Global Climate

Trade Winds

Atmospheric Cells Monsoon Regions

The Trade WINDs are a large-scale component of Earth circulation, occupying most of the tropics straddling the equator between approximately latitude 30 degrees N and latitude 30 degrees S, with a seasonal shift of the entire trade wind belt system about 5 degrees of latitude northward during summer (July) and southward during winter (December). In the Northern Hemisphere, warm equatorial air rises and flows north toward the pole, the Coriolis Effect (caused by the Earth's rotation) deflects...

Human Effects On Polar Bears

Humans kill polar bears for aboriginal subsistence, sport, and defense of human life and property. In some areas, monitoring of polar bear kills is effective (in Norway and the United States), but in other areas there is little reliable information (Russia and Greenland). Concerns have recently been expressed about the threat posed by trophy hunting (currently allowed only in Canada and Greenland). Quotas are often based on poor population data. Approximately 80 trophies are imported into the...

The Annales School

The most influential contribution to environmental history came from the field of history. The Annales school, which flourished at the University of Strasbourg, France, agglutinating a first generation of scholars around the journal Annales d'histoire conomique et sociale, founded in 1929 by the medievalist historian Marc Bloch, and modern historian Lucien Feb-vre. This approach, a reaction to the dominant history of political events and the function of leaders, minimized the role of...

Clouds Stratus

Stratus clouds are those clouds that resemble a sheet across the atmosphere. These clouds typically rest at a low altitude, found below 6,000 ft. (2,000 m.). Their color can vary between white to dark gray. A stratus cloud that rests at ground level is known more commonly as fog. Stratus clouds a bit higher than fog block the sun from view and cause a cloudy day' The name stratus is the Latin word to spread out. The formation of stratus clouds occurs when a sheet of cool air passes under a...

Two layers of the atmosphere

Based on chemical composition, the atmosphere is divided into two broad layers the homosphere and the heterosphere. The homosphere extends up to the height of 56 mi. (90 km.) and is characterised by uniformity in chemical composition. It consists of three thermal layers, namely, the troposphere, the stratosphere, and the mesosphere. Each sub-layer is separated from the adjoining layer by a shallow transitional zone. The het-erosphere has heterogeneous chemical composition, with layered...

From Hothouse To Icehouse

Cenozoic Icehouse

Abrupt cooling at the Eocene Oligocene transition (35 million years ago) marked the appearance of the first continent-spanning ice sheet on Antarctica, potentially the first Cenozoic Northern Hemisphere ice sheets, and the transition from hothouse to icehouse climate in the Cenozoic. However, much of the planet continued to experience climatic conditions warmer than the present, with cool temperate Research on the early Cenozoic era, when tropical forests grew in Wyoming, is revealing new...

Criticisms Of Ngos

The NGO movement, however, is not without its critics. Many question the accountability of NGOs. For example, the work undertaken by World Vision, in coordinating the relief effort resulting from the Tsunami in South East Asia in 2005, has sustained attacks that the donated monies, millions of dollars in this case, were not reaching the intended victims. Many NGOs working in developing countries are partly funded by their own governments, and have been criticized as being a front for foreign...

Peruvian current

ORIGINATING IN THE frigid waters offthe coast of Antarctica, the Peruvian Current moves north along the western coast of South America. When in reaches the continental shelf along South America, the current rises, carrying cold water with it to the surface of the Pacific Ocean. The prevailing winds of the South Pacific and Earth's rotation cause the Peruvian Current to rotate the Coriolis Force causes the current to rotate clockwise. The Peruvian Current extends 125 mi. (201 km.) west from the...

Walker Circulation

THE WALKER CIRCULATION is an atmospheric system of air flow in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. The trade winds across the tropical Pacific flow from east to west air rises above the warm waters of the western Pacific, flows eastward at high altitudes, and descends over the eastern Pacific. A weaker Walker circulation (in the reverse direction) occurs over the Indian Ocean. Sir Gilbert Walker assumed the post of director-general of the observatory in India following catastrophic famines in the...

Rainfall Patterns

Change iN RAiNFALL pattern is a consequence of global warming. The world's agriculture, especially third world agriculture, depends upon the seasonal rainfall pattern. Recent erratic changes in rainfall pattern lead toward low agriculture production, thus creating food insecurity for an ever-increasing world population. Flood, drought, and famine are the consequences of these changing patterns. Rainfall pattern means the distribution of rain geographically, temporally, and seasonally. The...

The Koppen Climate Classification System

In 1900, the Russian-German climatologist Vladimir Koppen presented the scientific community with a system for classifying the world's climates. Today, it is called the Koppen Climate Classification System. It divides the Earth's surface into climatic regions that generally coincide with world patterns of vegetation and soils. The system has five major climate types. These are based on averages of annual rainfall and temperatures. The annual averages are combined with the monthly rain and...

Global Climate In Cretaceous

THE CRETACEOuS Era spanned the time period from 144 to 65 million years ago. It was the final epoch of the dinosaurs. It ended when the dinosaurs became extinct. At its height, the Cretaceous was a period of great warmth. The poles were ice-free, and warm ocean currents spread from the equator to the poles. The concentration of carbon dioxide was higher than it is today, causing a greenhouse effect. The abundance of plants was not enough to lower the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere....

