Kyrgyzstan 591

Is considered comfortable for human habitation. Government researchers have found that, over the past 100 years, average temperatures in Kyrgyzstan rose by 2.8 degrees F (1.6 degrees C) (much higher than the global average of 1 degree F, or 0.6 degrees C). Precipitation rose only 6 percent during the same period. Scientists project temperature rises of between 3-8 degrees F (1.8-4.4 degrees C) by 2100, and projected precipitation increases of 6-54 percent, depending on the modeling program...

Royal Meteorological Society

THE ROYAL METEOROLOGICAL Society is a British charity whose mission is to continue to be a world-leading professional and learned society in the field of meteorology. It will encourage and facilitate collaboration with organizations that are active in Earth Systems Sciences. It will serve its professional and amateur members and the wider community by undertaking activities that support the advancement of meteorological science, its applications and its understanding. A Council and its...

Heinz Center

Founded IN 1995, in honor of late Republican Senator H. John Heinz, III (1938-1991), the Heinz Center is a nonprofit institution dedicated to improving the scientific and economic foundation for environmental policy through collaboration in different sectors among industry, government, academia, and environmental organizations. Senator Heinz was always active as a politician in initiatives to preserve the environment and to understand the impact of human actions on it. By the mid-1980s, Heinz...

Energy Efficiency

ENERGY EFFICIENCY provides an immediate answer to an energy crisis because it can significantly reduce energy consumption, which further decreases greenhouse gas emissions. For example, during the first energy crisis during the 1970s, popular energy-efficiency measures included fuel-efficient cars and well-insulated buildings. With climate change considerations, the technological solutions to improve energy efficiency are much more diverse and more widely supported than the solutions from the...

Measurement and Assessment

Measurement and assessment issues are central to debates about the nature and impact of global warming. Global warming models require information about the parameters in these models (measurement) and exploration of the meaning of the predicted results (assessment). Inference, lack of replicability, cyclical variables, and parameter attributes all shape these models and their predictions. Models can be attacked or defended, based primarily on their underlying measurements and assessments thus,...

Bp

BP (BEYOND PETROLEUM) is the world's third largest investor-owned oil company. At the close of 2006, it had nearly 97,000 employees, 18 refineries, 24,600 service stations, and proven oil reserves of 17.7 billion barrels of oil and gas equivalent, and it operated in over 100 nations. In 2006, BP's sales were 266 billion, with profits of 22.5 billion, compared to 19.3 billion in 2005, and 15.4 billion in 2004. It is also a major producer of solar and other renewable sources of energy. It is a...

Southern ocean

The global ocean influences the Earth's climate by storing and transporting vast amounts of heat, moisture, and carbon dioxide. Huge quantities of carbon are cycled annually among the biosphere (forests, grasslands, and marine plankton), the atmosphere, and the oceans. The oceans are the largest active reservoir of carbon, containing 50 times more carbon than the atmosphere. Of the 6 to 7 billion tons of carbon currently released into the atmosphere by human activities, approximately 3 billion...

Global Warming Projections

Hadley Centre GFDL MPIM NCARPCM NCARCSM This figure shows climate model predictions for global warming under the SRES A2 emissions scenario relative to global average temperatures in 2000. The A2 scenario is characterized by a politically and socially diverse world that exhibits sustained economic growth but does not address the inequities between rich and poor nations, and takes no special actions to combat global warming or environmental change issues. This world in 2100 is characterized by...

Fiji

A NuMBER of islands in the Pacific, Fiji has a land area of 7,056 sq. mi. (18,274 sq. km.), with a population of 853,445 (2006 est., and a population density of 119 people per sq. mi. (46 people per sq. km.). Some 10 percent of the country's land is arable, with another 10 percent used for pasture, mainly of cattle and goats. About 65 percent of the land is forested, with a significant timber industry, leading to rapid deforestation. Fiji has a relatively low per capita rate of carbon dioxide...

Wyoming

WYOMING IS 97,819 sq. mi. (253,350 sq. km.) with inland water making up 714 sq. mi. (1,849 sq. km.). The Continental Divide (the separation mark of the Pacific and Atlantic watersheds) passes through Wyoming, making Wyoming a source for the MissouriMississippi, the Great Basin, the Columbia, and the Colorado drainage systems. The climate in Wyoming is relatively cool and depends on the elevation for example, the summers are moderately warm at lower elevations. Early freezes and a late spring...

Atmosphere

The gaseous envelope surrounding the Earth. The dry atmosphere consists almost entirely of nitrogen (78.1 percent volume mixing ratio) and oxygen (20.9 percent volume mixing ratio), together with a number of trace gases, such as argon (0.93 percent volume mixing ratio), helium, radiatively active greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (0.035 percent volume mixing ratio), and ozone. In addition the atmosphere contains water vapor, whose amount is highly variable but typically 1 percent volume...

World Weather Watch

The world weather Watch is the central program of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), the United Nations' agency for cooperation among national weather bureaus, founded in 1950. The Fourth World Meteorological Congress approved the idea of the program in 1963, and the WMO, which has 188 member countries and territories, subsequently established the World Weather Watch to make available an integrated worldwide weather-forecasting system. The World Weather Watch includes the Tropical...

