Index

Colour plate numbers are in bold a-axis fabrics 435, 436

ablation 3, 23, 26, 29, 33, 50, 54, 55, 56, 74, 85, 98, 99, 102, 112, 133, 163-78, 188, 225-7, 232-6, 239-41, 245, 246, 255, 269, 270, 271, 294, 297, 298, 300, 319, 338, 345, 346, 380-2, 406-13, 430, 432, 32.1, 32.2 rate 133,227 stakes 188,241,270,419 abrasion 10, 29, 80, 93, 454, 455 abrupt climate change 32, 105, 138, 148, 191

accumulation 16, 22, 91, 93, 94, 98-104, 106, 109, 110, 112, 133, 137, 163-78, 190, 206, 211-213, 217, 224-228, 232, 239, 241, 243, 268-71, 285-7, 290-301, 313, 318, 335, 338, 352, 355, 361-2, 367, 368, 369, 380-2, 396, 397, 401-3, 406-9, 411-14, 419, 420, 428, 432, 454, 32.1, 32.2, 44.3 rate 172, 211-13, 225-8, 285, 290-8, 301, 361-2, 381, 407, 44.3 activation energy 80, 286, 291, 295, 297, 299, 300, 303, 309, 368, 450 active layer 77, 78, 326

aerial photographs 39, 40, 45-7, 192, 193, 202, 205, 227, 232, 246, 260,

275, 423 aerosols 403-5 Agassiz Ice Cap 90, 307 air bubbles 58, 284, 404

Alaska 5, 10, 72, 73, 79, 80, 98, 123, 124, 133, 137, 138, 163, 171, 213,

236, 237, 303, 329, 343, 381, 387, 394, 422, 426, 428 albedo 3, 109, 112, 113, 121, 122, 129, 133, 164-6, 173, 176-8, 226, 228,

245, 270, 271, 290, 371-3, 405, 420, 425, 438 Alberta 25, 28, 32-4, 43-8 algae 73 Allerod 143

altimetry 169, 153, 212, 217-19, 224, 227, 364, 374, 379, 381, 382, 419,

425, 426, 44.1 aluminosilicate 71-4 amber ice 321, 330, 332 amino acid 260, 38.6

Andes 164, 231, 232, 239, 241, 245, 246, 271, 405 anion 243

anisotropy 289, 302, 303, 304, 306, 308, 315, 316, 318, 367-8, 450, 451, 453 Annandale 39-41 annual layers 397, 398 anoxia 73

Antarctica 6, 9, 31, 56, 72, 74, 75, 98, 101, 107, 112, 126, 137, 153-5, 159, 163, 164, 166, 168, 170, 171, 174, 181-5, 188-91, 195, 205, 209-22, 284, 285, 287-9, 293-5, 300, 301, 303, 305, 313, 314,

319, 321, 322, 325, 330, 335, 342, 343, 353-5, 360, 364-6, 369, 371, 375-82, 387, 396, 398, 399, 404-15, 418, 442 Antarctic ice sheet 13, 19, 46, 101, 137, 153, 154, 167, 168, 174, 188, 189, 191, 203, 209-23, 251, 284, 285, 288, 290, 292, 294, 304, 338, 354, 358, 360, 364, 366, 370, 375, 376, 381, 406-14, 80.2, 80.4, 80.6

Antarctic Peninsula 156, 159, 171, 213, 215, 220, 405, 409, 30.2

anthropogenic 101, 106, 125, 151, 210, 213, 227, 404, 405, 426

aquatic habitat 151,152

aquitard 55-61

Arctic Ocean 32, 90, 98, 101, 104, 106, 121-4, 136, 138-40, 142, 144, 145,

150, 154, 157, 378 Arctic Oscillation 122 areal scouring 190, 195 armchair theorist 188 Arrhenius 80, 286-99, 407 Àspô 59

ASTER 372, 373, 382, 425, 428, 430, 431 atmospheric circulation 98, 122-5, 150, 181, 214, 248, 249, 290, 398 warming 213,246,247 Austfonna 372 avalanche 165,269,428,431 AVHRR 122,354,373,379 Axel Heiberg Island 90,99

Baffin Island 10, 108, 112, 138, 190, 201-7, 444 Bakaninbreen 53, 332, 387 balance velocity 380, 409 Baltic

Ice Lake 150 Sea 55, 56, 60, 61 Banks Island 136 Barents Sea 124, 190, 199, 200 Barnes Ice Cap 205, 206, 311, 312 basal accretion 166 cavities 342, 346, 455 debris 10,73,289,321,334 drainage system 343, 345, 351 freezing 19, 51, 356, 360-2, 2.1, 2.2 friction 4, 5, 9

basal (cont'd)

ice 5, 9, 10, 16, 33, 72, 73, 89, 93, 168, 180, 182, 227, 266, 285, 287,

290, 313, 320-35, 339-43, 353, 355, 356, 403, 408, 411, 439-41, 455, 456-8

dispersed facies 321, 335, 336, 440, 441, 458 solid facies 332, 333

stratified facies 321, 330, 332, 335, 336, 440 melting 5, 22, 52, 54, 61, 67, 98, 116, 136, 137, 166, 167, 173, 287, 356,

357, 360-4, 407-12, 2.1, 2.2 motion 287, 291, 292, 294, 320, 335-50, 353, 359, 453 shear stress 343, 346, 354, 357-9, 383, 416, 455 sliding 11, 12, 60, 116, 118, 168, 189, 196, 263, 319, 340, 341, 342, 344,

346, 347, 353, 392, 393, 407, 408, 416, 80.2 thermal characteristics 4, 19, 96, 191-4, 263, 334, 362, 406, 80.2 velocity profile 332 water pressure 6, 291, 341-5, 412, 455 Beacon Valley 183 Beattock 40, 41 Beaufort

Gyre 123, 124, 136 Sea 124, 139, 23.3 bed roughness 51, 319-21, 364, 412, 453, 455 BEDMAP 360,408 bedrock hummocks 6, 340

topography 93, 169, 181, 354, 379, 413 Bench Glacier 79, 80, 81 Bering Strait 124, 125 Bertacchi Glacier 237 binge-purge 110, 127, 129, 207 biogenic 73, 157, 159, 404 biogeochemical 82, 370 biogeography 151 bipolar oscillation 99 seesaw 190 Black Rapids Glacier 329, 343, 387, 394 blockfield 90, 93, 266 Bolivia 232, 245 Boltzmann 299 Bondhusbreen 10

borehole 3, 10, 59, 61, 69, 72, 106, 193, 265, 290, 294, 297, 302, 306, 307, 311-15, 321, 332, 341-7, 350, 355-7, 364, 367, 387-95, 400, 403, 408, 409, 436, 450, 455 temperatures 106, 408 boudinage 11,27,321,322,331 Bow Valley glacier 28