Troposphere

On THE BAsis of thermal characteristics, the atmosphere is normally subdivided into four major vertical layers the troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere. The troposphere makes up the lowest of these layers, extending from the surface to a global average height of 7.5 mi. (12 km.). Coined in 1908 by French scientist Leon Philippe Teisserenc de Bort, the name troposphere is derived from the Greek word tropos, meaning to turn, mix, or change. The term aptly describes the...

Alliance of Small Island States

THE ALLIANCE OF Small Island States (AOSIS) is an umbrella lobby and negotiating body representing the interests of low-lying and small island states at the level of the United Nations. AOSIS has played an important role in shaping international climate change policy by ensuring that the concerns of small island developing states are represented on an international level. Specifically, AOSIS has been a leading advocate for reductions in global greenhouse gas emissions. Operating on an ad hoc...

Clouds Cumulus

Cumulus Clouds Level Atmosphere

Cumulus clouds are puffy and usually have well-defined boundaries. They form from the condensation or deposition of moisture in particles known as cloud nuclei present in the moist updrafts of convective plumes. The cloud particles can be composed of liquid water, supercooled water, or ice. These cloud particles are denser than air therefore they increase the density of cumulus updrafts. However, water vapor is lighter than dry air, and therefore, except for the effects of the cloud particles,...

Internal Climate Variability

INTERNAL OR NATURAL climate variability refers to variations over time in one or more measures of climate, resulting from natural causes. The distinction between climate variability and weather variability is not a matter of different timescales rather, it is based on the fundamental distinction between climate and weather weather refers to meteorological conditions at a specific time and location, whereas climate refers to any statistical characterizations (such as a long-term mean) of weather...

Benguela Current

THE BENGUELA CURRENT is located in the southern part of the Atlantic Ocean and moves northward from the western coast of South Africa, Namibia, and Angola, merging into the Southern Equatorial Current. It takes its name from the Angolan port of Benguela, which was founded by the Portuguese in 1617. The current was quickly noticed by European seafarers, who initially had trouble navigating the region. While the Benguela Current is cold, generated by water from the very deepest parts of the ocean...

Heat latent

Latent Heat is energy in the form of heat released or absorbed by a substance during a phase change of the substance. The amount of latent heat involved with condensation evaporation and freezing melting are different under different temperatures and pressures. As temperature increases, latent heat of vaporization decreases, but that of fusion increases. Water is not the only substance that has three different phases at a normal temperature range in the universe, but it is the most abundant...

Modeling of Paleoclimates

PALEOcLIMATE MODELING INduDEs the development and application of numerical climate models to simulate climates through Earth's 4.6 billion-year history. Paleoclimate modeling is a theoretical branch of the natural science fields of paleoclimatology and paleoceanography, which seek to document and understand Earth's climate and ocean history. A fundamental goal of paleoclimate modeling is to determine the causes of past global climate change as a guide to modern and future climate change....

Oxygen Cycle

Globing Warmimng Fiji

THE OXYGEN CYCLE allows for the regeneration of freely available diatomic oxygen (O2) in the atmosphere. Oxygen accounts by volume for approximately 21 percent of the atmosphere, is reactive with myriad inorganic and organic substances, and is vital to living organisms for aerobic respiration and energy production. The cycle involves any source of oxygen within the world, and is not limited to the oxygen animals must breathe to sustain life any compound containing an atom of oxygen is...

Atmospheric Vertical Structure

THE ATMOSPHERE COMPRISES the thin envelope of gases held by the Earth's gravitational force. Extending for several hundred miles above the Earth's surface with no clear boundary, the atmosphere is often sub divided into vertical layers according to a distinctive physical properties. These properties include thermal characteristics, chemical composition, electrical attributes, or density. The vertical structure of the atmosphere is defined by changes in these physical properties, with each...

Kuroshio Current

THE KUROSHIO CURRENT is the second largest ocean current in the world, and flows in the western Pacific from the east coast of Taiwan island, northwards to Japan, and then beyond Hokkaido past the Kuril Islands, where it merges with the North Pacific Current. In many ways, it is similar to the Gulf Stream in the Atlantic Ocean, which also carries warm tropical waters toward the polar region. The Japanese call it the Kuroshio Current, with some early English geographers translating this to the...

Ice Component of Models

CLIMATE MODELS HAVE developed from mathematical formulas used in the 19th century to try to predict the weather. The lack of accurate and comprehensive data and the need to rely on manual calculation techniques made these approaches very difficult, and ultimately, they were abandoned as it became clear that the results of the equations did not match real-world conditions. During World War II, military expediencies demanded that more data be collected about the atmosphere, and this capacity...

Thermosphere

Global Weather Watchers

THE EARTH is surrounded by a blanket of air, called the atmosphere. The atmosphere is a thin layer of gases that envelope the Earth. The gases are held close to the earth by gravity and the thermal movement of air molecules. Life on Earth is supported by the atmosphere, solar energy, and the magnetic fields. Five layers have been identified in the atmosphere, using thermal characteristics, chemical composition, movement, and density. The atmosphere is divided into the troposphere, the...

