In the context of changing climate, interactions between glaciers and the oceans occur mainly within two bands. One includes the Milankovitch oscillations of 20,000 to 400,000 yr and the second contains millennial-duration changes of between 1000 and 10,000 yr. Although both are currently of great interest to the climate community, I focus here on the millennial band where rapid transients in forcing mechanisms led to complex non-linear responses in the ice-ocean-climate system. It is within this band that dramatic, abrupt climate changes were first recognized and that possible scenarios for future abrupt events first emerged.

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