Breiôamerkurjôkull 7, 8, 10, 12, 17, 18, 44, 47, 53, 85, 343, 451

BRITICE 252, 253, 254, 255, 263

British Columbia 30, 31, 151

British Ice Sheet 96, 160, 248-63

British-Irish Ice Sheet 248-63

Broggerbreen 80, 82

Byrd Station 313,314

California 73

calving 3, 5, 93, 98, 106-10, 116, 118, 137, 147, 154, 163, 166, 167, 173, 196, 200, 209, 224, 226, 227, 233, 234, 236-8, 248, 249, 264, 269, 298, 339, 407, 408, 410, 412, 425, 437 Camp Century 10, 307, 329, 396, 401 Cape Cod 69, 70

carbon cycle 75

dioxide 71-5, 96, 106, 112, 169, 170, 173, 180, 190, 214, 403-5, 410, 411, 438, 454 carbonate 71-80, 128, 135, 136, 204, 206 carbonation 72, 73, 75 cation 74, 79, 80, 230, 243, 396 Caucasus 431

cavities 6, 28, 29, 42, 51, 85, 137, 332, 333, 341, 387, 454, 455 c-axis 298, 299, 303, 304, 305, 306, 312-15, 364, 367, 368-9, 450, 451

fabric see ice crystal fabric chaotic behaviour 217

chemical processes 60, 71-82, 312, 313, 317, 318, 320, 321, 324, 454, 456, 457

chicken or egg problem 127

China 275, 282, 329, 332

Chukchi Sea 124, 136, 23.3

Circumpolar Deep Water 137

clay 9, 13, 14, 29, 38, 58, 69, 70, 79, 441, 452, 456

climate change 31, 32, 85, 96, 97, 99, 100, 104, 105, 109, 112, 114, 120, 126-34, 136, 138, 148, 159, 163-73, 191, 210-15, 220, 224, 228, 234, 238, 239, 242-8, 272, 275, 279, 284, 338, 339, 348, 351, 353, 377, 399, 400, 405, 410, 411, 418, 420, 421, 425, 426, 434, 439

forcing 129, 358

modelling 121, 163-76, 408, 420, 421, 425, 434 records 99, 370

warming 26, 133, 151, 171, 213, 220, 228, 275, 279, 284, 300, 406, 410, 411

climatic data 102-4, 164 cloud cover 166, 373, 376 cloudiness 97, 245, 270, 271 co-isotopic 179, 183

cold-based 9, 25, 26, 51, 59, 80, 91-3, 190, 191, 193-6, 199, 201, 208, 209, 221, 222, 251, 263, 285, 326-30, 333, 334, 448, 454, 38.4, 38.5, 38.7,38.8, 38.11,41.2 Columbia Glacier 238 comminution 71-5, 81, 82, 454 computer modelling see numerical modelling concertina esker 87 continental shelf 31, 68-70, 109, 112, 137, 153-60, 167, 189, 190, 205, 252, 261,

262, 353, 369, 385, 409, 410, 30.1, 30.2 slope 70, 154, 157, 158, 159 controversy 1, 191, 206, 249, 261, 263, 397, 450, 451, 454, 456 Cordillera Blanca 232, 242, 243, 245 Cordillera Oriental 232 Cordillera Real 232 Cordilleran Ice Sheet 138

cosmogenic 93, 189, 190, 195, 203, 205, 206, 216, 217, 260, 262, 370, 442,

443, 445, 447, 448, 449, 38.5 crag-and-tail 265 creationism 42 creep activation energy 286, 297, 299, 300, 303, 309, 368, 450 curves 287, 288, 305, 306

rate 304, 305, 309, 310, 312, 313, 314, 324, 332, 451 Cretaceous 33, 69, 76, 205

crevasses 6, 72, 87, 153, 166, 167, 217, 219, 238, 317, 318, 339, 348, 349, 354, 370, 387, 388

crushing 10, 454 crustal rebound see isostasy CRYOSAT 227, 379 crystal edges see grain boundaries fabric 287-9, 290, 302, 307, 321, 340, 367, 450, 451, 457

evolution 315 lattice 288, 298, 300, 450 orientation 287-9, 317, 339, 366

size 79, 159, 288-90, 298-315, 344, 367-8, 450, 451, 455, 457 Cumberland Sound 205, 206

Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) cycle/event 97, 99, 103, 108-11, 126-31, 189, 190, 410

debris content 323 -covered glaciers 247 -rich ice 85, 183, 289, 307, 321, 324, 332-4 deep-sea cores 126 deformable sediments 383 substrate 146,293,453 deformation rate 285, 289, 299, 302, 320, 321, 323, 368, 387, 394, 407, 450 till 15, 17, 26, 435, 436 deforming bed 5, 11, 15, 22, 26, 60, 206, 435, 436, 454 sediment 10, 13, 16, 26, 85, 206, 343 till 6, 7, 16, 319, 436 deglaciation 15, 20, 28, 33, 36, 39, 54, 58, 71, 75, 82, 107, 109, 112, 114, 118, 135, 138, 141, 146, 147, 150, 157, 181, 189, 191-202, 206-11, 215, 216, 221-3, 229, 249, 250, 258, 260, 272, 328, 362, 403, 405, 423, 424, 427, 437, 442-8, 38.4 degree-day 102, 103, 114, 165, 166, 170, 173, 226, 236, 271, 408, 419-23, 32.1

DEM 37, 38, 43, 45, 46, 166, 248, 252, 254, 255, 257, 260-3, 265, 267,

372, 374, 379, 380, 381, 383-7, 430, 432-4 Denmark 14, 15, 50, 51, 53, 60, 61, 106, 107, 224, 396

Strait 106, 107 Des Moines lobe 56, 452, 453 detrital carbonate 128, 206 deuterium 58, 60, 179-86, 403

excess 179-86 Devensian 40, 162, 250, 251, 252, 262 Devon Island 90,321,421 diffusion creep 309,310,312,313

digital elevation model 37, 38, 43, 45, 46, 166, 248, 252, 254, 255, 257, 260-3, 265, 267, 372, 374, 379, 380, 381, 383-7, 430, 432-4

dilation 13, 52, 452, 453 dislocation creep 299,308-14,407,450,451 glide 298, 300, 303 dislocations 285, 299, 300, 303-5, 308, 314, 450 dissolution 71-5, 77, 78, 80, 82 dissolved oxygen 58, 59, 60 diurnal flow variations 345, 347 Dome Fuji 285, 302, 396 Dongkemadi Glacier 277-80 downwasting 39, 89, 91, 146, 427 drag spool 332, 342, 388, 392, 393 dragometer 388,391,392

drilling 6, 68, 205, 301, 365-70, 387, 388, 394, 395, 398, 399, 406

driving stress 6, 10, 13, 211, 285, 287, 291, 293, 320, 338, 354, 355, 358,

359, 407, 411, 413, 454 Dronning Maud Land 174

drumlin 3, 11, 16-19, 22, 26, 28-32, 37, 39-50, 60, 83, 85, 86, 155, 189, 195-8, 200, 201, 252-4, 263-5, 384-7, 437, 38.5, 38.11, 41.1, 41.2

cavity fill 28, 32, 49 field 19, 22, 28, 46, 437 dry snow zone 174, 175, 176, 225 Dry Valleys 46, 184, 222, 285, 329-34 Dubawnt 197, 208, 209, 38.4, 38.10, 41.1 ductile deformation 9, 315 dust 285-9, 307, 397-405

concentration 398, 399, 400, 402, 404 record 405

Dye 3 288, 289, 302, 306, 307, 313, 316, 369, 396-8, 401

Earth system science 188, 189, 248, 263

East Antarctic Ice Sheet 189, 211, 284, 292

Eckernförde 54, 60-2

ecology 151

ecosystems 81, 446

Ecuador 232, 245

eigenvalues 435, 453,

EISMINT 367

electron microscopy 29

Ellesmere Island 229, 421

Elsterian 54

emissivity 372, 373

empirical data 114, 188, 189

energy balance 4, 98, 164, 165, 166, 168, 170-8, 225, 245, 419, 420 Engabreen 455 englacial ice facies 321, 324 enhanced deformation 326, 332, 340, 341, 343, 345 enhancement factor 286, 287, 301-8, 313, 324, 340, 354, 355, 408, 451

