Contents

Preface viii

List of Contributors ix

Acknowledgements xi

Chapter 1 Introduction to glacial landsystems 1

David J.A. Evans

1.1 Landsystems 1

1.2 Glacial Landsystems 2

1.3 Aims and Scope of this Book 10

Chapter 2 Ice-Marginal Terrestrial Landsystems: Active

Temperate Glacier Margins 12

David J.A. Evans

2.1 Introduction 12

2.2 Landform-Sediment Assemblages in Active Temperate

Glacier Forelands 14

2.3 Ancient Records of Active Temperate Glacier Margins 35

2.4 Conclusion 37

Chapter 3 Ice-Marginal Terrestrial Landsystems: Sub-Polar

Glacier Margins of the Canadian and Greenland High Arctic 44

Colm 0 Cofaigh, David JA. Evans and John England

3.1 Introduction 44

3.2 Sub-Polar Glaciers in the Canadian and Greenland

High Arctic 45

3.3 Glacial Geology and Geomorphology 49

3.4 Overlaps With Other Glacigenic Landsystems 62

3.5 Conclusion 64

Chapter 4 Ice-Marginal Terrestrial Landsystems: Svalbard

Polythermal Glaciers 65

Neil F. Glasser and Michael J. Hambrey

4.1

Introduction and Rationale

65

4.2

Structural Glaciological Controls on Debris Entrainment

and Transport

69

4.3

Geomorphology and Sedimentology of Receding

Svalbard Glaciers

75

4.4

A Landsystem Model for Svalbard Glaciers

86

4.5

Application of the Model to Pleistocene Moraine

Complexes

87

4.6

Conclusions

87

Chapter 5

Ice-Marginal Terrestrial Landsystems:

Polar-Continental Glacier Margins

89

Sean J. Fitzsimons

5.1

Introduction

89

5.2

Polar Ice-Marginal Environments

89

5.3

Ice Margins in Low-Relief Landscapes

91

5.4

Ice-Contact Landforms and Sediments

96

5.5

Ice Margins in High-Relief Areas

101

5.6

Towards a Depositional Model

108

Chapter 6

Ice-Marginal Terrestrial Landsystems: Southern

Laurentide Ice Sheet Margin

111

Patrick M. Colgan, David M. Mickelson and Paul M. Cutler

6.1

Introduction

111

6.2

Physical Setting and Timing of Glaciation

112

6.3

Methods

114

6.4

Mapping and Classification of the Data

114

6.5

Landsystems of the Southern Laurentide Ice Sheet

115

6.6

Discussion

136

6.7

Conclusions

142

Chapter 7

Ice-Marginal Terrestrial Landsystems: Northern

Laurentide and Innuitian Ice Sheet Margins

143

Arthur S. Dyke and David J.A. Evans

7.1

Introduction

143

7.2

The Region and Its General Glacial Landscape

143

7.3

Glacial Landscape Zones

145

7.4

General Interpretation

149

7.5

Constraints on Interpretation of Glacial Landforms

and Deposits in the Continuous Permafrost Zone

153

7.6

Process-Form Relationships: Towards a Landsystem

Model for the Permafrost Zone

154

7.7

Discussion and Conclusion

163

Chapter 8 Ice-Marginal Terrestrial Landsystems: Southern

Scandinavian Ice Sheet Margin 166

Frederik M. Van der Wateren

8.1 Introduction 166

8.2 Glacial History 170

8.3 Regional Geology and Glacial Landsystems 172

8.4 Distribution of Glacial Landforms and Glacitectonic Styles 176

8.5 Structures Developed in Response to Subglacial Deformation 181

8.6 Structural Style of Subglacial Shear Zones 183

8.7 Ductile Shear Zone Structures 185

8.8 Brittle Shear Zone Structures 187

8.9 Glacifluvial Outwash, Ice-Marginal Valleys and Lakes 189

8.10 Glacial Landsystems of the Northern European Plains 192

8.11 Conclusions 200

8.12 Summary — Landform-Sediment Associations of the

Southern Scandinavian Ice Sheet 202

Chapter 9 Palaeo-Ice Stream Landsystem 204

Chris D. Clark and Chris R. Stokes

9.1 Introduction and Rationale 204

9.2 Significance of Palaeo-Ice Streams 204

9.3 Hypotheses of Palaeo-Ice Stream Locations 207

9.4 Problems in Identifying Palaeo-Ice Streams 208

9.5 Characteristics of Existing Ice Streams 209

9.6 Geomorphological Criteria of Ice-Stream Activity 210

9.7 A Landsystem Model for Palaeo-Ice Streams 218

9.8 Application of Landsystem Models 221

9.9 Conclusion 227

Chapter 10 Supraglacial Landsystems in Lowland Terrain 228

Mark D. Johnson and Lee Clayton

10.1 Introduction 228

10.2 Landforms 229

10.3 The Supraglacial Landsystem Model 251

Chapter 11 Surging Glacier Landsystem 259

11.1 Introduction and Rationale 259

11.2 Geomorphology and Sedimentology of Contemporary

Surging Glaciers 260

11.3 Summary of the Landsystems Model for Surging Glaciers 279

11.4 Application of the Surging Glacier Landsystem 281

11.5 Conclusion 284

Chapter 12 Subaquatic Landsystems: Continental Margins 289

Tore O. Vorren

12.1 The Continental Shelf System 289

12.2 The Continental Slope and Adjoining Deep-Sea System 303

12.3 Summary 312

Chapter 13 Subaquatic Landsystems: Fjords 313

Ross D. Powell

13.1 Introduction 313

13.2 Sedimentary Processes and External Forces 315

13.3 Geomorphology and Depositional Systems 321

13.4 Modelling Fjord Landsystems 342

13.5 Conclusion 347

Chapter 14 Subaquatic Landsystems: Large Proglacial Lakes 348

James T. Teller

14.1 Introduction 348

14.2 Controls on Formation and Extent of Proglacial Lakes 348

14.3 The Sedimentary Record of Large Proglacial Lakes 350

14.4 Summary of Development of Large Proglacial Lakes 368

Chapter 15 Glaciated Valley Landsystems 372

Douglas I. Benn, Martin P. Kirkbride, Lewis A. Owen and Vanessa Brazier

15.1 Introduction 372

15.2 Sediment Sources 373

15.3 Sediment Transport Pathways 373

15.4 Dynamics of Debris-Covered Glaciers 377

15.5 Landsystems of Glacial Deposition 379

15.6 Rock Glaciers 394

15.7 Landsystems of Proglacial Deposition 397

15.8 Proglacial Aeolian Landsystems 400

15.9 Ice- and Moraine-Dammed Lakes 400

15.10 Glaciated Valley Landsystems: Synthesis 402

15.11 Changes in Landsystem Distribution Over Space and Time 404

15.12 Conclusions 405

Chapter 16 Plateau Icefield Landsystems 407

Brice R. Rea and David JA. Evans

16.1 Introduction and rationale 407

16.2 Area Altitude Relationship for Plateau Icefields 408

16.3 Contemporary Plateau Icefields 409

16.4 Dynamics of Plateau Icefields 419

16.5 The Plateau Icefield Landsystem 422

CONTENTS vii

16.6

Impact of Plateau Ice on Reconstructed Equilibrium

Line Altitudes

426

16.7

Discussion

428

16.8

Conclusions

431

Chapter 17

Paraglacial Landsystems

432

Colin K. Ballantyne

17.1

Introduction

432

17.2

Paraglacial Landsystems

435

17.3

Paraglacial Rock Slope Landsystems

436

17.4

Paraglacial Drift-Mantled Slope Landsystems

441

17.5

Paraglacial Modification of Glacier Forelands

444

17.6

Paraglacial Alluvial Landsystems

447

17.7

Paraglacial Sedimentation in Lakes

452

17.8

Paraglacial Coastal Landsystems

453

17.9

Paraglacial Landsystems and Postglacial Landscape Change

457

17.10

Implications for Glacial Landsystems

Index

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