Tata energy Research institute TERI

The energy And Resources Institute (TERI) began in 1974 as the Tata Energy Research Institute. Motivated by concerns about finite, nonrenewable energy resources and pollution, Darbari Seth, a chemical engineer working for Tata Chemicals, proposed a research institute dedicated to the collection and dissemination of information regarding energy production and utilization. R.J.D. Tata, then chairman of the Tata Group, actively supported the institute, and TERI was formally established in Delhi in...

Meeting Criteria

Only a few records come close to meeting these criteria, and most of them suffer from multiple deficiencies, usually because the instruments were shifted to nearby, but different sites. Thus, most records are, in fact, composite series, containing data from a number of sites in one area. One notable exception is the record of the Armagh Observatory in Northern Ireland 1796-2002. The resulting historical climate record is the longest for any single site in the United Kingdom and Ireland...

Institutions studying climate change

American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy American Electric Power American Gas Association American Geophysical Union American Meteorological Society Antarctic Meteorology Research Center Applied Energy Services, Inc. Atmosphere, Climate and Environment Information Programme (UK) Atmospheric Research and Information Centre BP Canadian Association for Renewable Energies Cantor Fitzgerald EBS Center for Clean Air Policy Center for Energy Efficiency Center for International Climate and...

Tertiary climate

THE TERTIARY PERioD (ca. 66.4 to 1.8 million years ago Ma ) was an interval of enormous geologic, climatic, oceanographic, and biologic change. It spans the transition from a globally warm world of relatively high sea levels to a world of lower sea levels, polar glaciation, and sharply differentiated climate zones. Over the past decade, however, it has become increasingly clear that Tertiary climatic history was not a simple unidirectional cooling driven by a single cause but a much more...

Conservation

CONSERVATION IS A line of environmental thought and action that emerged in the United States during the last half of the 1800s. Conservationists are often seen as opposing growth, but this universal judgment is problematic. The underlying premise of the predominant branch of conservation's philosophy is wise use, that is, the preservation of the land's natural resources through efficient management based on science, strategic planning, and carefully-monitored extraction. This approach is...

David Suzuki Foundation

THE DAVID SUZUKI Foundation is an independent Canadian charity, based in Vancouver, British Columbia, which has worked since 1990 to protect biological diversity and quality of life. Through science and education, the foundation works broadly to advance principles of sustainability. Dr. David Suzuki, one of Canada's best-known contemporary environmental advocates, built his career first as a geneticist, and then as a broadcaster, journalist, and popular educator. In November 2004, Dr. Suzuki...

Georgia uS State

Georgia IS the largest state east of the Mississippi River. Because the economy is heavily dependent on manufacturing and agriculture, the state is involved in activities that are known to negatively affect global warming and climate change. With a population increase of 29 percent 1990-2001, Georgia's carbon dioxide emissions rose by 16 percent. As a result, Georgia ranks 11th in the nation in CO2 emissions. Overall, global warming pollution in Georgia increased 26 percent 1990-2004. Georgia...

University of Nebraska

THE university OF Nebraska in Lincoln, Nebraska (UNL), founded in 1869, is part of the state-supported University of Nebraska system. The discipline of ecology began at the University of Nebraska, and the campuses are botanical gardens and arboreta. The university confers bachelor's, master's, doctoral, and professional degrees in a variety of academic and professional disciplines, including agricultural sciences, animal sciences, health sciences, atmospheric sciences, earth and space sciences...

Vermont Law School

VERMONT LAW SCHOOL'S (VLS's) environmental law program is ranked number one in the nation by U.S. News & World Report. Students at VLS participate in a variety of legal and environmental study programs, many of which focus on climate change and related policies. The Environmental Law Center at VLS includes several specialized institutes and clinics that are involved in various aspects of climate change research and litigation. At present, VLS is home to 612 students, participating in four...

Physical Water Pollution

A common form of physical water pollution is thermal pollution. This includes warm water from cooling towers, floating debris, foam, and garbage. In highly industrialized areas of the world, power plants are used in generating electricity, where warmer water generated in the process is generally released back to the environment. In nuclear plants, water is used in large quantity to cool reactors. The discharge of high-temperature water into a natural body of water can affect the downstream...

Consequences Of Economic Activities

Michigan's human economic activities increase pressure on Michigan's environment and the global environment. Air and water pollution from industry, traffic, and greenhouse gases increase because of industrial and domestic fossil fuel combustion soil erosion from fertilizers and farm runoff are the main consequences of human economic activities, which can be reduced by investigating and implementing alternative energy sources (such as atomic, wind, solar power, bio-fuels, and land-field fuel),...

Agricultural Solutions To Climate Change

There are many strategies that farmers, businesses, and consumers can adopt to reduce greenhouse gases related to agriculture. First, farmers can replace fossil fuels such as gasoline and diesel with biofuels such as ethanol or biodiesel. Ethanol is a fuel alcohol that is produced by a fermentation process that uses yeast to convert the sugars found in plants into a combustible alcohol fuel. Ethanol can offset varying amounts of fossil fuel-generated carbon dioxide depending on the material...

Upwelling equatorial

Image The Isthmus Tehuantepecst

Upwelling equatorial (UE) is upward water's motion in the upper layer of the Equatorial Ocean and occurs when a persistent easterly wind is blowing over the equatorial zone. Maximum upward velocity in the UE occurs just at the equator. UE is a result of the permanent divergence of a westward surface south equatorial current in the narrow equator vicinity, forced by the southeast trade wind. Divergence of westward current at the equator is caused by the change of sign of the Coriolis force...