ENSO 125,239,245,246 ENVISAT 373, 378, 381 EPICA 179, 181, 396, 399, 404

equilibrium line 15, 16, 92, 112, 133, 163, 178, 232, 247, 271, 298, 381, 382, 410, 432

altitude 92-4, 98, 99, 103, 104, 106, 112, 118, 133, 232, 247, 271, 298, 340, 341, 352, 382, 423, 432 erosion 4, 5, 7, 9, 10, 15-17, 19, 22-43, 46, 47-50, 56, 71-5, 79-82, 86, 87, 91-3, 113, 114, 116, 133, 141, 144, 154, 157, 159, 160, 162, 174, 176, 189, 190, 194, 195, 202-7, 219, 221, 222, 262, 263, 266, 268, 319, 322, 326-8, 330, 331, 370, 405, 442-9, 454, 455

erratics 92, 93, 190, 192, 202, 203, 206, 215, 216, 221-3, 252, 253, 443-5, 448

ERS-1 218,219,373-6,379,381-3

eskers 7, 19-22, 26, 33, 37-9, 43, 44, 47, 51, 54, 60, 83-7, 91, 193, 194,

195-201, 206, 252-4, 260, 263, 2.3, 38.2, 38.5, 38.8-38.10 Estonia 11,58

European Alps 72, 74, 81, 82, 268, 321, 426-9 European ice sheet 6, 19, 20, 2.3 eustasy 133, 163, 230, 360, 408, 409 evaporation 147, 148, 164, 179, 180, 183, 185, 186, 245 extraterrestrial glaciers 188, 189, 191

fast glacier flow 60, 63, 192, 209, 285, 287, 353, 355, 357, 359, 361 feedback 10, 54, 87, 98, 101, 104, 109, 112, 122, 138, 146, 147, 174, 175, 178, 184, 190, 228, 237, 249, 294, 298, 300, 406, 424, 425, 428, 438

Fennoscandian ice sheet 51, 57, 107, 191-5, 199-201, 249, 250, 263, 377, 448, 38.1,38.4,38.11

field mapping 61, 384

observations 48, 206, 250, 285, 311, 325, 329, 334, 458 Filchner-Ronne ice shelf 137 Findelengletscher 341, 342 fine-grained ice 305, 309, 310, 312, 450, 451 finite-element 67, 338, 339, 344, 345, 346, 454 Finland 21, 59

Finsterwalderbreen 73, 76, 77

firn 81, 92, 163, 165, 166, 225, 239, 240, 241, 269, 284, 303, 373, 376, 381, 405, 426, 428 core 239 firnification 329 fish populations 151

fiords 77, 88-91, 98, 99, 104, 106, 108, 109, 117-19, 129, 154, 156, 159,

201, 205, 227, 230-6, 443-7 floating glacier 137, 227 floodplain 77

floods 19, 22, 28, 31, 32, 39, 42-51, 62, 77, 78, 110, 141-50, 207, 401, 431, 438

flow enhancement 286, 288, 289

law 5, 13, 98, 168, 189, 285-7, 289, 300-13, 320, 329, 332, 334, 339, 340, 346, 348, 354, 355, 358, 396, 407-16, 449, 450, 454, 455 rate 289, 290, 313, 324, 339, 345-7, 356 flume experiment 29, 455 flute 16, 19, 29, 86, 196, 197, 263-5 fluvioglacial 28, 83

foraminifera 100, 104, 106, 107, 111, 112, 129

force balance 348, 354, 355, 359, 362, 409-15

forebulge 229

forensic glaciology 368-9

fossil fuels 405

Fox Glacier 273, 274

fractal 435

fractionation 179-85, 457

fracture toughness 317,318

Franz Josef Glacier 272-4

frazil ice 457, 458

freezing slope 181, 182

frictional heat 50, 413

frozen bed 9, 19, 20, 48, 89, 194, 196, 197, 198, 294, 331, 355, 38.4, 38.5, 38.7, 38.8, 38.11,41.2

sediment 9, 11, 85, 327, 328, 329, 332, 333, 334 soil 51

substrate 334 future warming 211, 427

Galway 384, 385, 386 gas bubbles 73, 339

general circulation model (GCM) 4, 98, 166, 185, 214, 405, 406, 421, 428

geochronometric dating 248, 263

geographical information system (GIS) 252, 275, 432

geologists 1, 98, 188, 203, 434, 435, 437, 439 geomorphological mapping 119, 260, 387, 38.4,38.5,38.7,38.11 geomorphologists 39, 49, 88, 98, 188, 198, 443 geophones 367

geophysical techniques 344, 357, 364 Geosat 375, 379, 44.1

geothermal 6, 50, 67, 96, 114, 116, 117, 127, 226, 269, 285, 293, 313, 319,

362, 370, 383, 408, 409, 412, 414, 80.2 Germany 9, 22, 23, 51-62, 228, 242, 401, 406, 423 girdle fabric 315

GISP2 106, 108, 110, 112, 128, 130, 369, 396, 398 glacial bedforms 87, 384, 385 breaches 268

geomorphology 41, 192-9, 248, 250, 254, 260, 263, 266, 442, 444, 38.1-38.11

history 99, 103, 104, 113, 194, 205, 221, 250, 258, 409, 438, 444 lakes 107, 141-50, 193, 194, 198

landforms 44, 48, 155, 192-8, 249, 261, 384, 447, 38.1-38.11 lineations 19, 155, 156, 159, 193-8, 264, 38.2, 38.4, 38.5, 38.7, 38.8, 38.9, 38.10, 38.11,41.1,41.2

Glaciar

Cipreses 246, 247 Echaurren Norte 241, 246 Echaurren 239, 241, 246 Juncal Sur 246 La Ollada 239, 241 Lengua 239, 241 Martial Este 239, 241 Moreno 239, 240, 241 Piloto Este 239, 241 Tyndall 239, 240, 241 glaciated coasts 87 glaciation threshold 99 glacier advance 7, 8, 15, 16, 18, 67, 68, 73, 86, 87, 89, 106, 109, 143, 144, 147, 157, 221, 264, 265, 271, 272, 274, 277, 278, 280, 282, 327, 426, 433

-dammed water 269

fluctuations 189, 190, 191, 238, 277, 426, 432, 435 margin 7, 8, 18, 56, 83, 89, 255, 335, 337, 436, 456 motion 332, 335, 344, 388, 432, 435, 452 readvances 272, 327

retreat 17, 28, 43, 85, 101, 107, 109, 147, 155, 211-15, 220, 242, 243, 245, 247, 252, 259, 265, 271, 272, 275, 277, 279, 280, 282, 284, 358, 432, 434, 444 sliding 25, 190, 335, 453, 454, 455 sole 5-14,50,51 velocity 24, 137, 436 Glacier d'Argentiere 10,317 Glacier Mass Balance Bulletin 425 glaciofluvial 33, 75, 193, 197, 326, 327, 328 glaciolacustrine 22, 58, 252, 253 glaciotectonism 51, 53, 60, 321, 327 glaciotectonite 327, 328 GLIMS 372, 381, 382, 424, 425, 430-2 Global Meteoric Water Line 179 global sea level 107, 112, 113, 189-91, 207, 210, 216, 218, 248, 353, 410, 413, 418

warming 101, 112, 136, 188, 191, 248, 278-84, 405, 418, 426 Gornegletscher 53

grain boundaries 285, 288, 298-315, 368, 450, 451, 455 -boundary migration 302, 304, 305, 308, 313, 450 -boundary sliding 298, 299, 304, 305, 309, 450, 451, 455 size 79, 159, 288-90, 298-315, 344, 457, 367, 450, 451, 455 Grande Dixence 23, 24

gravel 14, 22, 38, 40, 51, 52, 54, 68, 157, 323, 326, 327, 330, 332, 452, 454

Great Conveyor Belt 148

Green Bay Lobe 55, 67, 68

greenhouse effect 210,424, 80.6

gas 96, 106, 112, 121, 125, 129, 284, 403, 404, 405, 438 Greenland 6, 9, 10, 31, 44, 58, 72-5, 90, 98-112, 120-30, 133, 136-9, 142, 148, 188, 190, 191, 202, 204-13, 220, 224-30, 284-9, 292, 294-8, 302-7, 313, 314, 316, 319, 321, 326, 328, 332, 335, 353, 354, 369, 375-83, 396-9, 402-12, 418, 421, 440, 443, 27.1 ice sheet 58, 73, 109, 110, 112, 120, 154, 164, 166, 170, 172, 173, 191, 224-30, 335, 376-81, 397, 407, 409, 410, 411, 421, 32.1,32.2, 44.1-44.4, 80.2 GRIP 116, 118, 305, 307, 313, 314, 396-402, 410 grooves 10, 22, 40, 49, 157, 209, 388, 389

grounding line 91, 93, 133, 136, 137, 155, 159, 166, 167, 182, 183,

216-20, 226, 227, 293-5, 356-62, 369, 370, 381, 407-12, 27.1, 80.4

groundwater 5-9, 20-2, 39, 50-78, 151, 152, 9.1, 10.1

recharge 51, 52, 53, 54, 66 Gulf of Mexico 32, 44, 106, 138, 140-50 Gulf Stream 129 gypsum 73

haematite 73, 106, 128, 130, 131 hairpin scour 29, 30 halocline 124, 125 hard bed 205

