G

geothermal gradient, 31, 32, 35 geothermal heating, 30, 31, 33 glacial deposition, 121-124, 127,

I35-I43

glacial drift, I2I

glacial erosion, 93, 118-121,

I24-I35

causes of, I24 glacial fluctuations, 74-75, II3 glacial grooves, I24, I26 glacial lakes, I4I-I43 glacial landforms, 116-144 Glacier Bay, 97 glacier floods, 93-94 glacier ice, formation of, 76-78 ghti^s 74-97

classification of, 74, 79-80 continental, 2I, 89, II8, I3I-I35,

I37-I38

defined, 74

effects of climate on, 76,

II3-II4

facts about present-day, 75

113-114 geographic distribution of, 75, 97

glacier groups in Arctic, i93-i96 heat/energy balance and, 80-8i hydrology of, 92-93 icebergs and, i45, i48 internal deformation of, ii8, ii9

landforms caused by, ii6-i44 mass balance of, 78-80, 8i,

88-90, ii3, ii4, i96 mountain, 2i, 74, 78, 84-97, 98, ii4, ii5, ii8, i95 movement of, ii8, ii9 outlet, 84, i0i, i04, i06, i07, ii8, i32, i35, i93, i94, i95

polar, 79, ii9, i20 present-day glaciation in

Arctic, i9i-i92 rate of erosion, 93 rock, 47, 96, i44 sea level and, ii4-ii5 subpolar, 79, ii9 surface zones of, 79-80 temperate, 79, ii8-ii9, i20 topography and, ii6-ii8 glacier streams, 93, i39, i40-i4i, i42 glacier surges, 94-95 glacier tongues, i04, i46 glaciofluvial deposits, i38-i4i glaciolacustrine sediments, i39, i4i-i43

Glen flow law, 8i, 82 global warming, ii2, ii4, ii5, i45, i47, i80, 2i9, 225 grease ice, i73, i75

Great Bear Lake, 134 Great Lakes, 134, 142 Great Salt Lake, 142 Great Slave Lake, 134 greenhouse gasses, 112, 115 Greenland climate of, 101

icebergs and, 148, 150, 160, 163 ice sheet, 21, 74, 84, 97, 99-104, 106-107, 108, 110, 114, 115, 148, 151, 166, 183,

!96, !97 glacial landforms in, 116 Greenland Ice-core Project/ Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2, 111 Greenland Ice Sheet Program, 101 ground ice, 189

types of, 37-39 grounding line, 146

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