Vostok Core

The first hole drilling stopped in 1985 because of problems. A second hole drilled with French-Russian cooperation produced an ice core 2,083 m. long, or 1.33 mi. With a climate record of 160,000 years, drilling on this hole ended in 1990. A third hole was drilled with collaboration among Russia, France, and the United States. The drilling reached a depth of 2.25 mi. (3.6 km.) and in January 1998 produced the deepest ice core recovered at the time (now exceeded by the European Project for Ice...

Jurassic

Cheirolepidiaceae

THE JURASSIC PERIOD extended from about 199 million years ago to 145 million years ago. This geological time period constitutes the middle of the Mesozoic era, also known as the Age of Dinosaurs. The start of the period is marked by the major Triassic-Jurassic extinction event. This period was named by Alexandre Brogniart for the extensive marine limestone exposures of the Jura Mountains, in the region where Germany, France and Switzerland meet. During the early Jurassic, the supercontinent...

Romanticism And Conservation

Researchers and other intellectuals, including artists, began to recognize the local impacts of environmental degradation around the turn of the 19th century in the United States and Europe. For scientists, powers of observation were based on empiricism and the scientific method that were honed during the Enlightenment. Artists and intellectuals observed natural beauty and captured it in the painting, music, and literature of the Romantic period. Romanticism emerged along with the Industrial...

Atmospheric Composition

ALL LIFE on Earth exists within a thin film of air, water, and soil about 9.3 mi. (15 km.) deep. This spherical shell of life is known as the biosphere. The biosphere can be divided into three layers the atmosphere (air), the hydrosphere (water), and the lithosphere (rock and soil). The unique attributes of the Earth's atmosphere create a habitable place for humans, animals, and plants. It reaches over 348 mi. (560 km.) from the surface of the Earth. The atmosphere is a mixture of gases and...

Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory

THE GEOPHYSICAL FLUID Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) is a laboratory in the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR). The GFDL aims to produce reliable knowledge and assessments of natural climate variability and anthropogenic changes. It also seeks to develop the required Earth System Models. The Laboratory is housed at the Forrestall Campus of Princeton University. The GFDL has pioneered the study of global warming as it developed the...

Montreal Protocol

THE MONTREAL PROTOcOL is an international treaty designed to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the production of a number substance (such as CFCs Chlorofluoro compounds) believed to be responsible for ozone depletion. In the late 1920s, chemicals called chloroflourocarbons (cloro-floro-carbons) or CFCs, were invented. These chemicals were not poisonous and did not harm fabrics, plants, or people. Companies thought they were great products and used them in refrigerators, air conditioners,...

Gore Albert Jr 1948

Albert Gore Vietnam Images

FORTY-FIFTH VICE PRESIDENT of the United States from 1993 to 2001 in the Democratic administration of President Bill Clinton, Al Gore's political career climaxed with his nomination to run as the Democratic candidate for the presidency in the 2000 election. In one of the most divisive elections in American history, Gore won the popular vote by a margin of more than 500,000 votes, but lost the Electoral College (271266) to his Republican opponent George W. Bush. After his failure to win the...

Bryson Reid 1920

REID BRYSON IS an American atmospheric scientist, geologist, meteorologist, and emeritus professor at the University of Wisconsin, Madison. At Wisconsin, he founded the Department of Meteorology, the Center for Climatic Research, and helped found the Institute for Environmental Studies, which he directed 197085. According to the British Institute of Geographers, Bryson is the most often quoted climatologist in the world. Throughout his long career, he has advanced general understanding of...

Budyko Mikhail 19202001

MIKHAIL IVANOVICH BUDYKO was an environmental scientist who was internationally recognized for his pioneering work on the Earth's energy balance, surface hydrology, and climate change, and the role of climate in regulating Earth's biosphere. His work brought about the scientific discipline termed physical climatology, which, in contrast to empirical climatology, is based on the first principles quantitative analysis. Budyko strongly emphasized the importance of the Earth's surface and...

Cornell university

CORNELL uNIVERSITY, AN Ivy League school and land-grant college located in the scenic Finger Lakes region of central New York, has seven small to midsized undergraduate colleges. The Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences offers undergraduate and graduate courses of study in the colleges of Arts and Sciences, Agriculture and Life Sciences, and Engineering. The Science of Earth Systems major is offered in all three colleges, while the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences also offers...

Fourier Joseph 17681830

JOSPEH FOURIER WAS a French mathematician, also acknowledged as an Egyptologist and administrator, who greatly influenced mathematical physics through his Th orie analytique de la chaleur (1822 The Analytical Theory of Heat). He analyzed the con duction of heat in solid bodies in terms of infinite mathematical series now called the Fourier series. His work went well beyond the area of heat conduction, stimulating research in mathematical physics. Since Fourier, the discipline has been...

Green Cities

GREEN CITIES ARE designed and operated to have a minimal environmental impact. Green cities embrace design, construction, and operation of urban environments that are environmentally friendly, less-toxic, less-wasteful, and work more with nature than conventional cities. Pedestrian-friendly green cities are built for people, bicycles, and mass transit (as compared to conventional cities often constructed to optimize automobile transportation). Green cities are powered as much as possible by a...