Haut Glacier d'Arolla 23, 24, 53, 72, 339-52, 387-90 hazards 219, 220, 269, 428, 431, 432

heat flux 96, 116, 117, 125, 176, 177, 271, 313, 319, 383, 408, 409, 414 Heinrich events 5, 31, 32, 96, 110, 118, 126-38, 206, 207, 370, 453 layers 127 herringbone ice facies 457, 458 High Asia 275-82 Himalayas 72,81,271-7 Hintereisferner 269, 270 Hochjochferner 269

Holocene 38, 91, 97, 100, 103-6, 110, 113, 118, 126, 131, 132, 170, 191, 204, 215, 216, 219-23, 261, 269, 272, 288, 289, 300-2, 306, 307, 339, 358, 397-404, 408, 409, 424, 426, 428, 447, 80.4 ice 300-2, 306, 339 horseshoe vortices 29-31, 36, 49 hot-water drilling 302, 365, 387, 388, 394, 395 Hudson Bay 54, 98, 109, 127, 138-46, 150, 159, 197, 203-7, 344, 353 Hudson Strait 32, 106-10, 113, 129, 135, 139-42, 146, 150, 159, 196, 205-7

humidity 165, 171-6, 180, 185, 245, 270 hydraulic conductivity 7, 9, 51, 53, 60, 63-5, 68, 453 intrusion 7 hydrochemistry 56, 243 hydroelectric 387 hydrofracture 9, 51, 60, 339, 9.1

hydrolysis 71-3

hydrostatic pressure 285, 392

hypothesis testing 28, 43, 44, 46, 127, 188, 284, 365, 367, 436, 38.5

ice-bed interface 4, 5, 6, 9, 10, 14, 16, 21, 22, 51, 52, 56, 61-8, 159, 291,

icebergs 3, 5, 32, 87, 88, 98-100, 106, 116, 126, 127, 129, 131, 135, 136, 138, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 163, 166, 167, 173, 207, 217, 224, 226, 227, 237, 248, 264, 339, 407, 409, 410, 411, 412, 26.2

ice bulges 358

cap 10, 25, 55, 89, 98, 115, 133, 153, 154, 163, 168, 170, 201, 205, 210, 211, 214, 231, 234, 249, 258, 372, 374, 376, 396, 405, 411, 418, 419, 421, 424, 440, 441, 443, 456 core 31, 81, 82, 99-112, 126, 130, 131, 142, 149, 150, 179-86, 189, 190, 226, 227, 252, 284, 288, 289, 301, 303, 305, 314, 321, 339, 340, 344, 353, 362, 364, 367-412, 451 chronology 396-401 dating 396, 397, 406 crystal 180, 185, 298, 299, 303, 304, 305, 308, 332, 367

fabric 287-9, 290, 302, 307, 321, 340, 350, 367, 450, 451, 457

evolution 315 lattice 288, 298, 300, 450 orientation 287-9, 317, 339, 366

size 79, 159, 288-90, 298-315, 344, 457, 367, 450, 451, 455 crystallography 339

deformation 1, 123, 180, 181, 286, 290-5, 319, 321, 331, 338-44, 353,

357, 362, 394, 407, 411, 450, 453, 454, 455 density 164, 285, 313, 320, 420

divide 19, 20, 26, 51, 54, 59, 118, 141, 193, 202, 203, 211, 234, 239,

248, 249, 258, 259, 262, 264, 292, 293, 294, 296, 298, 300, 302, 305, 379, 380, 383, 385, 407, 412, 442, 38.4 migration 141, 202, 248, 249, 258, 259, 262, 264, 301, 385 flow model 367-8, 396, 413 rate 289, 290, 359 lens 184, 225, 324, 327 marginal lakes 138, 147, 150 -penetrating radar 217,357

rafted debris (IRD) 100, 106, 107, 109, 110, 114, 126-31, 136, 138, 184, 207

rheology 168-70, 321, 323, 356, 450, 454

rise 407

sheet collapse 62, 114, 206, 217, 220, 358

evolution 26, 189-95, 227, 292, 303, 359, 410, 412, 38.1, 80.5 growth and decay 112, 190, 44.1, 44.4 inception 112,406

model 4, 5, 70, 165-7, 170, 191, 207, 251, 289, 291, 292, 301, 338,

340, 343, 358, 359, 367-8, 406-12, 449, 44.4, 80.1-80.4 modellers 198,252

topography 298, 375, 379

Pleistocene 14, 25, 27, 46, 51, 60, 228, 229, 293, 353 -atmosphere coupling 3 -lithosphere coupling 3 -ocean coupling 3 shelf 5, 87, 98, 116, 129, 136, 137, 154, 159, 166, 167, 182, 190, 211, 213, 215, 217, 219, 220, 284, 294, 295, 318, 355-70, 407-15

softening 450, 451 softness 291, 293, 340, 344

stream 1, 5, 6, 9, 13, 14, 19, 41, 53, 56, 83, 85, 87, 96, 98, 110, 116, 117, 135-7, 153, 155, 157-9, 162, 168, 189, 191-8, 205-9, 211, 212, 217-20, 226, 248-50, 258-64, 284, 285, 287, 290-8, 301, 302, 317, 319, 332, 339, 342, 343, 344, 353-68, 383, 387,

407, 409-15, 436, 451-3, 26.1, 26.2, 38.4-38.8, 38.10, 41.2,

74.1 swarm 197

velocity 10, 209, 237, 336, 353, 359, 407 viscosity 181, 307, 308, 318, 406, 408 icefield 85, 89, 90, 92, 93, 163, 164, 167, 169, 170, 171, 173, 231, 232, 233, 234, 239, 381

Iceland 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 43, 47, 56, 59, 72, 74, 85, 96, 100, 101-7,

114-16, 118, 122, 126, 129, 131, 136, 163, 164, 170, 171, 189, 249, 269, 315, 319, 343, 378, 422, 436, 441, 456 Icelandic Low 122 Ice Man 268,426 impurities solid 306, 307, 324, 326 soluble 285, 287, 288, 289, 290, 299, 324, 326 inductive approach 436 infra-red 371, 376, 430 Innuitian Ice Sheet 229 InSAR 219, 374, 379, 380-4, 27.1

insolation 98, 103, 106, 107, 109, 112, 147, 148, 180, 186, 190, 405 insoluble impurities 285, 289, 305, 313 interfacial film 324 water 307

interferometry 32, 153, 226, 227, 261, 354, 357, 364, 374, 381-4, 27.1,

74.2

interglacial 50, 54, 56, 58, 59, 91, 98, 106, 113, 149, 154, 157-9, 180, 185, 186, 191, 195, 197, 210, 211, 222, 227, 403-10, 447, 10.1

intracrystalline slip 305, 315 intrepid fieldworker 188 intrusive ice 327, 328

inversion model 192-8, 208, 249, 251, 252, 263, 383, 447, 449, 38.1-38.11

ionic composition 71-5, 313, 314, 324, 339, 340, 344, 457 IPCC 134, 210, 234, 368, 410, 411, 418, 421, 424 Ireland 107, 207, 250, 252, 261-5, 384, 385 Irish Sea 250, 258, 262, 268, 437, 438

isostasy 3, 4, 58, 92, 96, 103, 104, 106, 109, 111, 114, 116, 138, 139, 141, 145, 146, 147, 150, 154, 190, 228, 229, 249-51, 263, 298, 406,

