I

ice defined, 21

electromagnetic properties, 27

forms of, 21

in lakes and rivers, 53-73 mechanical properties, 25-26 optical properties, 27 power of on Earth, 225 strength of, 26 thermal properties, 26 ice ages, 28, 75, 76, 116, 183184, 188 ice aprons, 84

icebergs, 21, 78, 95, 96, 101, 104, 105, 106, 109, 115, 145-170, 218 calving of 78, 79, 9^ 96,1°! 104, 105, 106, 109, 115, 145, 146-147, 153-154, 209 climatic impacts of, 165-167 danger to ships, 158, 161, 162,

168-170 detection, tracking, and management of, 162, 168-170 distribution of, 158-162 drift trajectories of, 157-162 erosion and melting of, 145, i51155-I57, 161 origin of Antarctic, 145-147 origin of Arctic, 148-150 scour and sediment transport of, I62-I65 size and shape of, I45-I46,

I53-I54

structure of, 150-152 icebreaking vessels, 70 ke caps 2I, 74, 84, 95, 98, 99, I84, I92, I93, 207

ice cores Antarctic, I0I, I8I, 2I6 Greenland, I0I, III, I92 information obtained from, 78, 110-112, 181

ice crystal, about the, 23-24 ice decay in lakes, 6i-63 melting, 62-63

thinning and rotting, 6i-62, 69 ice decay in rivers, 69 ice draft, 1:77, i79-i80 ice fields, 74, 84, 95, i95 ice islands, i48, i49-i50 ice jams, 69-70, 7i ice pits, i4i ice-rafted debris (IRD), i64 ice sheets, 2i, 28, 74, 78, 84, 86, 87, 95, 97-112, "8, i24, 209 ablation of, i02-i03, i2i accumulation of, i02-i03, i2i climate change and, ii3-ii4 flow of, i07-i08 fluctuations in, 75-76 instability mechanisms of,

75-76

net mass balance of, i05-i07 of the past in the Arctic, i83-i86

ice shelves, 74, 97, 98, i0i, i04, i05, i06, i07, i08, ii4, i45, i93, 209, 2i8 ice streams, 76, 95, i07, i08, i09 ice wedges, 38, 39-40, 42, 43 active, 40, 4i ice-wedge casts, 40, 4i, 43 inactive, 40, 4i icings, 69

internal deformation of glaciers, ii8, ii9, i20 International Geophysical Year

International Ice Patrol, i56-i57, i69 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), i05, i06, i66

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