Earth. The atmosphere is a mixture of gases and...

The Koppen Climate Classification System

In 1900, the Russian-German climatologist Vladimir Koppen presented the scientific community with a system for classifying the world's climates. Today, it is called the Koppen Climate Classification System. It divides the Earth's surface into climatic regions that generally coincide with world patterns of vegetation and soils. The system has five major climate types. These are based on averages of annual rainfall and temperatures. The annual averages are combined with the monthly rain and...

Manabe Syukuro

From electricity, heavily used for air conditioning, the entire electricity production in the country comes from fossil fuels, accounting for 40 percent of all carbon dioxide emissions coming from solid fuels. The remaining 60 percent of the carbon dioxide emissions is from liquid fuels, with transportation making up 15 percent of the country's entire emissions. In spite of its small size, there is a high private ownership of automobiles, many of which are increasingly old and inefficient in...

Alliance of Small Island States

THE ALLIANCE OF Small Island States (AOSIS) is an umbrella lobby and negotiating body representing the interests of low-lying and small island states at the level of the United Nations. AOSIS has played an important role in shaping international climate change policy by ensuring that the concerns of small island developing states are represented on an international level. Specifically, AOSIS has been a leading advocate for reductions in global greenhouse gas emissions. Operating on an ad hoc...

Brunei Darussalam

LOCATED ON THE north coast of Borneo, Negara Brunei Darussalam has a land area of2,226 sq. mi. (5,765 sq. km.), and is divided into two parts. It has a population of 383,990 (2007 est.), and a population density of 168 people per sq. mi. (65 people per sq. km.). The country has abundant petroleum and gas supplies, which produce most of the its wealth, with one percent of the land being arable, and another one percent used for meadows and pasture. Unlike most of the other major...

Canadian Association for Renewable Energies

Incorporated IN 1998, the Canadian Association for Renewable Energies is an organization dedicated to the promotion of feasible applications of renewable energy in Canada. The objectives of the association are to promote greater awareness of the benefits of renewable energies to Canada's economy, environment, and society advance the adoption of renewable energies and undertake research that will optimize renewable energy technologies. Membership is open to institutions, corporations, and...

Albedo

Albedo originates from a Latin word albus, which means white. Albedo is the amount of sunlight (of all wavelengths) that is reflected back from an object or a substance. The more the amount of light reflected back, the brighter the color of the object. A lesser amount of light is reflected back from darker objects. The albedo of an object varies from 0-1. Black objects have zero albedo, while white objects have an albedo of one. Sometimes it is also expressed in terms of percentage, 1-100. An...

Oregon Climate service

THE OREGON CLIMATE Service at Oregon State University offers monthly climate statistics for various stations in Oregon. It is located on the Oregon State University campus in Corvallis, Oregon, and is the state depository for weather and climate information. It is affiliated with Oregon State University's College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences (COAS). Oregon Climate Service data may be accessed on the World Wide Web. They include a monthly means and extremes dataset for stations throughout...

Blizzards

IN HIGH And mid-latitudes, blizzards are some of the most widespread and hazardous of weather events. They are most common in Russia and central and northeastern Asia, northern Europe, Canada, the northern United States, and Antarctica. It is likely that climate change will give rise to changes in the number, severity, and geographical occurrence of blizzards. Although it is common for the term blizzard to be employed to refer to any disruptive winter storm, there is a more precise scientific...

Two layers of the atmosphere

Based on chemical composition, the atmosphere is divided into two broad layers the homosphere and the heterosphere. The homosphere extends up to the height of 56 mi. (90 km.) and is characterised by uniformity in chemical composition. It consists of three thermal layers, namely, the troposphere, the stratosphere, and the mesosphere. Each sub-layer is separated from the adjoining layer by a shallow transitional zone. The het-erosphere has heterogeneous chemical composition, with layered...

Sulphur Dioxide

Sulphur dioxide (So2) is an important component of the atmosphere, present as the result of both natural and human activity. Although it is a primary pollutant in its own right, causing respiratory irritation and damage to plants, it is the secondary pollutants produced from SO2 that are particularly important in connection with global climate change. Sulphur dioxide is notorious as the cause of acid rain, but it is also a precursor to the formation of clouds. Hence, its release to the...