408, 413, 44.1 isothermal layer 285 isotope data 102, 107, 112 geochemistry 184 isotopes stable 73, 106, 112, 179, 183, 240, 403, 404 unstable 58, 370 isotopic analyses 369

composition 110, 111, 179-85, 397, 402, 458 diffusion 183 fractionation 184 profile 398, 399, 400 isotopomers 184, 185

isotropic ice 289, 299, 303, 304, 306, 339, 450, 451

Jakobshavn Glacier 226, 353 John Evans Glacier 73, 345 jökulhlaup 43,269,319

Kamchatka 249

terrace 83, 91 Kaqing Glacier 277 Karakoram 85, 275, 279, 280, 282 Karmadon 431 katabatic 174, 175, 176 keel 22, 155 keel-grooving 22 Kennicott Glacier 73, 80 kerogen 72, 73

Kola Peninsula 20, 199, 200, 201 Kolka glacier 431

laboratory experiments 13, 52, 71, 185, 285-90, 295, 299, 305-9, 318,

323, 329, 332, 339, 342, 355, 356, 368, 436, 437, 449-58 Labrador 98, 108, 112, 129, 139, 140, 148, 190, 201-7, 249, 442, 444

Sea 98, 108, 112, 129, 139, 140 lag time 3, 278 Lake

Agassiz 32, 140-50, 401, 402 Algonquin 145 Michigan Lobe 63-6 Michigan 63-6, 140, 143, 452 Ojibway 145 Ontario 31, 38, 39, 140 Superior 63, 64, 144-5 Vostok 180,409

LANDSAT 20, 39, 40, 193, 199, 203, 206, 219, 232, 260, 371-373, 382,

428, 430, 26.1,41.1 landsystems 39, 43, 68, 83-94, 252, 437 laser altimetry 169, 224, 364, 381, 382, 419, 425, 44.1 Last Glacial Maximum 19, 57, 60, 63, 67, 114, 138, 192, 204, 207, 210,

228, 288, 289, 305-7, 362, 402 latent heat 67, 164, 165, 177, 270, 271, 428, 453 Laurentide Ice Sheet 27, 31, 32, 44, 46, 54, 63-7, 69, 70, 74, 87, 96, 135, 138, 139, 188, 189, 193, 195, 197, 201-7, 209, 249, 252, 258, 260, 263, 298, 327, 344, 442, 446, 454 Lauteraargletscher 344-7 LeConte Glacier 137 Leverett Glacier 326, 327 LIDAR 379

lineations 19, 155, 156, 159, 193-8, 264, 38.2,38.4,38.5,38.7-38.11,

41.1,41.2 liquefaction 51 liquid films 299,307

Little Ice Age (LIA) 93-9, 103-6, 110, 113, 131, 190, 269, 272-7, 280, 352, 432

Livingstone Lake drumlin field 28, 45 Loch Lomond Stadial 252, 253, 268 lodgement 16, 17, 22, 26, 27, 40, 43, 85, 435 loess 48, 49 Long Island 68-70, 140 longitudinal stresses 337, 362, 407

longwave emission 271 radiation 176, 177, 178 low latitude glaciers 166, 232, 242, 245, 271, 382 lunar cycle 106

M'Clintock Channel 135, 136, 26.1,26.2

Mahomet bedrock valley 64

Malan Ice Cap 279

Manitoba 56, 138

Manitsoq Glacier 74

Manso Glacier 82

Marie Byrd Land 190, 222

marine cores 104-10, 114, 115, 189, 207, 259 sedimentary record 153

sediments 22, 58, 73, 100, 109, 112, 113, 143, 186 Marine Isotope Stages 126, 207, 327 Marquette advance 145, 147 Mars 28, 191 Martha's Vineyard 70

mass balance 3, 4, 67, 73, 96-106, 109, 112, 113, 120, 132-7, 146, 147, 163-78, 188, 195, 206-14, 219, 224-8, 232, 239-42, 244-6, 269-72, 277, 280-4, 287, 290, 319, 338, 351-60, 368, 371, 375-83, 408, 410-12, 418-34, 32.1, 32.2 annual 133, 163, 168, 173, 419 calculation 169 determination 381, 382 field 164, 170, 32.1, 32.2 fluctuation 171 forecasts 171 gradient 167

ice sheets 96, 136, 163, 211, 224, 225, 284, 287, 357, 360, 376 index 103 integrated 163

interannual variability 168, 169

measurement 103, 104, 168, 169, 269, 284, 419, 421, 425 modeling 163, 165, 167, 170, 173, 176, 270, 411, 419, 420, 421, 434

monitoring 173, 188, 246 net 102, 103, 112, 163, 351, 381 perturbation 167, 168, 170 rate 168 records 169

sensitivity 133, 134, 173, 421, 422, 423 series 239,419

specific 178, 225, 227, 269, 270 total 224, 270

vertical balance profile 269, 270 year 163 Matanuska 10,321,458 McMurdo 222, 285, 329-34 Medieval Warm Period 103, 131 megaflood 22, 26, 32, 37, 42-50, 438 megaflute 19, 40, 41 megascale lineation 353 Meikuang Glacier 277, 280, 281

melting point 6, 9, 122, 137, 165, 176, 189, 285, 286, 292, 305, 320, 324,

340, 343, 407, 409, 413 melt-out till 17, 26, 27, 33, 44, 50, 326-8, 435, 439 meltwater 1-9, 20-33, 36-72, 77, 78, 81, 85, 87, 89-93, 98, 101, 106, 107, 109, 114, 125, 129, 136-8, 141, 144, 153, 154, 157-9, 163-6,

182-4, 191-201, 224, 242, 243-4, 246, 252-5, 258-63, 269, 275, 291, 293, 324, 328, 336, 339-43, 362, 402, 407-10, 428, 447, 448 Meserve Glacier 289, 311-13, 324, 330, 332 meteoric ice 179, 181, 182, 320, 321 water line 179-84 methane 73, 106 methanogenesis 73 microbial activity 72, 73 microcracks 309,317,318 microparticle 288, 289, 306 microphysical processes 290-300 microwave 120-3, 226, 371-9, 432 Milankovitch 96, 99, 112, 126, 189 Miocene 61, 70, 161, 189 Mirny 294

Mississippi 32, 64, 65, 138, 140-7 Missoula 31 Mohawk Valley 140, 141 monsoon 275-7, 425 Monte Carlo simulation 106

moraine 21, 23, 28, 33, 34, 36, 43-8, 51, 75-7, 83, 85-93, 98, 99, 103-11, 118, 119, 141, 155, 159, 162, 188, 191-8, 200, 201, 204, 209, 221, 237, 249, 252, 253, 254, 258, 261-5, 272, 275, 277, 326, 327, 330, 350, 384-7, 432, 436, 440, 441, 444 crevasse-squeeze 87 -dammed lakes 93 dump 85

end 28, 92, 103, 111, 118, 119, 162, 193, 198, 201, 265 extrusion 51 fluted 43, 85, 436 frontal 92

hummocky 17, 33, 36, 45-8, 85, 86, 87, 261 ice-cored 85, 99

lateral 85, 89, 90, 91, 99, 277, 350, 432 LIA 104, 275 medial 85, 89, 99 plateau 36, 47

push 44, 45, 47, 51, 76, 83, 85-7, 326, 327 recessional 33, 46, 83, 162, 327

ribbed 193, 195, 196, 201, 209, 264, 265, 384-7, 38.4, 41.2 ridges 91, 155, 262, 326, 327 Rogen 27, 31, 43-9, 83, 384 Salpausselka 21 slide 85 squeeze 85 stagnation 36 submarine 155, 162 terminal 33, 106 thrust-block 87-90 transverse 188 trimline 90 valley 92 morphostratigraphy 264 Morteratschgletscher 165, 176-8 moulin 6, 72