Yemen

LOCATED IN THE southern region of the Arabian Peninsula, the Republic of Yemen has a land area of 203,849 sq. mi. (527,968 sq. km.), with a population of 22,389,000 (2006 est.) and a population density of 104 people per sq. mi. (40 people per sq. km.). Only 3 percent of the land in Yemen is arable, with 13 percent of that area being under permanent cultivation. In addition, 34 percent of the country is used as meadows or pasture, and 8 percent of the country is forested. Yemen has a very low...

Worldwatch Institute 1111

System of unequal exchange and income inequality between core, semiperipheral and peripheral countries. Peripheral countries extract raw materials and ship them largely unprocessed to the semiperiph-eral and core countries for processing. The finished goods are then shipped back to the peripheral countries at much higher prices. This system of unequal exchange is perpetuated by protectionist international trade agreements copyright and patent laws, which limit the diffusion of processing...

Atmospheric Lifetime

The lifetime of a greenhouse gas refers to the approximate amount of time it would take for the anthropogenic increment to an atmospheric pollutant concentration to return to its natural level (assuming emissions cease) as a result of either being converted to another chemical compound or being taken out of the atmosphere via a sink. This time depends on the pollutant's sources and sinks as well as its reactivity. The lifetime of a pollutant is often considered in conjunction with the mixing of...

Worldwatch Institute

THE WORLDWATCH INSTITUTE is dedicated to fostering the evolution of an environmentally sustainable and socially just society, where human needs are met in ways that do not threaten the health of the natural environment or the prospects of future generations. It describes itself as an independent, globally focused environmental and social policy research organization with a unique blend of interdisciplinary research and accessible writing. Worldwatch is essentially a think tank, with its closest...

World Meteorological organization

The world Meteorological Organization (WMO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN). It is the UN voice on the state and behavior of the Earth's atmosphere, its interaction with the oceans, the climate it produces, and the resulting distribution of water resources. The WMO has a membership of 188 member states and territories. It originated from the International Meteorological Organization, which was founded in 1873. Established in 1950, WMO became the specialized agency of the...

Tropopause

THE TROPOPAUSE IS the boundary region dividing the troposphere, the lowest layer of the atmosphere, from the overlying stratosphere. Since the tropospheric and stratospheric air masses have rather distinct features, in correspondence to each surface location, the tropo-pause height is the level in the vertical where abrupt changes in the physical and chemical properties of the atmosphere are observed. Three different definitions are typically adopted. The thermal tropopause is related to the...

University of Maine

The university OF Maine, established in 1865, is the flagship university of the University of Maine system. It is located in Orono, just outside Bangor, one of Maine's largest cities. Also known as UMaine, the university has an enrollment of over 11,000 students, making it the largest university in the state. The college was the fourth to be established in Maine, after Bowdoin, Bates, and Colby. Originally intended as an agricultural college, it also places a large emphasis on engineering and...

University of Birmingham

THE University OF Birmingham is an English university in the city of Birmingham. Founded in 1900 as a successor to Mason Science College, with origins dating back to the 1825 Birmingham Medical School, the University of Birmingham was arguably the first so-called red brick university. It currently has over 18,000 undergraduate and over 11,000 postgraduate students. The University of Birmingham has an international reputation for excellence in research and teaching in environmental science,...

University Corporation for Atmospheric Research Joint Office for science support

THE JOINT OFFICE for Science Support (JOSS) of the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) is a group of professional and skilled technical and administrative specialists whose mission is to serve and support the scientific community. JOSS headquarters is located in Boulder, Colorado. The office receives funding from the National Science Foundation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), as well as from other U.S. agencies, private sources, and...

University of Kentucky

THE university OF Kentucky, also referred to as UK, is a public, coeducational university located in Lexington. Founded in 1865, the university is the largest in the commonwealth by enrollment, with 27,209 students. The university as a whole has been ranked the 19th-best public research university based on the scholarly activity of faculty. The university features 16 colleges, a graduate school, 93 undergraduate programs, 99 master's degrees, 66 programs in Ph.D.s and other doctoral degrees,...

University of California Berkeley

THE university OF California, Berkeley, is the premier public research university in the United States, with 97 percent of its academic programs being among the top 10 in the country. Commonly referred to as UC Berkeley, Berkeley, and Cal, the university's academic excellence is sustained by a 2.46 billion endowment. Berkeley was founded in 1868 and is the oldest of the 10 University of California campuses. During the 1930s, the leadership of university president Robert Sproul helped Berkeley...

University Corporation for Atmospheric Research

THE UNivERsiTY Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) is a nonprofit institution that has a mission to support, enhance, and extend the capabilities of the university community, nationally and internationally understand the behavior of the atmosphere and related systems and the global environment and foster the transfer of knowledge and technology for the betterment of life on Earth. It was founded in the year 1960 and is based in Boulder, Colorado. The UCAR research lab maintains an...

United Nations Environment Programme UNEP

The UN environment Programme (UNEP) coordinates all United Nations (UN) global and regional environmental activities, assists developing countries in implementing environmentally sound policies, encourages sustainable development through sound environmental practices, reviews the status of the global environment, seeks consensus in environmental policy, and alerts the global community and governments of new and emerging threats to the biosphere. The UNEP officially divides its responsibilities...

