Distribution Of River

Dates of first freeze-up of rivers follow patterns similar to those of lakes, with a tendency for rivers to freeze over somewhat later than smaller lakes. The many factors that affect the freezing process of rivers make generalizations difficult, however. Slower pool-like reaches may freeze over, while more rapidly flowing reaches may remain open well into the winter. Breakup is even more erratic, particularly in the more temperate zones where midwinter thaws may cause a breakup that is followed by another freeze-up and a later breakup as spring temperatures arrive. As a general rule, rivers break up in response to runoff from snowmelt or rain well before lakes clear of ice—although the first shoreline melting in lakes occurs at about the same times as river breakup. In north-flowing rivers, especially in central Russia and western Canada, breakup occurs first in upstream, southerly reaches and then progresses northward with the movement of the spring thaw.

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