Mount Qomolangma 278, 279 Mount St Helens 321

mountain glaciers 98, 99, 171, 188-90, 205, 213, 231-47, 268-71, 289,

356, 411, 418, 424, 434 mudflow 431 Mueller Glacier 274 multispectral scanner 371

muschelbruche 29 Myrdalsjôkull 10

Nantucket 68, 69, 70 N-channels 51

nearest-neighbour interaction 315 neoglaciation 103-7, 228-30 Neoproterozoic 435, 438, 439 New England 57, 68, 69 New Ice Age 210

New Zealand 99, 272, 273, 319, 329, 335, 431 Newfoundland 203,442-6 non-erosive ice 442-4 Nordaustlandet 372 Nordenskiôldbreen 10

North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) 101, 114, 126-9, 132, 136, 146, 148, 149

North Atlantic Oscillation 99-105, 122-5, 171,428 North Atlantic 96, 98, 100, 101, 106, 107, 109, 114, 121, 122, 125-32, 135-50, 159, 171, 190, 191, 264, 272, 402, 406, 412, 426, 428, 456

North GRIP 397

Northern Patagonian Icefield 231-8 Northwest Territories 57

Norway 10, 72, 93, 94, 99, 107, 148, 171, 418, 421, 426, 428, 455, 30.1 nuclear waste 59, 60

numerical modelling 54, 56, 58, 59, 68, 70, 114, 147, 148, 149, 163-74,

198, 250, 251, 272, 284, 338-52, 359, 379, 406-15, 424, 434, 455 nunatak 116, 191, 215, 222, 223, 232, 262, 266, 442-9, 38.5

O'Higgins Glacier 233 obliquity 109, 112, 180, 186 ocean circulation 75, 98, 126, 135, 144, 149, 189, 190, 228, 258, 262, 360, 370 core see marine core octahedral stress 286, 287 Ojibway 31, 145, 146, 150 Oligocene 189 orbital cycle 130

geometry 109,210,403 organic matter 59, 71, 73, 157, 265, 367 orographic 171, 172, 173, 294, 319

outburst 19, 28, 31, 32, 39, 46, 54, 76, 96, 98, 110, 138-50, 207, 269 outlet glacier 89-93, 98, 106, 114, 154, 159, 204, 206, 211, 212, 220, 222,

230, 232-4, 354, 381, 383, 409, 410 outwash 36, 43, 85-9, 265, 327, 405, 9.1 fan 85-7

overburden pressure 17, 51, 54, 63, 64, 287, 291, 356 overdeepening 10, 91 oxidation 59, 60, 72-8, 82, 404

oxygen isotopes 58-60, 73, 100, 104-12, 116, 128, 130, 179-86, 202, 289, 403, 406, 410

Pacific anticyclone 239

palaeoclimate 67, 88, 116, 120, 127, 130, 179, 186, 227, 228, 252, 368,

369, 396-406 palaeogeography 194, 248 palaeoglaciology 19, 61, 87, 192-4, 248-63 palaeohydrology 141

palaeotemperatures 400 palimpsest 83, 250 paraglacial 85 PARCA 224, 408

Patagonia 137, 163, 171, 213, 231-7, 239, 381, 405, 428

peat 86, 107, 266

penetrometer 343, 388, 389

Pennines 250, 255, 258

Perito Moreno Glacier 233-6

permafrost 9, 51-68, 92, 120, 152, 326-8, 331, 334, 432, 443

Peru 232, 242-5, 302

Petermann Gletscher 137, 27.1

Peyto Glacier 168, 169

phosphorus 81, 82

photogrammetry 379, 381

physicists 188, 205

piezometers 56, 455

piezometry 151, 152

Pine Island Glacier 137, 218, 219, 414, 415 Pío XI Glacier 233, 234 plankton 107, 127, 129 plastic failure 168,342 flow 5, 287, 317 plateau icefield 83, 88-92

Pleistocene 5, 14,25,27,46,51,58,59,60,61,63,68,69,70,92, 116, 160, 161, 170, 189,228, 229, 268, 293, 298, 326, 339, 353, 443, 444,446 ice sheets 14, 25, 27, 46, 51, 60, 228, 229, 293, 353 ploughing 43, 46, 49, 85, 342, 345, 392, 436, 455 ploughmeter 332, 343, 388, 391-4 plucking 10, 445 Poland 56

polar glaciers 88,213,214,276 polycrystalline ice 290, 299-308, 407, 450, 455 polygonization 313, 315, 316, 368 polythermal 51, 73, 76, 337, 339, 340, 343, 345, 408 Popper 42, 49

porewater 6, 13, 52, 53, 54, 58, 165, 343, 387, 392, 436, 452, 455

pressure 343, 387, 392, 436, 452, 455 Port Huron Stade 143 Poshu Glacier 279 prairie doughnuts 36 Preboreal Oscillation 142, 149, 150 pressure melting point 9, 89, 91, 190, 285, 343, 407 -altimetry 364 proglacial lake 68, 87, 138, 141, 144-8, 209, 232, 238 stream 23 Puget Lobe 54 Puruogangri Glacier 279 pyrite 59, 72, 73, 82

quarrying 454, 455

Quaternary 1, 32, 37, 42, 48, 54, 56, 65, 66, 111-13, 192, 199, 202, 205, 210, 211, 221, 248, 262, 328, 398, 406, 438, 447 scientists 42, 48 Quebec 27, 249, 442 Queen Elizabeth Islands 89, 90

radar 32, 153, 191, 210, 224-7, 238, 261, 301, 302, 344, 354, 357, 364, 368, 371-84 altimeter 227, 375, 376, 379, 381, 382 RADARSAT 373, 378, 384, 27.1 radio echo 383, 409 radioactive dating 397 isotopes 370 waste 59, 60

radiocarbon 58, 114, 191-5, 202-7, 221, 260, 274, 442, 446, 38.2, 38.6

radiometer 372, 373, 377, 379

radionuclides 59, 60, 448

Rayleigh distillation models 184

recrystallization 299, 303-8, 313-17, 366 redox 73, 82

reductio ad absurdum 45 reference horizon 397, 398, 403 refugia 446, 447

regelation 5, 10, 11, 51, 72, 320, 321, 324, 340, 341, 345, 453, 454 remote sensing 37, 153, 173, 188, 190, 191, 224, 226, 228, 260, 275, 284,

370-84, 406, 409, 424, 425, 432 remotely operated vehicles 369-70 response time 163, 167, 170, 297, 383, 428 retreating glaciers see glacier retreat Reynolds number 26, 44, 48 rhythmite 38 rigid substrate 453 ring-shear experiment 436, 452-4 ripple 28, 43, 46, 47 roche moutonnée 85, 190, 197 rock flour 71

glacier 85, 91, 191 rockfall 89,99 Ross Ice Shelf 285, 287 Ross Sea embayment 216

runoff 23, 24, 71-5, 80-2, 101, 118, 124, 138-51, 164, 165, 174, 224-8,

242-6, 269-71, 275, 368, 405-11, 420, 426 Russell Glacier 321, 335, 337, 440 Ryder Glacier 381, 384