Wind Power

Electricity generated by wind power relies on air moving past a propeller to spin a turbine. Wind is created as a result of the differential heating of the earth's surface of the sun. Air masses move from areas of high atmospheric pressure to low atmosphere pressure. Wind energy creates very few greenhouse gases and will exist as long as the sun shines and winds blow. There are challenges to implementing wind energy, though. Wind energy, like other forms of renewable energy, operates...

United Nations

GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE is one of the most pressing issues of the 21st century. Because of the use of coal, oil, and gas for energy and the loss and degradation of forests, our planet is warming faster than at any time in the last several thousand years. We have already experienced warming temperatures, changing rainfall patterns, and sea-level rise. These disruptive forces have severe effects on economies, environment, and society of humankind. Nonetheless, the climate challenge may at the same...

Widely Disputed

The climate of the Cretaceous is less certain and more widely disputed. Average temperatures were higher than today by about 18 degrees F (10 degrees C). In fact, by the middle Cretaceous, equatorial ocean waters may have been too warm for sea life, and land areas near the equator may have been deserts, despite their proximity to water. The circulation of oxygen to the deep ocean may also have been disrupted. Large volumes of organic matter accumulated because they were unable to decompose and...

Pollution Water

WATER POLLUTION USUALLY describes the introduction or presence of harmful or objectionable substance in water in magnitude sufficient to alter the quality indices of natural water. It also connotes the presence of polluting substances in rivers, lakes, bays, seas, streams, underground water, or oceans in levels capable of resulting in measurable degradation of the water quality or usefulness. For example, if water contains too much contamination as a result of certain harmful chemical compounds...

Conclusion

The pollution of water resources can have serious and wide-ranging effects on the environment and human health. The immediate effects of water pollution can be seen in water bodies and the animal and plant life that inhabits them. Pollution poisons and deforms fish and other animals, unbalances ecosystems, and causes a reduction in biodiversity. Ultimately, these effects take their toll on human life. Drinking-water sources become contaminated, causing sickness and disease. Pollutants...

Center for Science and Environment India

THE Center FOR Science and Environment (CSE) was established in 1980 by a group of engineers, scientists, journalists, and environmentalists to increase public awareness of science, technology, environment, and development in New Delhi, India. The center became functional with a small group of writers in 1981, and, in its first year, it was involved in producing an information service on science and society-related issues such as energy, environment, health, human settlements, and the impact of...

Turkey

Located MAINLY IN Asia, but with a small part of its land considered to be in Europe, the Republic of Turkey has a land area of 302,535 sq. mi. (779,452 sq. km.), with a population of 74,877,000 (2006 est.) and a population density of240 people per sq. mi. (93 people per sq. km.). Istanbul, the former capital and the largest city, has a population density of 13,256 people per sq. mi. (5,137 per sq. km.). The present capital, Ankara, has a population of 3,641,900, with a population density of...

Climatic Data Tree Ring Records

PAST CLIMATES CAN be reconstructed by the use of the relationship between the climate and tree-growth parameters (dendroclimatology). Dendroclimatol-ogy is a sub-discipline of dendrochronology, which is the analysis of tree rings, including the dating of annual rings and study of patterns of ring characteristics, such as width, density, and isotopic composition. Annual growth rings of trees are natural recorders of climatic conditions (a proxy variable). Outside the tropics, in the temperate...

Legal Regulation

In a neoclassical utilitarian framework, the regulator is typically a natural or legal person or an entity with the power to regulate within its domain. The difficulty in the context of global issues such as planetary warming and climate change is the absence of a single regulator with the jurisdiction for the global atmosphere or the climate and hence no one with authority to regulate the global commons. Since local climate is not independent or separable from global atmosphere and does not...

Agulhas Current

The agulhas current is the major western boundary current of the Southern Hemisphere. It completes the anti-cyclonic gyre of the South Indian Ocean, and because the African continent terminates at a relatively modest latitude, it becomes a mechanism for the climatologically important inter-ocean exchange between the Indian and Atlantic Oceans. The south-westward flowing Agulhas Current only becomes fully constituted along the east coast of southern Africa at a latitude somewhere between Durban...

Climate Change As A Merchandise

Programs about the environment and related issues have become merchandise that can be bought and sold by producers to distributors and television networks. As with any other program, the value of a one-hour feature on climate change will depend, among other factors, on the audience it gathered when it was first aired. Other elements are the year it was produced, the cost of its rental, and its original language (if a translation is needed). Some television programs are sold on videocassette or...

Thermohaline Circulation

THERMOHALINE CIRCULATION IS global oceanic circulation generated by buoyancy fluxes resulting from heat and freshwater exchange between the ocean, atmosphere, cryosphere, and land. External forcing leading to an increase in water density (i.e., cooling or salinity rise) causes the sinking of more dense water (so-called thermohaline convection) and compensating transport of more light shallower waters of the upper mixed layer and thermocline. This process forms thermohaline overturning, which is...

Forced Climate Variability

STUDIES ON GLOBAL warming and climate change generally distinguish between internally generated and externally-forced climate variability. Internally generated variability is the result of processes within a system, while externally-forced variability is caused by some factors outside the system. A classic example of externally-forced climate variability is represented by the changes caused by variations in the amount and distribution of solar energy incidents on the Earth because of the...

