Physical Water Pollution

A common form of physical water pollution is thermal pollution. This includes warm water from cooling towers, floating debris, foam, and garbage. In highly industrialized areas of the world, power plants are used in generating electricity, where warmer water generated in the process is generally released back to the environment. In nuclear plants, water is used in large quantity to cool reactors. The discharge of high-temperature water into a natural body of water can affect the downstream...

Advocacy and operational ngos

The World Bank differentiates between operational and advocacy NGOs, where an operational NGO focuses on the design and implementation of development-related projects, such as service delivery, and an advocacy NGO defends or promotes a specific cause. A good example of an operational NGO is that of the work of the International Medicine Corps (IMC) in Afghanistan. In this case, the IMC instituted a vaccination campaign against measles, a disease that was identified by the World Health...

The Koppen Climate Classification System

In 1900, the Russian-German climatologist Vladimir Koppen presented the scientific community with a system for classifying the world's climates. Today, it is called the Koppen Climate Classification System. It divides the Earth's surface into climatic regions that generally coincide with world patterns of vegetation and soils. The system has five major climate types. These are based on averages of annual rainfall and temperatures. The annual averages are combined with the monthly rain and...

Two layers of the atmosphere

Based on chemical composition, the atmosphere is divided into two broad layers the homosphere and the heterosphere. The homosphere extends up to the height of 56 mi. (90 km.) and is characterised by uniformity in chemical composition. It consists of three thermal layers, namely, the troposphere, the stratosphere, and the mesosphere. Each sub-layer is separated from the adjoining layer by a shallow transitional zone. The het-erosphere has heterogeneous chemical composition, with layered...

Romanticism And Conservation

Researchers and other intellectuals, including artists, began to recognize the local impacts of environmental degradation around the turn of the 19th century in the United States and Europe. For scientists, powers of observation were based on empiricism and the scientific method that were honed during the Enlightenment. Artists and intellectuals observed natural beauty and captured it in the painting, music, and literature of the Romantic period. Romanticism emerged along with the Industrial...

Renewable energy Policy Project Repp

Founded in 1995, the Renewable Energy Policy Project (REPP) is based in Washington, D.C. The organization researches strategies to make renewable sources competitive in energy markets and to stabilize carbon emissions. REPP supports reindus-trialization through the use of renewable technologies. It demonstrates that solar, wind, biomass, and other renewable sources can provide energy services at or below the cost of nonrenewables when structural barriers are removed. REPP works directly with...

Indirect Effects Of Global Warming

Apart from the direct effects of global warming on the global climate, there is the issue of the indirect effects of it on the sociological, political, and economic climate of nations. It is reported that the social, economic, and physical infrastructural indices of a geographical region has evolved from the adaptation of all that region's society to the prevailing climate and to the hydrological conditions brought about by that climate over a finite time period. In cases, therefore, when the...

Central African Republic

A former French colony in central Africa, the Central African Republic is entirely landlocked and has an area of 240,534 sq. mi. (622,984 sq. km.), with a population of 4,216,666 (2007 est.), and a population density of 17.5 people per sq. mi. (6.8 people per sq. km.). The country is poor, with 3 percent of the land arable, and a further 5 percent used for meadows and pasture. In spite of this, many of the desperately poor people in the country survive through subsistence farming. Some 64...