Saalian 54, 56, 9.1 Salinity Anomaly 103

salinity 3, 68, 69, 70, 100, 103, 105, 118, 124, 127, 129, 136, 148, 149,

182, 237, 378 salt dome 51, 58 San Rafael Glacier 232, 238

sand 13-15, 22, 38, 51, 52, 54, 61, 100, 106, 157, 183, 207, 323, 327-33,

438, 441, 452, 454, 456, 9.1 sandur 85, 86, 265, 326 SAR 153, 219, 226, 227, 364, 373-84

satellite 19, 39, 40, 41, 120-2, 153, 168, 169, 191, 199, 200, 206, 209, 210, 212, 215, 217, 219, 224, 226, 227, 232, 248, 252, 260-3, 284, 354, 357, 364, 369-85, 409, 415, 424, 425, 428-34, 26.1, 41.1 Scablands 31, 48, 49 Scandinavian Ice Sheet 27, 74, 190 scanning electron microscopy 29, 453 scientific process 434 Scoresby Sund 156

Scotland 7, 39, 40, 41, 99, 160, 190, 250, 258-64, 272

Scottish ice sheet 57 scoured landscapes 206 sea

-floor temperature 104, 106

ice 3, 99, 100-6, 112, 120-5, 129, 137, 146, 150, 155, 157, 165, 199,

370-82, 404, 405, 450, 23.1-23.3 level 31, 32, 68, 70, 107, 115, 120, 123, 133-6, 167, 169, 189, 202,

210-15, 219, 220, 228-30, 234, 249, 250, 269, 284, 296-9, 362, 368, 406, 408-11, 418-22, 426, 428, 430, 437, 438, 80.3, 80.5, 80.6

fall 229

rise 32, 107, 120, 133, 134, 189, 210-14, 219, 220, 229, 230, 234, 284, 300, 362, 368, 408-11, 418-22, 426, 428 -surface temperatures 105, 125, 126 Seasat 374, 375, 379, 44.1 seasonality 169, 171, 271, 397 sediment deformation 11, 12, 54, 334, 342-5, 394, 412 transport 24, 438, 454 yields 25, 79, 82, 454 sedimentology 1, 36, 37, 46-9, 392, 434-41 seismic techniques 6, 114, 364, 367, 369 seismicity 335, 364, 367 seismogram 367 selective erosion 91, 190, 205 selective linear erosion 91, 205 Sentik Glacier 82 Severnaya Zemlya 382 shear heating 354, 355

margins 293, 296-8, 354-6, 359, 383 strength 157,332,387 Shetland 160, 161, 162 Shirase Glacier 137 shoreline 39, 118, 119, 141, 194 shortwave infra-red 430 radiation 176-8, 270, 271 Shuttle Radar Topography data 28, 32, 246, 374, 384 Siberia 123, 154, 157, 190 sichelwannen 29, 31 side-scan sonar 157, 370

silt 9, 13, 14, 29, 38, 79, 327, 440, 441, 452, 454, 456

Siple Coast 195, 216, 217, 287, 293, 294, 300-3, 319, 342, 354-62, 364,

407, 409, 410, 412, 453 Siple Dome 300-4 slickensides 332

sliding velocity 341, 342, 387, 407, 416, 453, 455

Smith Glacier 218

snow accumulation 163, 164, 166, 171-3, 176, 178, 213, 239, 270, 285, 396,

397, 403, 412-14 cover 112,213,271,377,420 drift 174-6,420

sublimation 174-6 fall 112, 147, 163, 164, 178, 189, 211, 212, 213, 214, 217, 218, 219, 381,

397, 400 hydrology 165, 166 line 99, 169, 277, 282, 346, 372, 430 pack 23, 77, 81, 82, 165, 166, 168, 172, 173, 373, 376, 388 pit 270, 419, 44.3 windblown 184 zone 176, 225

dry 174, 175, 176, 225 wet 225 Snowball Earth 435,438 Snowdonia 266-8 sodium concentration 404 soft bed 61, 205, 340, 345, 355-7, 452 till 364 solar activity 104 cycle 131, 132 energy 124, 404 irradiance 131

radiation 123, 164, 166, 173, 269, 270, 271, 371 Soler Glacier 233, 235 solid impurities 306, 307, 324, 326 soluble impurities 285, 287, 288, 289, 290, 299, 324, 326 solute flux 71-81 South Cascade Glacier 53 South Dakota 56

Southern Ocean 190, 370, 375, 377 Southern Patagonian Icefield 231-8 SPECMAP 362,397,409 speleothem 150, 272, 400, 402 spillway 85, 86, 144, 200 Spitzbergen 10, 17, 18, 51, 59, 121-4 SPOT 373, 379 spring-event 351

St Lawrence Valley 142, 144, 149

stable isotopes 73, 106, 112, 179, 183, 240, 403, 404

stagnant ice 17,87,217,407,435

Standard Mean Ocean Water 184

steady-state creep 309, 450

sticky zones 348

Storglaciaren 53, 342, 343, 387-92, 418, 452 storm tracks 171 Storstr0mmen 154, 383 strain ellipsoid 436 gauges 388, 391

rate 291, 300, 302, 310, 311, 313, 314, 317 stratified ice 322, 325, 335, 336 stream table 455

streamlined features 10, 16, 17, 22, 26, 29-33, 40-9, 85-8, 155, 159, 188,

190, 191, 209, 265, 385, 386, 437, 454 stress exponent 290, 293, 295-305, 308, 355, 358, 416 striae 10, 26, 93, 192-7, 201, 206, 252, 261, 263, 266, 436 Stykkisholmur 100-5 subglacial bedforms 26, 37, 40, 49, 208, 263, 384, 387 cavity 356

channel 23, 24, 25, 37, 54, 56, 62, 254, 255, 258, 261, 343, 351, 455

deformation 332, 343

hammer 388, 389, 390, 394

hydrology 9, 13, 56, 64, 168, 238, 335, 388, 412, 455 lakes 44, 54, 110, 180, 357, 403 landforms 26, 28, 42, 43, 44, 49, 200, 201, 259 sediments 5, 9, 18, 54, 56, 73, 182, 209, 342, 343, 345

till 10, 17, 51, 52, 53, 85, 329, 332, 362, 435, 436 transport 60 tunnel 5, 20, 343

water 3, 6, 19, 26, 51-6, 64, 67, 68, 168, 217, 269, 287, 290, 342, 343, 346, 355-9, 362, 388, 455-8 film 51,64,355,356 pressure 3, 6, 64, 342, 343, 346, 388, 455 sublimation 163, 164, 174-6, 180, 183, 184, 239, 245, 269, 271 submarine fan 157-9 moraine 155, 162

subpolar 17, 89, 90, 91, 98, 99, 133, 163, 268, 276, 277, 382, 420, 425, 437

glaciers 89, 382 substrate deformation 334 Suess Glacier 182, 321, 322, 330-4, 343 sulphide 59, 71-8, 404 sulphuric acid 404 Summit 100, 128, 294, 369, 398 supercooling 10, 456, 458 superimposed ice 225, 269 superplastic 304, 305, 309, 450, 451 supraglacial lake 26, 85, 87, 372 surface elevation change 167, 212, 217, 224, 225, 226, 227, 357 velocity maps 354 surging glacier 7, 8, 18, 19, 62, 76, 83-8, 99, 101, 110, 126, 147, 197, 208,

227, 233, 258, 269, 287, 353, 382-4, 394, 425, 437, 438 suschelbruche 29 suspended sediment 23, 78, 80, 82