Institutions studying climate change

American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy American Electric Power American Gas Association American Geophysical Union American Meteorological Society Antarctic Meteorology Research Center Applied Energy Services, Inc. Atmosphere, Climate and Environment Information Programme (UK) Atmospheric Research and Information Centre BP Canadian Association for Renewable Energies Cantor Fitzgerald EBS Center for Clean Air Policy Center for Energy Efficiency Center for International Climate and...

Climate Action Network

The climate action network (CAN) is an international network of over 365 nongovernmental orga nizations working toward the building of collaborative and individual actions and programs designed to combat and minimize human-induced impacts leading to climate change. Established in March 1989, the network has seven regional offices located in Africa, Europe, Latin America, North America, South Asia, and Southeast Asia. The vision of the network is to protect the atmosphere while allowing for...

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development OECD

The organisation FOR Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) was tasked by its founding convention (December 14, 1960) with assisting member countries with sustaining economic expansion, increasing employment, raising their standards of living, and maintaining financial stability while developing a sustainable global economy benefiting humankind. The OECD seeks to meet these goals by the collection, evaluation, and dissemination of pertinent data, by fostering cooperation between...

Barbados

Located in the Caribbean, Barbados has a land area of 167 sq. mi. (431 sq. km.), and a population of 331,000 (2006 est.), with a population density of 1,663 people per sq. mi. (647 people per sq. km.). More than a third of the population lives in Bridgetown, the capital. Thirty-seven percent of the land on Barbados is arable, with an additional 5 percent used for meadows and pasture. About 12 percent of the country is forested. Historically, Barbados has been reliant on the sugar industry, but...

National center for Atmospheric Research NcAR

BASED IN boulder, Colorado, the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) provides the university community with the tools, facilities, and support required to perform innovate research. Through NCAR, scientists have access to high-performance computational and observational facilities, such as supercomputers, aircraft, and radar. These resources can be used to improve human understanding of atmospheric and Earth system processes. NCAR and university scientists collaborate on issues such...

Budyko Mikhail 19202001

MIKHAIL IVANOVICH BUDYKO was an environmental scientist who was internationally recognized for his pioneering work on the Earth's energy balance, surface hydrology, and climate change, and the role of climate in regulating Earth's biosphere. His work brought about the scientific discipline termed physical climatology, which, in contrast to empirical climatology, is based on the first principles quantitative analysis. Budyko strongly emphasized the importance of the Earth's surface and...

Beyond Polar Bears And Penguins

Simplified presentations on polar bears and penguins that do not account for spatial and temporal processes can never engage the types of ecosystem complexities that these two ecosystem examples reveal. In other words, the iconification of globalization through images of single species precludes a deeper understanding of global warming from an ecological perspective. Moreover, the focus on specific species of animals deemed more worthy of protecting and saving from extinction reflects the...

Thunderstorms

A THUNDERSTORM IS a localized storm that is produced by a cumulonimbus cloud and always contains thunder and lightning. Thunderstorms form in conditionally unstable environments, meaning there is cold, dry air aloft over warm, moist surface air. This causes the air to become buoyant and allows for rising air motion. A lifting mechanism is also needed to start the air moving. Such lifting mechanisms include surface heating, surface convergence, lifting caused by mountains, or lifting along...

Foundation for International Environmental Law and Development

THE foundation for International Environmental Law and Development (FIELD) was established in London in 1989 by a small group of international lawyers interested in the protection of the environ ment and the promotion of sustainable development. The organization provides advice and assistance to governments, inter-governmental and non-governmental groups worldwide. FIELD works for the development of international legislation that defends the environment and encourages fair and sustainable...

Boundary conditions

Some consider changes in solar radiation pattern and timing associated with Milankovitch cycles an important factor in maintaining a glacial climate. These changes are routinely included in GCM simulations of the LGM, however, they have minimal impact, as they were actually very similar to today. The continental configuration was also very similar to today, and changes need not be considered. The conditions at the LGM were the culmination of 100,000 years of cooling, thus models of the LGM must...

Winds Easterlies

This explains why prevailing winds in the mid-latitude northern hemisphere come from the west. An understanding of wind generation helps to explain the operation of ocean currents. There are two general types of ocean circulation and both result from solar heating (1) WDC, and (2) thermohaline circulation (THC). Differential solar heating generates wind. Wind blowing across the surface of the ocean causes the water to move. The direction of the ocean current is determined in part by...

University of Delaware

THE university OF Delaware (UD) is the largest university in Delaware. The main campus is located in Newark, with satellite campuses in Dover, Wilmington, Lewes, and Georgetown. Approximately 16,000 undergraduate and 3,000 graduate students attend this university annually. Although UD receives public funding for being a land-grant, sea-grant, space-grant, and urban-grant state-supported research institution, it is also privately chartered. The university's endowment is currently valued at about...

Villach Conference

The conference held in Villach, Austria, from October 9 to 15, 1985, was the result of the continuing work of several international entities. In some views, the background to the conference and the starting point for internationally cohesive attempts to understand the issues related to the stratospheric ozone layer depletion and climate change have been traced to the UN Conference on Human Development in Stockholm in 1972. The technical, scientific understanding of the possibility of...