International Council of Scientific Unions ICSU

THE INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL of Scientific Unions (ICSU), today known as the International Council for Science, was founded in 1931 as a nongovernmental organization, which would foster international scientific collaboration among all scientists, to work toward the greater good for humanity. The ICSU motto is strengthening international science for the benefit of society. The parent foundations of ICSU are the International Association of Academies (IAA), which lasted from 1899 until 1914 and the...

National oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

THE NATioNAL oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the U.S. Department of Commerce, which studies the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. NOAA issues warnings of dangerous weather, charts seas and skies, guides the use and protection of ocean and coastal resources, and conducts research to improve understanding and preservation of the environment. NOAA is particularly active in the fields of climate change and global warming. In addition to its...

Nongovernmental Organizations As Lobbying Forces

The NGO movement has also emerged as a powerful lobbying force that can claim many achievements. For example, the NGO-led International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL), first initiated in 1992, laid the groundwork for the UN 1997 International Mine Ban Treaty. In the United States alone, over 500 NGOs participated in the campaign, designed to ensure a global ban on antipersonnel landmines. This campaign illustrates how NGOs can affect international law, and utilize their access to policymakers...

Richardson Lewis Fry 18811953

LEWIS FRY RICHARDSON was an innovative Britsh mathematician, physicist, and psychologist who first tried to apply mathematical concepts to weather forecast. Although his method for weather forecasting was not entirely successful during his lifetime, it was rediscovered with the advent of computers and formed the basis for computer-based weather forecast. The recorded change over a given distance of temperature and wind (gradient) is named the Richardson number after him. Lewis Fry Richardson...

University of California Berkeley

THE university OF California, Berkeley, is the premier public research university in the United States, with 97 percent of its academic programs being among the top 10 in the country. Commonly referred to as UC Berkeley, Berkeley, and Cal, the university's academic excellence is sustained by a 2.46 billion endowment. Berkeley was founded in 1868 and is the oldest of the 10 University of California campuses. During the 1930s, the leadership of university president Robert Sproul helped Berkeley...

Milankovitch Cycles

The Earth's orbit around the sun is slightly elliptical. Over time the gravitational pull of the moon and other planets causes the Earth's orbit to change following a predictable pattern of natural rhythms, known as Milankovitch cycles. Over a 100,000 year cycle the Earth migrates from an orbit with near-zero eccentricity (a perfect circle) to one with approximately 6 percent eccentricity (a slight ellipse). In addition, the tilt of the Earth axis, known as its obliquity, varies from 21.5 to...

Climatic Data Atmospheric Observations

Atmospheric OBSERVATIONS FORM the basis for weather prediction and analysis, for monitoring climate and climate change, and for atmospheric and climate research. Observations are carried out routinely and in a well-coordinated manner by weather services and individuals using a variety of platforms and instruments. The range of intentions behind observing the atmosphere leads to different types of data products. For climate trend applications, a number of errors need to be carefully addressed....

Climatic Data Reanalysis

REANALYSIS CLIMATIC Data is a long-term consistent climatic dataset. The dataset is produced from a state-of-the-art data assimilation system combining both past observations from various sources and short-range forecasts from simulation models to obtain the best statistical estimate of the state of the atmospheric flow. For numerical weather prediction (NWP), the observations from sources irregularly distributed in space and time are analyzed in a unified and consistent manner with the aid of...

Midwestern Regional climate center

THE Midwestern REGIONAL Climate Center (MRCC) is a cooperative program of the Illinois State Water Survey and the National Climatic Data Center, part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. The MRCC is a partner in a national climate service program that includes the National Climatic Data Center, Regional Climate Centers, and State Climate Offices. The Center is based in Champaign, Illinois, and serves the nine-state Midwest region (Illinois,...

Western Regional Climate Center

THE WEstERN REGIonAL Climate Center (WRCC), based in Reno, Nevada, and inaugurated in 1986, is one of six regional climate centers in the United States. The regional climate center program is administered by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Specific supervision is provided by the National Climatic Data Center of the National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service. The mission of the Western Regional Climate Center is to disseminate climate data and...

Air Force US

AIR Force began as the Aeronautical Division of the U.S. Army Signal Corps. This division was established on August 1, 1907, to manage air machines, military ballooning, and other military matters of the air. Since then, the Air Force has become an institution independent of the U.S. Army, and with its vast increase in size and fuel usage has a considerable effect on the environment. The U.S. Air Force is conscious of greenhouse gas emissions and their potential link to global warming....

World Bank

The atrium of the World Bank in Washington, D.C. It has funded a number of climate-related partnerships and programs. The atrium of the World Bank in Washington, D.C. It has funded a number of climate-related partnerships and programs. ESMAP, cosponsored by the World Bank and the United Nations Development Programme, is a global technical assistance program that provides policy advice on sustainable development issues to the governments of developing countries and economies in transition. ESMAP...

Research Institutes

Some of the many research institutes at Harvard focus on modeling to better understand life systems and the universe, including climate. At the Kavli Institute for Bionano Science and Technology, technology meets life and biology. The institute harnesses a variety of academic disciplines to address behavior and function of biological systems. FAS began the Center for Imaging and Mesoscale Structures in 1999, the center was renamed the Center for Nanoscale Systems and became part of the larger...

