S

sandurs, 140, 141 sastrugi, 103

Scott, Robert F., 109, 227 sea ice, 145, 170-181 drift of, 176-177 ecological interactions and, 172 first-year ice, 172-173, 177 formation and features of, 172-176

impacts of recent changes to,

179-181 interactions with oceans, atmosphere, and climate, 177-179

multiyear ice, 172-173, 177, 207 salinity of, 171-172 thickness of, 177 types of, 170 sea level, rise in, 114-115

effect of icebergs on, 165-166 segregated (Taber) ice, 38-39 seracs, 88, 91

Seward-Malaspina glacier, 89 Shackleton, Ernest Henry 227, 229 Shackleton Ice Shelf, 229-230 shield areas of Arctic, 186-187, 188

Siberia coverage of by glacial ice, 75, I84

permafrost in, 32, 33, 39, 47 Skelton Glacier, I35, 230 snow dunes, I03 snow ice, 60, 62 Sogn Fpr^ ^ ^5 solifluction/soil flow, 42, 46,

189-190 South Cascade Glacier, 88-89 Southern Alps, 126 South Pole, 98-99, 109, 208, 221, 222, 223, 227 staging, and river ice, 66-67 streamlined landscape, I32 striations, I25

subarctic, permafrost in, 29, 33,

34, 36, 41, 42, 49, 50 subsea permafrost, 32-33, 34, 47

engineering and, 52 summit glaciers, 84 sun cups, 86

synthetic aperture radar (SAR), 169

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