Antigua and Barbuda

ANTIGuA AND BARBuDA, located in the Caribbean, are part of the chain of islands known as the Leeward Islands. The two main islands of Antigua and Barbuda have, respectively, land areas of about 100 sq. mi. (281 sq. km.) and 57 sq. mi. (161 sq. km.), with a total population of 82,786 (2005 est.), the vast majority of whom live on the island of Antigua, with the island of Redonda, which is currently uninhabited, having dependency status. Antigua and Barbuda have a population density of 394 per...

Congo

THE REpuBLIC OF the Congo, a former French colony, has a land area of 132,047 sq. mi. (342,000 sq. km.), with a population of 3,999,000 (2006 est.), and a population density of 31 people per sq. mi. (12 people per sq. km.). Forests cover 62 percent of the country, with less than one percent of arable land, and 29 percent used for meadows and pasture, mainly for low-intensity grazing. The substantial cattle industry contributes to the country's methane emissions. The carbon dioxide emissions...

Global Warming

The effects of global warming on the ITCZ could be significant. Given that surface winds over the ocean tend to follow ocean currents, changes in the circulation of ocean currents brought about by global warming will also have a direct influence on the ITCZ, resulting in an intensification of precipitation in the ITCZ, according to S. Nawrath and A. Lever-mann. A simulation model of global warming (using a general circulation model, or GCM, with enhanced carbon dioxide, or CO2), indicates an...

Types Of Waste

Litter is waste material dumped in public places such as streets, parks, picnic areas, bus stops, and near shops. The accumulation of waste threatens the health of people in residential areas. Waste decays, encourages household pests, and turns urban areas into unsightly, dirty, and unhealthy places to live in. The following measures can be used to control land pollution. Anti-litter campaigns can educate people against littering, organic waste can be dumped in places far from residential...

Luxembourg

The impact of climatic changes on the lithosphere and ocean has also been the subject of recent research at LSU, in the tradition of R.J. Russell, James P. Morgan, and J.M. Coleman. For example, Mike Blum has investigated responses of large river systems to climate and sea-level change. Patrick Hesp's research on changes to barrier-island ecosystems under climatic forcing mechanisms also falls within this realm. Likewise, Gregory Stone has analyzed the effects of tropical cyclones and winter...

The Diminution Of Natural Resources

The history of cod fishing in the Atlantic Ocean is a graphic example of the abundance of resources available in past centuries and the way in which those resources have been enormously diminished within the last century. For hundreds and in some cases thou sands of years, the ability of man to harvest resources, renewable resources in any case, was exceeded by the fertility of nature in replacing them. The development of industrialized harvesting techniques succeeded not only in depleting the...

Global warming and politicizing science

The NAS's reputation in research and the dissemination of information about global warming and climate change precedes its accolades for its museum exhibits about climate change. In 1991, the NAS released a report, Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming, calling for a decrease in the dependence on fossil fuel, the advancement of nuclear and solar energy technologies, and the promotion of energy conservation, all aimed at a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. The NAS asserted that the...

Bolin Bert 19252007

BERT BOLIN MADE numerous contributions to the field of meteorology and its impact on the science of global warming and climate change. He was a Swedish meteorologist who worked globally and served on many international committees. Bolin was born in Nykoping, Sweden, on March 15, 1925, to two schoolteachers. He obtained his B.Sc. from the University of Uppsala in 1946, followed by an M.Sc. in 1950. Bolin continued to study meteorology, receiving a Ph.D. from Stockholm University in 1956, at the...

World Climate Research Program

THE world CLIMATE Research Program (WCRP) is sponsored by the International Council for Science (ICSU), the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), and the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). The program brings together the intellectual and structural potentialities related to climate and climate change of more than 185 countries. The program thus aims to work as an international forum to share...

Phanerozoic Climate Change

Phanerozoic Glaciation

542 500 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 This figure shows the long-term evolution of oxygen isotope ratios during the Phanerozoic eon as measured in fossils, reported by Veizer et al. (1999), and updated online in 2004 1 . Such ratios reflect both the local temperature at the site of deposition and global changes associated with the extent of continental glaciation. As such, relative changes in oxygen isotope ratios can be interpreted as rough changes in climate. Quantitative conversion...

Ice Albedo Feedback

ALBEDo Is AN estimate of the reflectivity of a surface. The sun produces solar radiation in wavelengths that can be reflected off of many of the Earth's surfaces, some more so than others. The albedo of Earth is estimated as the ratio of the outgoing solar radiation (250-2500 nm.), and the incoming solar radiation. A surface that is perfectly reflective (all incoming light is reflected back again) would have an albedo of 100 percent reflection, or, as a ratio, 1.00. A surface that has no...

Global Climate In Cretaceous

THE CRETACEOuS Era spanned the time period from 144 to 65 million years ago. It was the final epoch of the dinosaurs. It ended when the dinosaurs became extinct. At its height, the Cretaceous was a period of great warmth. The poles were ice-free, and warm ocean currents spread from the equator to the poles. The concentration of carbon dioxide was higher than it is today, causing a greenhouse effect. The abundance of plants was not enough to lower the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere....