Svalbard 72-6, 80, 82, 87, 121, 158, 164, 213, 332, 372, 382, 387, 421,

424, 437, 439 Svartisen 455 Sveg Till 27

Svinafellsjokull 440, 441 swarms 193-8, 38.8-38.11

Sweden 7, 19, 29, 51, 59, 107, 169, 190, 192, 199, 342, 343, 387, 418,

447-9, 38.1,38.4,38.11 Swiss Alps 165, 321, 345, 348, 428, 432, 433

Switzerland 23, 59, 80, 82, 176, 239, 317, 318, 339-45, 387, 388, 423, 424, 428, 432

synthetic aperture radar 153, 219, 226, 227, 364, 373-84, 27.1, 74.1 talik 51

Tasman Glacier 274 Taylor

Dome 369, 396 Glacier 322-5, 333, 334 temperate glaciers 25, 43, 79, 85, 98, 275-7, 284-9, 305-7, 321, 344, 345, 348, 426, 456

ice 409 temperature dependence 5, 137, 185, 297, 320, 325, 407 profile 285, 403 tephra 107, 367, 401, 402, 404 tertiary creep 304, 305, 306, 450, 451 thaw unconformity 326 theory-laden evidence 250, 252 thermal expansion 213,214,411,422 infra-red 371,430 optimum 106

regime 4, 19, 67, 89, 91, 168, 189, 191, 249, 251, 254, 263, 319, 344, 440

thermocline 124

thermohaline 98, 100, 101, 125, 138, 143, 147-50, 182, 190, 191, 248,

264, 406 thin-section 315, 369

three-dimensional modelling 165, 362, 367 Thwaites Glacier 219 Tibetan Plateau 275, 277, 279, 280, 282 tide gauge 230, 231

tidewater glaciers 98-100, 103, 106, 129, 133, 137, 167, 213, 236, 237, 367, 412

till deformation 7, 353, 356, 368, 451, 455 deposition 17, 22 fabric 194, 197, 435, 436 rheology 287, 290, 355, 356, 412, 451, 453 tillite 438

tilt meter 332, 343, 390, 392, 394 time-dependent model 351 tor 190,266,447,448 tourism 268

Transantarctic Mountains 190 transducers 7, 8, 11, 12, 18, 333, 346, 388, 395 transient creep 308, 450

Trapridge Glacier 17, 53, 55, 342, 387, 388, 391, 394 tree-rings 272

trimlines 85, 89, 90, 93, 116-19, 250-3, 262, 263, 266, 272, 273, 442, 443

trough mouth fan 87, 162

Tsanfleuron 321, 324, 325, 339, 340, 341

Tuktoyaktuk Coastlands 327

tundra 120, 189, 411

tunnel channels see tunnel valleys valleys 19, 20, 22, 37, 51, 54, 56, 60, 61, 62, 252, 253 turbidites 29, 31, 42, 158, 207 turbidity 3, 23, 28, 29, 158 Two Creeks Interstade 143

U/Th 59, 401, 402 unconsolidated substrate 291 unlithified sediments 5, 7, 68 unstable isotopes 58, 370 Unteraargletscher 344 Upsala Glacier 233, 236-8 uranium-series disequilibrium 59 Urumqui Glacier 321, 332

valley glacier 5, 6, 10, 11, 86, 88, 92, 98, 168, 176, 189, 231, 268, 272, 339,

340, 343-7, 373, 380 Variegated Glacier 321, 322 Vatnajökull 47, 55, 319, 440, 441, 456 vegetation 71, 75, 120, 149, 189, 274, 275, 447

veins 72, 100, 324, 339, 443, 455 velocity map 354, 383, 384 vertical balance profile (VBP) 269, 270, 271 strain rate 316, 346, 347 video 79, 342, 387

viscosity 13, 26, 228, 248, 290, 295-300, 306, 307, 318, 321-6, 332, 348,

406, 407, 451, 455 volcanic ash see tephra volcanoes 116,246,247,285

Vostok 179, 180, 181, 185, 186, 285, 304, 307, 321, 396, 397, 403-5, 409, 410

Wales 250, 258, 266 warm ice 61

-based 89, 92, 93, 190, 196, 199, 200, 208, 254, 263, 337, 38.4, 38.5, 38.7, 38.8, 38.11 waste disposal 59, 248, 367 water film 9, 64, 340, 453 in glaciers 455 layer 5, 407

pressure 4-14, 18, 19, 21, 25, 51, 54, 56, 60-3, 293, 341-56, 407, 455

resources 151, 232, 239, 242-3, 246, 248, 269, 271, 275, 430 vapour 147, 174, 180, 184, 190, 378 weak fabric hypothesis 436

weathering 71-82, 92, 93, 189, 190, 222, 262, 266, 274, 442-6, 454

zones 93, 442, 443, 444, 445, 446 Weddell Sea 191, 377 Weichselian ice 19, 53, 54, 55

Weichselian 15, 19, 22, 53, 54, 55, 56, 92, 114, 118, 38.5, 38.11 West Antarctic Ice Sheet 13, 101, 153, 167, 168, 188, 191, 211, 215, 217, 218, 220, 284, 294, 354, 358, 360, 366, 375, 407, 409-12, 80.4 White Glacier 99, 100 William of Ockham 43, 49 Wisconsin 67, 68, 408 Wisconsinan 19, 37, 39, 54, 197, 206, 38.10 World Glacier Monitoring Service 419, 423, 424, 432 world's largest lake 146 Wright Lower Glacier 331, 333

Yanamarey Glacier 242-5 yield strength 5, 13, 342

Younger Dryas 31, 93, 94, 99, 111, 118, 119, 142, 149, 150, 201, 264, 268,

Zepu Glacier 277 zero-order models 412, 415 zig-zag eskers 87

Zepu Glacier

Plate 2.1 (a-c) Simulation of zones of basal freezing and melting beneath the European ice sheet at the LGM, and comparison with geological reconstruction of the basal freezing and melting zones. (a) Basal freezing (blue) and melting (red) for a 'cold' surface temperature simulation. (b) The same for a 'warm' surface temperature simulation. Note the zones of melting along simulated ice streams. (c) The inferred probable maximum zone of basal freezing at the LGM in yellow, and inner zone of sustained freezing in black (from Kleman & Hattestrand, 1999). Clearly the model in (b) is the better fit.

0 _1-___-1—__1___I___i_—1___J_I_1_1—__-J_I___I___I__J_1_L

0 _1-___-1—__1___I___i_—1___J_I_1_1—__-J_I___I___I__J_1_L

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600

distance along transect [km]

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600

distance along transect [km]

Plate 2.2 A section through the simulation model through the last glacial cycle from the central-western continental shelf of Norway (left) to northern Germany. It shows the zones of basal freezing (turquoise) and zones of basal melting (red).

Glacier Movement Flow Model

Plate 9.1 Hydrofracture caused by pressurized groundwater at the margin of the Saalian ice sheet in northwest Germany. The fracture dissects outwash sediments and is filled with sand injected from below.

Plate 10.1 Modelled groundwater flow velocity vectors and equipotential lines in the two major aquifers in the study area at present and under the Last Glacial Maximum ice sheet. Ice movement was from northeast to southwest. Inactive cells are marked black. Note the complete reorganization of the groundwater flow field between glacial and interglacial (present) conditions.

Plate 10.1 Modelled groundwater flow velocity vectors and equipotential lines in the two major aquifers in the study area at present and under the Last Glacial Maximum ice sheet. Ice movement was from northeast to southwest. Inactive cells are marked black. Note the complete reorganization of the groundwater flow field between glacial and interglacial (present) conditions.

Plate 23.1 Sea-ice extent (all coloured areas) and ice concentration anomalies (see colour bar) for September of 2002 and 2003. Ice concentration anomalies are referenced to means for the period 1988-2000. Median ice extent based on the same period is shown by the red line. (Courtesy of National Snow and Ice Data Center, Boulder, CO.)

Plate 23.2 Large-scale trends in observed winter sea-ice motion (SIM) and summer sea-ice concentration (SIC) (top) and regressions on the prior winter AO index (bottom). Results are based on the period 1979-1998. Areas with negative and positive SIC trends of at least 5% over the record period are indicated by yellow/red and blue, respectively. The numbers indicate the largest negative trends. (Adapted from Rigor et al., 2002.)

Plate 23.3 Estimated age of sea-ice in September of 1986 and 2001 (in years, see colour scale at bottom). Open water (OW) is shown as dark blue, and the oldest ice is shown as white. The years that younger ice was produced in the Beaufort and Chukchi seas are also shown. (Adapted from Rigor & Wallace, 2004.)

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