Croll James 182190

JAMES CROLL WAS a 19th-century Scottish scientist who developed a theory of climate change based on variations in the Earth's orbit. Croll was the leading proponent of an astronomical theory of climate change during the 19th century. Taking into account the precession of the equinoxes, variations in the eccentricity of the orbit, and tilt of the axis, Croll proposed that climate change must be the result of the relation of the Earth to the Sun. He further speculated, geological and cosmi-cal...

Vanuatu

VANuATu is A country located in the South Pacific Ocean, composed of an archipelago of 83 volcanic islands with a population around 220,000. It has been a global leader in the development of renewable resources for sustained energy. Vanuatu is governed by a parliamentary democracy, with the prime minister, elected by Parliament, being the leader of the government. Its economy is primarily agricultural, with 80 percent of the population engaged in agricultural activities. Coconut is by far the...

Oregon

OREGON's average elevation is 3,300 ft. (1,006 m.) above sea level, with a range in elevation from sea level along the Pacific Ocean, to the peak of Mt. Hood at 11,239 ft. (3,426 m.). Mountain ranges, including the Coast Range, and the Cascades, divide Oregon. Inland from the Coast Range of mountains is the Willamette Valley, which includes the Willamette River, flowing toward the Columbia River. The Columbia Plateau is northeast of Willamette Valley and west Mountain ranges divide Oregon. West...

Climatic Data Reanalysis

REANALYSIS CLIMATIC Data is a long-term consistent climatic dataset. The dataset is produced from a state-of-the-art data assimilation system combining both past observations from various sources and short-range forecasts from simulation models to obtain the best statistical estimate of the state of the atmospheric flow. For numerical weather prediction (NWP), the observations from sources irregularly distributed in space and time are analyzed in a unified and consistent manner with the aid of...

Baleen Whales And Climate Change

A second example concerns the sustainability of baleen whales in relation to the availability of plankton and krill. Baleen whales constitute a particularly interesting example in that they simultaneously point to the importance of the ecological relationships among different species at different scales, as well as to the importance of considering the temporal complexity of these processes. Most species of whales are migratory, with complex migratory patterns across the oceans, sometimes...

Florida International university

THE uNIvERSITY IS one of the 11 public universities that make up the Florida State University System and is located in the city of Miami. The bill providing for the establishment of Florida International University (FIU) was signed into law in 1965. In 1969, the country's youngest university president at that time, Charles E Perry, took charge at 31 years of age. The university accepted its first 5,667 students in September 1972. About 38,000 students are currently enrolled in over 280 majors....

Refugees Environmental

IN THE LAST 10 years, the issue of environmental refugees has emerged as a pressing issue. Most refugees are fleeing from natural disasters such as the Asian tsunami in 2004, or as a result of the impacts of global climate change, such as sea level rise. As the executive director of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) noted in 1989, as many as 50 million people could become environmental refugees if the world does not support sustainable development. Since then, many studies have...

Mississippi

Located IN the Deep South and bordering the Gulf Coast, Mississippi is one of the poorest states in the United States, and funding for environmental programs is not always considered high-priority. Parts of Mississippi are predominately agricultural, particularly in the fertile Black Delta of the northeast and in the Mississippi Delta of the south. More than half on the state's land area is forested. The Mississippi River, from which the state takes its name, is the state's major geographic...

Climatic Data Nature of the data

Climate modeling IS the process of trying to create mathematical models that represent to the highest possible level of accuracy the circulation of wind in the atmosphere and the exchange of heat into and out of it. Since efforts at modeling began in the 19th century, those efforts have become increasingly complex and sophisticated, particularly in recent decades. Two factors have contributed to that increasing sophistication first, the dramatic improvement in computational power second, the...

Winds Westerlies 1G93

This outflow of air gives rise to the trades. As the air moves toward the equatorial low, it is deflected as a consequence of the Coriolis force (or effect). This deflection results in northeasterly trade winds in the Northern Hemisphere and southeasterly trades in the Southern Hemisphere. The trade winds are also referred to as tropical easterlies, particularly when the associated vertical wind shear is large. The polar easterlies, a belt of winds found from approximately...

Oxygen Cycle

THE OXYGEN CYCLE allows for the regeneration of freely available diatomic oxygen (O2) in the atmosphere. Oxygen accounts by volume for approximately 21 percent of the atmosphere, is reactive with myriad inorganic and organic substances, and is vital to living organisms for aerobic respiration and energy production. The cycle involves any source of oxygen within the world, and is not limited to the oxygen animals must breathe to sustain life any compound containing an atom of oxygen is...