Charney Jule Gregory 191781

JULE GREGORY CHARNEY was an American meteorologist who contributed to the advance of numerical weather prediction and to increased understanding of the general circulation of the atmosphere by devising a series of increasingly sophisticated mathematical models of the atmosphere. Charney was one of the dominant figures in the field of atmospheric science in the decades following World War II. Jule Gregory Charney was born in San Francisco, California, on January 1, 1917, to Ely Charney and...

Milankovitch Cycles

The Earth's orbit around the sun is slightly elliptical. Over time the gravitational pull of the moon and other planets causes the Earth's orbit to change following a predictable pattern of natural rhythms, known as Milankovitch cycles. Over a 100,000 year cycle the Earth migrates from an orbit with near-zero eccentricity (a perfect circle) to one with approximately 6 percent eccentricity (a slight ellipse). In addition, the tilt of the Earth axis, known as its obliquity, varies from 21.5 to...

Tsunamis

Tsunamis (sometimes called seismic sea waves) are large sea waves that are created by underwater earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, or even nonseis-mic events such as landslides and meteorite impacts. Tsunamis are also known as tidal waves, even though this is a misnomer because the waves have nothing to do with tides. The word tsunami is a Japanese word meaning harbor wave. Tsunamis are not easily seen on the open water, as they have extremely long wavelengths on the order of tens of kilometers....

Cooperative Institute for Arctic Research

THE COOpERATIVE INSTITuTE for Arctic Research (CIFAR) was created in 1994, at the University of Alaska following several years of teamwork between the university and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Environmental Research Laboratories (ERL). Among the 13 NOAA-university joint institutes established to promote greater collaboration between researchers from NOAA laboratories and U.S. universities, CIFAR is the only one solely concerned with the study of the Arctic....

Portugal

As reported IN a major collaborative international research project, named SIAM II, Portugal is one of the European countries that are expected to suffer from the most extreme consequences of global warming and climatic change. These consequences are expected to entail three major geological effects in Portugal. First, due to the rise in sea levels, studies predict an increase in the erosion of Portugal's coastal areas. Second, scientists anticipate increased levels of rain precipitation and...

Food Miles

REcENT Years Have seen increasing concern about the long-term sustainability of food systems and their unintended side effects that can be imposed on the global environment and human wellness. Food miles are an appraisal of the distance a food or beverage travels from field to plate. While the cost of making things has never been cheaper, the cost of moving them around has never been as high, and it is getting higher. This is partly a consequence of outsourcing practices involving industries...

France

The LARGEST among the nations of Western Europe, France boasts a long history of world leadership in the arts, sciences, and industrialization. As the first decade of the 21st century nears its end, France remains an influential nation with a Gross Domestic Product of 2,124 billion, and the sixth largest economy in the world. The nation's moderate climate and its ample agricultural land have made it the European Union's largest agricultural producer, ranking second only to the United States in...

Doris Duke Charitable Foundation

The mission OF the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation (DDC) is to improve the quality of people's lives through grants supporting the performing arts, environmental conservation, medical research, and the prevention of child maltreatment, and through preservation of the cultural and environmental legacy of Doris Duke's properties. Established in 1996, the foundation supports four national grantmaking programs. It also oversees three properties that were owned by Doris Duke in Hillsborough, New...

ADDREssiNG HuMANINDuCed ContribuTIONs to climate change

Based on energy consumption data from Energy Information Agency released June 1, 2007, Ohio's total carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuel combustion in million metric tons for 2004 were 261.96, made up of contributions by source from commercial, 11.43 industrial, 38.08 residential, 20.30 transportation, 71.16 and electric power, 120.98. Ohio joined the Climate Registry, a voluntary national initiative to track, verify, and report greenhouse gas emissions, with acceptance of data from...

Oil Consumption of

IN 1970, THE United States became unable to meet its total oil energy needs, and became an oil-importing nation. Until then, American oil fields in Texas, Louisiana, and California had been able to meet the national need. By 2012, it is likely that the world as a whole will consume around 100 million barrels of oil per day. Humans have known about oil and some of its uses for millennia, but it only became identified as a consumable unit, in terms of extraction, refining, and then commercial...

Renewable Energy Sources As An Alternative To Nuclear Power

New Nuclear Construction Global Picture

Building and commissioning massive, complex nuclear plants requires huge government subsidies. Contrast this with wind or solar energy that are distributed and less dense supplies of energy. The amount of solar panels produced on an annual basis is equivalent to the construction of two nuclear facilities. The renewable solar approach seems simpler and safer, and not one requiring subsidies. Such sound Approximately 30 new nuclear power plants are under construction and another 200 are in the...

Ohio state university

OHIO state university (OSU), founded in 1870, is one of the United States' premier academic institutions for the study of global warming and climate change. Researchers and students strive to slow the climate change process, seeking alternative forms of energy, and affecting policy decisions in Ohio and beyond. The university has many well-known climate scientists, including Dr. Ellen Mosley-Thompson and Dr. Lonnie Thompson. OSU is also home to the Byrd Polar Research Center, a collaborative...