Agulhas Current

Agulas Currant Waves

The agulhas current is the major western boundary current of the Southern Hemisphere. It completes the anti-cyclonic gyre of the South Indian Ocean, and because the African continent terminates at a relatively modest latitude, it becomes a mechanism for the climatologically important inter-ocean exchange between the Indian and Atlantic Oceans. The south-westward flowing Agulhas Current only becomes fully constituted along the east coast of southern Africa at a latitude somewhere between Durban...

Gulf Stream Origins

Gulf Stream Current

The origin of the Gulf Stream is debatable. One group of scientists believes that the Gulf Stream is driven both by the rotation of the Earth and by a deep-water current called the thermohaline circulation. Another group of scientists accept the theory propounded by Henry Stomme in 1948, that the Gulf Stream is a wind-driven phenomenon. Heating and cooling affect its temperature and other properties, but not its basic existence or structure. Stomme theorized that as long A NASA satellite image...

United Nations

GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE is one of the most pressing issues of the 21st century. Because of the use of coal, oil, and gas for energy and the loss and degradation of forests, our planet is warming faster than at any time in the last several thousand years. We have already experienced warming temperatures, changing rainfall patterns, and sea-level rise. These disruptive forces have severe effects on economies, environment, and society of humankind. Nonetheless, the climate challenge may at the same...

World Meteorological organization

The world Meteorological Organization (WMO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN). It is the UN voice on the state and behavior of the Earth's atmosphere, its interaction with the oceans, the climate it produces, and the resulting distribution of water resources. The WMO has a membership of 188 member states and territories. It originated from the International Meteorological Organization, which was founded in 1873. Established in 1950, WMO became the specialized agency of the...

Desert Research Institute

THE DESERT RESEARCH INSTITUTE (DRI) is the nonprofit research arm of the Nevada System of Higher Education (NSHE), with primary research campuses in Las Vegas and Reno and additional campuses in Boulder City, Nevada, and Steamboat Springs, Colorado. The DRI combines the academic world and entrepreneurialism, and faculty members are responsible for securing resources for their salaries. DRI faculty members do not receive state support, nor are their positions tenure-track. The DRI employs more...

Spatial SciENcE METHoDS MoDels And Gis

Geographers have always relied on maps to display their research findings. Research on global warming is no different. In fact, computer cartography, GIS, and remote sensing are widely used by climatolo-gists, trained in many disciplines, as a way to catalogue the evidence for climate change in the past and to organize evidence for climate change now and into the future. Geographers can construct mathematical models that incorporate many independent variables related to temperature,...

Seawater Composition of

SEAWATER IS A solution of salts of nearly constant composition, dissolved in variable amounts of water. It is denser than fresh water. It is risky to drink sea-water because of its high salt content. More water is required to eliminate the salt through excretion than the amount of water that is gained from drinking the seawater. Seawater can be turned into potable water by desalination processes or by diluting it with freshwater. The origin of sea salt is traced to Sir Edmond Halley, who in...

World Health organization

THE world health Organization (WHO), established in 1948 by the United Nations (UN), has a mission to promote international cooperation for improved health conditions of all peoples. The headquarters for WHO are in Geneva, Switzerland. Operations fall under the World Health Assembly (the policymaking body holds annual meetings), an executive board of health (specialists elected for three-year terms by the assembly) and a secretariat with regional offices and staff throughout the world....

Direct Effects Of Climate Change

The direct effects of climate change that are best understood are the impacts of temperature, the hydrological cycle, and sea-level rise. The increase in globally-averaged temperatures by mid-century will potentially boost production in temperate climates by expanding arable land, lengthening growing seasons, and increasing yields. Negative impacts are likely to affect the world's poorest countries, where plants are already suffering from temperature and water stress. Due to their geography,...

Impacts of global Warming

IMPAds From The phenomenon known as global warming include environmental, social, and economic effects. Environmental impacts include sea-level rise, melting of the polar ice caps, and an average increase in temperature. These impacts are documented in the reports of the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC), which commissions reports by scientists worldwide on the issue of climate change. The IPCC Report of 2007 is the first one that reflects scientific consensus that global...

Turkmenistan

Located IN central Asia, Turkmenistan is a country primarily made of desert. It lies between 35 degrees 08 minutes and 42 degrees 48 minutes N and between 52 degrees 27 minutes and 66 degrees 41 minutes E, north of the Kopet-Dag mountains, between the Caspian Sea to the west and the Amu-Darya River to the east. Turkmenistan covers 188,455 sq. mi. (488,096 sq. km.) and had a population of 5,097,028 in 2007. Despite its extensive oil and gas resources, Turkmenistan remains a poor, predominantly...

Equatorial Countercurrent

Equatorial Wind

Equatorial countercurrents are major surface flows that carry water eastward in the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans. They are located near the equator and are sandwiched between two westward-flowing currents, the North Equatorial Current and the South Equatorial Current. Equatorial counter-currents are unique, in that they flow in the opposite direction of the surface winds. The other major surface currents in the tropics flow in the same direction as the prevailing winds. The equatorial...

Idaho state climate services

THE national OLIMATIO Data Center, the National Weather Service, and the University of Idaho founded the Idaho State Climate Services in May 1978 to provide climate services that had formerly been supplied by a National Weather Service program. Professor Myron Molnau was instrumental in establishing the center. The State Climate Services program is housed in the Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department and is headed by the state climatolo-gist for Idaho. The Idaho Agricultural...