Impact of climate change

Ohio experienced the effects of higher temperatures in 1993. While other states flooded, Ohio had the driest August on record since 1895. While climate models vary on the amount of temperature increase possible, potential risks include having decreased water supplies, increased risk for wildfires, population (both human and animal) displacement, changes in food production (with agriculture improving in cooler climates and suffering in warmer climates), and changes in rain patterns to downpours,...

Nuclear power and the environment

As a stand-alone device, nuclear reactors do not emit greenhouse gases. The nuclear reaction is contained and the heat generated is used to boil water to turn turbines and produce electricity. Instead of a chemical reaction, an atomic reaction is required, produced by a process of fission using uranium fuel. Due to the splitting of atoms and the radioactive movement of neutrons, no carbon dioxide, methane, or other greenhouse gases are produced. However, the byproducts are toxic, radioactive...

Oceanic Changes

Oceans ARE CONNECTED bodies of saline water that cover about three-quarters of the Earth and comprise more than 97 percent of the world's total water resources. Although continuous, the global ocean is divided into five oceans based on geographic location, geological barriers, and other criteria, into the Arctic, Atlantic, Indian, Pacific, and Southern oceans. Oceans have great influence on global weather patterns and climate. This influence stems from variations in ocean temperature caused...

Current and ongoing aixg efforts

Ongoing Annex 1 Group projects deal with developing policies on technology and climate change, gauging institutional capacity for dealing with climate change issues, keeping an eye on international emissions trading and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and Joint Implementation, assessing specific roles in mitigating the effects of climate change, devising both short- and long-term strategies for meeting goals, and conducting seminars that bring experts from developed and developing...

Oecd Documents And Policy

OECD's documents on climate change include both international policy issues, as well as national and sectoral policies. Guidelines on international policy issues emphasize the importance of identifying and analyzing policy frameworks that can facilitate adaptation to climate change impacts. In this area, OECD devotes particular attention to developing countries, and to particularly crucial sectors of intervention, such as water. The organization claims that climate change does not yet feature...

Oceanography

The Ocean is arguably the largest habitat on the planet, and it houses an astounding array of life, from microbes to whales. Oceanography is the branch of Earth science that studies the Earth's oceans. It is the systematic sci entific study of the oceans and deep sea with the goal of understanding their processes and phenomena. The relationship of oceans with other aspects of the Earth's environment is also highlighted in oceanographic studies. Biology, chemistry, geology and physics together...

Carbon Cycling

The past two centuries have witnessed a significant rise in the amount of global carbon emissions and subsequent absorption by oceans around the Earth. The global ocean plays a vital role in the Earth's carbon cycle, about 50 times greater than that of the atmosphere. The oceans absorb from the air about half of carbon deposits from fossil-fuel burning sources. The ocean contains the largest pool of carbon on the Earth's surface however, these carbon concentrations are not distributed equally....

THE FuTuRE oF NucLear Interests

Safety concerns aside, the perceived atmospheric-friendly power produced by nuclear means that the next few decades for nuclear power generation and production of uranium are solid. Approximately 30 new nuclear plants are under construction and another 200 are in the planning phase around the world. Even the nuclear reticent United States has 49 such facilities in the planning stages, the last one was approved almost 30 years ago in 1979. The resurgence of nuclear power, owing directly to...

Ocean Ecology

Oceans are home to the majority of plant and animal life on the planet. Climate change is expected to alter marine ecology both directly, through lower pH and elevated temperatures on the organismal level, and indirectly, via changes in community dynamics and food and habitat alteration on the aggregate level. A major concern is the possible effect climate change may have on ocean productivity. Phytoplankton, small plants found near the ocean's surface that comprise the basis for the marine...

OECD Climate Change Documents

The organisation FOR Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) was established in 1960 and is based in Paris, France, with a membership of 30 countries. The organization continued the activities of the Organization for European Economic Cooperation (OEEC), which had administered the American and Canadian funds of the Marshall Plan for the reconstruction of Europe after World War II. OECD's main commitment is to foster cooperation among countries that adhere to the principles of democracy and...

Ohio

Ohio has an area of44,825 sq. mi. (116,096 sq. km.), with inland water making up 378 sq. mi. (979 sq. km.), and Great Lakes Coast water of 3,499 sq. mi. (9,062 sq. km.). Ohio's average elevation is 850 ft. (259 m.) above sea level, with a range in elevation from 455 ft. (139 m.) above sea level on the Ohio River, to 1,549 ft. (472 m.) at Campbell Hill. Most of Ohio is flat or gently rolling, with some rougher terrain between the major rivers and in the divide between the Great Lakes and Ohio...

OECD Annex 1 Expert Group on the uNFCCC

The annex 1 Expert Group (AIXG) of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) was created in 1994, as an ad hoc cadre of government officials from the departments of environment, energy, and foreign affairs of countries that have committed to Annex 1 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Annex 1 acknowledges the impact of human behavior on global warming and climate change. The UNFCCC treaty of 1992 attempted to develop well-articulated...