Methane cycle

Methane Emission Year Year

Methane has many sources, both natural and human-related, but just two major sinks its destruction in the atmosphere, and its use by certain soil bacteria. Methane is a powerful greenhouse gas, each kg. emitted to the atmosphere having a global warming potential (GWP) 23 times greater than that of a kg. of carbon dioxide over a 100-year time horizon. Since the pre-industrial era, the concentration of methane in the atmosphere has more than doubled, rising from around 715 parts per billion (ppb)...

American Geophysical union

THE AMERICAN GEoPHYsICAL Union (AGU) is a nonprofit organization of geophysicists with over 50,000 members from over 140 countries. The AGU's activities are focused on the collection and dissemination of scientific information in the interdisciplinary and international field of geophysics. The geophysical sciences include four fundamental areas atmospheric and ocean sciences, solid-Earth sciences, hydrologic sciences, and space sciences. The AGU's mission is to promote the scientific study of...

Arrhenius Svante August 18591927

SVANTE AUGUST ARRHENIUS is considered both a founder of physical chemistry for his work on ionic solutions and their electrolytic dissociation and the father of climate change science for his work on the contribution of carbon dioxide to global warming. Both theories were a great challenge to the scientific community of his time. Svante August Arrhenius was born on February 19, 1859, in Wijk, near Uppsala, Sweden, as the son of Svante Gustaf Arrhenius, a land surveyer at the University of...

Berlin Mandate

The Berlin mandate was a ruling reached at the first Conference of the Parties (COP 1) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in March 1995. It established a process for dealing with matters of climate change. The UNFCCC was adopted in 1992 at the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) held in Rio de Janeiro. Informally, the conference was known as the Earth Summit. It adopted an international treaty binding countries together in a common effort to...

Rejecting The Protocol

Bush gave several reasons for choosing not to support the Protocol. First, that it would have been traumatically expensive for the nation's economy to follow the Protocol, because only one fifth of the world's population was to be held accountable for it. Second, he nations of China and India had not yet signed the Protocol. Third, Bush didn't feel there was enough scientific evidence for human-caused global warming. In the year 2005, Department of State documents that were revealed that showed...

Clinton Administration

August 19, 1946) was the 42nd president of the United States, serving from January 20, 1993 until January 20, 2001. In the first year of his term, President Bill Clinton promised to bring justice to the practice of environmental racism as well as to work to resolve the tension regarding management of the Pacific Northwest federal forests, and yet throughout his term he would be known as the president who gave tax breaks to oil companies in the Gulf of Mexico, who...

Croll James 182190

JAMES CROLL WAS a 19th-century Scottish scientist who developed a theory of climate change based on variations in the Earth's orbit. Croll was the leading proponent of an astronomical theory of climate change during the 19th century. Taking into account the precession of the equinoxes, variations in the eccentricity of the orbit, and tilt of the axis, Croll proposed that climate change must be the result of the relation of the Earth to the Sun. He further speculated, geological and cosmi-cal...

Department of Defense uS

DEPARTMENT of Defense (DOD) is the largest employing organization in the country. It serves in the management and organization the United States Armed Forces and actively works to maintain environmental responsibility while fostering global security. In the United States, the Department of Defense also manages its lands that are federally-owned. As of the mid-1990s, 39,063 sq. mi. (101,173 sq. km.) of U.S. land were owned by the military and, therefore, the Department of Defense. In an...

Pivotal Agenda Points

On June 2, 2007, Secretary of Defense Robert M. Gates answered questions at the Shangri-La Security Conference. This conference focused on assisting the development of Asian nations, such as India and the Pacific nations, and connecting them with the rest of Asia. A principal goal of the conference was to foster maritime security in the Asian Pacific. Participating nations came from the Asian Pacific nations as well as Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States. In an answer to a...

Department of Energy uS

Department of Energy is to advance the national, economic, and energy security of the United States to promote scientific and technological innovation in support of that mission and to ensure the environmental cleanup of the national nuclear weapons complex. To achieve this mission, the Department of Energy (DOE) has outlined five strategic themes energy security, nuclear security, scientific discovery and innovation, environmental responsibility, and management...

Climate Change Technology

Climate Change Technology Program (CCTP) mission is to stimulate and strengthen the scientific and technological enterprise of the United States, through improved coordination of multi-agency federal climate change technology programs and investments and, in partnership with others, provide global leadership to accelerate the development of new and advanced technologies that would attain its vision. It was established by President George W. Bush. In September 2007, the secretary of the...

Department of State uS

THE AREAS OF responsibility of the Department of State are the United States' foreign policy. Also, how foreign policy may impact U.S. security. Therefore, its interests in global warming and climate change are only to the degree that these phenomena may affect international policy or national security. According to a June 2007 Report to Congress, called The Senator Paul Simon Water for the Poor Act 2005 (P. L. 109-121), Climate variability is a measure of the degree to which rainfall and...

Subsidiary Bodies

The FCCC established two permanent subsidiary bodies the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Tech nological Advice (SBSTA) and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI). These bodies give advice to the COP and each has a specific task. They are both open to participation by any Party. Governments often select their representatives among experts in the fields of the respective bodies. As its name suggests, the SBSTA's mission is to supply the COP with advice on scientific, technological, and...