Wisconsin

Wisconsin is 65,498 sq. mi. (169,639 sq. km.) in size, with inland water making up 1,830 sq. mi., (4,740 sq. km.), and Great Lakes Coast water of 9,358 sq. mi., (24,237 sq. km.). Wisconsin's average elevation is 1,050 ft., (320 m.) above sea level, with a range in elevation from 579 ft., (176 m.) above sea level on Lake Michigan to 1,951 ft., (595 m.) at Timms Hill. Wisconsin is customarily divided into two major natural regions the Central Lowland (low-lying area and swings in a broad belt...

University of Reading

THE university OF Reading is located in Reading, England. With a foundation made by joining the School of Art begun in 1860 and the School of Science begun in 1870, Christ Church of Oxford established an extension college in 1892. Funding and expansion ensured success and led to the University of Reading being given a royal charter in 1926. The University of Reading has several educational centers conducting research in a variety of disciplines in the arts, humanities, sciences, and social...

Thermocline

THE THERMoclINE is the region of the ocean where temperature decreases most rapidly with increasing depth. It separates the warm, well-mixed upper layer from the colder, deep water below. A thermo-cline is present throughout the year in the tropics and middle latitudes. It is more difficult to discern in high latitudes, where temperature is more uniform with depth. The presence of a very shallow thermocline in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean has important implications for global climate....

The Humanenvironment Relationship

Two major paradigms have animated theories of the conceptualization of the relationships between humans and the natural environment environmental determinism and possibilism, even though other debates in the social sciences should not be dismissed. Environmental determinism holds that the physical environment is a factor that shapes human occupation of the land and the use of resources, determining the course of history, the culture of an area, the settlement pattern, and human behavior. The...

Temperature Increase wC

This figure shows the predicted distribution of temperature change due to global warming from the Hadley Centre HadCM3 climate model. These changes are based on the IS92a (business as usual) projections of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions during the next century, and essentially assume normal levels of economic growth and no significant steps are taken to combat global greenhouse gas emissions. The plotted gray tints show predicted surface temperature changes expressed as the...

Singapore

THE REPUBLIC OF Singapore covers the main island of Singapore and 57 outlying islands, most of which are uninhabited. It covers a land area of 270 sq. mi. (704 sq. km.) and has a total population of 4,680,600 (July 2003 est.). This means that Singapore has one of the highest population densities in the world more than 17,335 people per sq. mi. (6425 people per sq. km.). Combined with a high standard of living, Singapore has a high per capita emission level of carbon dioxide, with 15 metric tons...

Results

The modeled LGM surface temperature is cooler compared to the modeled pre-industrial temperatures. The global cooling ranges from 5.9-8.4 degrees F (3.3-4.7 degrees C) when the temperature of the sea surface is prescribed. When the LGM ocean is also modeled the cooling is generally greater, ranging from 6.5-10.2 degrees F (3.6-5.7 degrees C) cooler. The Northern Hemisphere has greater cooling than the Southern Hemisphere due to the massive ice sheets, with temperatures up to 54 degrees F (30...

Resource Allocation

Given that resources are, by definition, finite and scarce in nature, then there must be some mechanism to allocate different shares to different sets of people. Allowing everyone who has an interest in resource exploitation to do so as freely as desired will lead to disastrous depletion of the resource. Consequently, the basis of allocation must be determined. In mature, democratic societies, coalitions of interests will help to set the agenda by which resources are allocated. This can be...

Programs

In 2006, the governor of Minnesota proposed the Next Generation Energy Initiativem designed as a means of developing strategies for focusing public attention on renewable energy, energy conservation, and the need to lower carbon emissions. The following spring, the state created the Minnesota Climate Change Advisory Group (MCCAG), composed of 51 individuals representing business, utilities, environment, academics, religious organizations, the private Although Minnesota is known as the Land of...

Precipitation Patterns

Changes in precipitation patterns foreshadow potentially substantial effects on ecosystems and human communities, including wetlands, lakes, rivers, agriculture, and domestic use. Measures to improve efficient water use, manage water demand, reuse water, and expand water resources can all improve resilience. Such measures include differential pricing structures, permitting, and requirements for water-conserving techniques. Adaptive water management, though still a developing field, is equally...

Pew center on global climate change

In 1998, with a grant from the Pew Charitable Trusts, and within the context of increasing concern over the impact of climate change, the Pew Center on Global Climate Change was established. It is a nonprofit, nonpartisan, independent organization. The role of the Pew Center is to build a bank of credible information about climate change and its impacts, and to try to provide solutions to the problems created by climate change. The Pew Center aims to provide an objective forum for research, and...

Nuclear power

Bush, in a June 2005 speech delivered to a group of nuclear power plant workers intoned, The 103 nuclear power plants in America produce twenty percent of the nation's electricity without producing a single pound of air pollution or greenhouse gases. Experts in the nuclear energy field, both for and against nuclear energy, find this statement lacking credibility. Nuclear energy critics cite the significant amount of greenhouse gases produced by the nuclear fuel cycle in...

Nitrous Oxide

NITROUS OXIDE (N2O) is a compound of two very abundant elements on Earth, which also compose most of the gases in the Earth's atmosphere oxygen and nitrogen. It is a colorless gas with a sweetish odor. It is known by the common name of laughing gas. It occurs naturally, and has been implicated as a potentially significant agent in global warming. Joseph Priestly first synthesized it in the 1770s. Dentists and physicians have used it as a mild anesthetic for decades. It was first used in...