International Geophysical Year IGY

THE INTERNATIONAL GEOPHYSICAL Year (IGY), in French, Ann e G ophysique Internationale, took place between July 1, 1957 and December 31, 1958. The International Council for Science (ICSU) began designing it in 1952. The ICSU addresses global issues through international initiatives aimed to support scientists. A successful example of these initiatives, besides the International Geophysical Year, is the International Biological Program, which took place 1964-74. The International Geophysical Year...

Munk Walter 1917

INFLUENTIAL PHYSICAL oceanographer and geo-physicist, Professor Emeritus of Geophysics and Secretary of the Navy Chief of Naval Operations Oceanography Chair at Scripps Institution of Oceanography in La Jolla, California. He made fundamental discoveries in different fields such as the effect of the moon on tides and the circulation of the deep sea. Munk also had a leading role in devising a method for calculating the course of long-term climatic changes related to global warming. In 1999, he...

Organization Of The Navy

The Navy has three main branches the Navy Department, the operating forces, and the shore establishment. The Navy Department is mostly located in Washington, D.C The operating forces include the Coast Guard (in times of war), the Marine Corps, and the naval reserve (during peace, the U.S. Coast Guard is managed by the Department of Homeland Security). The Secretary of the Navy oversees the Chief of Naval Operations and the Commandant of the Marine Corps. The Chief of Naval Operations oversees...

Office of Naval Research

The office OF Naval Research (ONR) is based in Arlington, Virginia, and supports research conducted by the Navy and the Marine Corps. It was established in 1946, and serves as the technical adviser to the chief of naval operations and to the secretary of the Navy. Communication to the secretary of the Navy is via the assistant secretary of the Navy for research, development, and acquisition. The ONR mission is to foster, plan, facilitate and transition scientific research in recognition of its...

Royal Meteorological Society

THE ROYAL METEOROLOGICAL Society is a British charity whose mission is to continue to be a world-leading professional and learned society in the field of meteorology. It will encourage and facilitate collaboration with organizations that are active in Earth Systems Sciences. It will serve its professional and amateur members and the wider community by undertaking activities that support the advancement of meteorological science, its applications and its understanding. A Council and its...

Singer S Fred 1924

CONTROVERSIAL ATMOSPHERIC PHYSICIST, distinguished research professor at George Mason University, emeritus professor of environmental science at the University of Virginia, and founder of the Science and Environmental Policy Project a policy institution on climate change and environmental issues, S. Fred Singer has been a leading skeptic of the scientific consensus on global warming. He points out that the scenarios pictured by most scientists are alarmist, that computer models reflect real...

United Nations Development Programme UNDP

THE united nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the United Nations' (UN's) global development network that assists developing countries in managing and funding sustainable environmentally sensitive global and national development and, as such, is the world's largest multilateral development source. The UNDP was created (1965-71) by merging the Expanded Programme of Technical Assistance with the UN Special Fund. The UNDP currently works in 166 countries, with the UNDP Resident Represen tative...

World Business Council for sustainable Development

THE woRLD Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD), based in Geneva, Switzerland, is a global association of businesses focused on market-oriented solutions to sustainable development and is appropriately structured along the lines of a chief executive officer (CEO)-led business. The WBCSD's mission statement asserts its purpose Our mission is to provide business leadership as a catalyst for change toward sustainable development, and to support the business license to operate,...

Glaciers retreating

There are glaciers in all areas of the globe. Most glaciers are found in the polar regions, but many of the Earth's tallest mountains also have glaciers. Glaciers go through life cycles. They have growing years, moving years, and retreating years. For glaciers to form, very specific climatic conditions are necessary. They are usually found where there is enough snowfall for a snow pack to permanently accumulate, where summers are not warm enough for all of the snow to melt. In some regions,...

Salinity And cLIMATE

The range of temperatures on Earth allows water to be present as a solid (ice) in ice caps and glaciers liquid (water) in oceans, groundwater, lakes, and rivers and gas (water vapor) in the atmosphere. The idealized path of a water molecule from one phase to the other is known as the hydrological cycle. The residence times, that is, the average time that the molecules spend in each phase, range from a few days (water vapor in the atmosphere), to several months (seasonal snow cover, rivers), to...

Western Boundary Currents

WESTERN BOUNDARY CURRENTS are intense jet currents at the western periphery of large-scale oceanic gyres in the World Ocean. As was shown in the pioneer paper of Henry Stommel in 1948, they are the result of two causes the so-called p-effect (this term has arisen from traditional representation of Corio-lis force, f, in the following form f f + py, where f is a Coriolis parameter at a definite latitude in other words, the p-effect is to the result of the spherical form of the Earth turning...

Earth Cooled

Volcanoes Billion Years Ago

The end of the Cretaceous suddenly reversed the climate. The consensus among scientists holds that an enormous meteor impacted Earth 65 million years ago. The meteor ejected a gigantic cloud of debris and dust and ignited widespread fires, which pumped ash into the atmosphere. The debris, dust, and ash blocked out much of the Sun's light, chilling the climate. So severe was the reversal in climate that the dinosaurs and a large number of marine species, unable to cope with the new conditions,...